Data Dashboards

Montenegro
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data is only available for 2013. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.807 (2015)

Mean School Years: 11.3 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data

Working Poverty Rate: 0.5% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2006
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Succession 2006
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: 35.6% (2014)

Pension: 52.3% (2016)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes: 

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Montenegro, data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2013. The measure provided for 2013 does not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2013.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Montenegro, the latest estimates show that 0.2 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2013. The measure provided for 2013 does not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2013.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2013 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Montenegro was 4 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 5.1 hours in 2005.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005 and 2013.

 

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2013, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 2.1 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2005, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 2.8.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005 and 2013.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week for children aged 5-14.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 3.1 hours per week according to the 2013 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2005, which found that children aged 5-14 in Montenegro worked an average of 3.9 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005 and 2013.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Montenegro.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Montenegro.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Montenegro between 2003 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that average human development score in Montenegro is 0.807. This score indicates that human development is high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Montenegro over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by age groupings and sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Montenegro.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro, 2007
Article 63 Forced labour shall be prohibited.

The following shall not be considered forced labor: labor customary during the serving of sentence, deprivation of liberty; performance of duties of military nature or duties required instead of military service; work demanded in case of crisis or accident that threatens human lives or property.

Child Labour

Labour Act 2008
General and Special conditions Article 16

1. Contract of employment may be entered into by a person fulfilling general conditions envisaged by this Law and special conditions envisaged by the law, other regulations and the systematization act.
2. General conditions referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article are: that the person is at least 15 years old and that he/she has general health ability to work.

Requirement for persons under the age of 18 Article 17

1. Contract of employment may be concluded with a person who is under the age of 18, with a written consent from the parents, adoptive parents or guardians, if such work does not compromise his/her health, moral and education, or provided that such work is not prohibited by law.
2. A person under the age of 18 may enter into contract of employment only based on findings from a relevant health authority determining his/her ability to perform duties covered by the contract of employment and that such duties are not harmful to his/her health.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Labour Act, 2008
Special protection of young people and women Article 104
An employed woman and an employee under the age of 18 may not work on positions where mostly very difficult physical work is performed, on positions performed underground or under water, or positions which may be harmful and increase risk for their health and life.

Protection of an employee under 18 years of age Article 106

1. An employee under 18 years of age may not be ordered to work overtime, or at night.
2. An employee referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article may be ordered to work part-time by the employer’s collective agreement.
3. Exceptionally of paragraph 1 of this Article, an employee under 18 years of age may be deployed to work at night when it is necessary to continue work which was interrupted due to natural hazards, or to prevent damage to raw materials or other materials.

Trafficking in Human Beings

Penal Code of Montenegro of 2004
Trgovina ljudima Član 444

1. Ko silom ili prijetnjom, dovođenjem u zabludu ili održavanjem u zabludi, zloupotrebom ovlašćenja, povjerenja, odnosa zavisnosti, teških prilika drugog, zadržavanjem ličnih isprava ili davanjem ili primanjem novca ili druge koristi, radi dobijanja saglasnosti od lica koje ima kontrolu nad drugim licem: vrbuje, prevozi, prebacuje, predaje, prodaje, kupuje, posreduje u prodaji, sakriva ili drži drugo lice, a u cilju eksploatacije njegovog rada, prinudnog rada, dovođenja u položaj sluge, ropstva ili ropstvu sličan odnos, vršenja kriminalne djelatnosti, prostitucije ili druge vrste seksualne eksploatacije, prosjačenja, upotrebe u pornografske svrhe, sklapanja nedozvoljenog braka, radi oduzimanja dijela tijela za presađivanje ili radi korišćenja u oružanim sukobima, kazniće se zatvorom od jedne do deset godina.

Slavery

Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro, 2007
Dignity and inviolability of persona Article 28

No person shall be held as a slave or in a position of slavery.

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Plan of Action for Children (2013-2017)
“Defines and protects children and children’s rights. Outlines a strategy to fulfill CRC obligations. Goals include preventing hazardous and exploitative child labor and child trafficking, increasing birth registration, ensuring inclusive education, and improving social services for street children. Monitors and reports yearly progress.”

Strategy for the Social inclusion of Roma and Egyptians (2016-2020)
“Aims to create social inclusion of Roma and Egyptians by increasing school attendance and birth registration, and preventing child begging and human trafficking. Implemented by the Ministry for Minority and Human Rights.”

UNICEF Country Program (2016-2021)

“Addresses access to social services for children, synchronizes the legal framework with EU and UN standards, implements and monitors policies relevant to children, and applies the principles of the CRC.”

National Strategy for Combating Human Trafficking (2012-2018)
“Outlines objectives for combating human trafficking by raising public awareness, strengthening the capacity for victim identification and service provision, improving interagency coordination, and raising the efficiency of prosecutions. The strategy and yearly action plan are evaluated and adopted through reports prepared through government and civil society collaboration. In 2016, the Government passed an action plan for 2016 outlining specific activities, partners, and indicators of success.”

Strategy for the Development of Social and Child Protection (2013-2017)
“Builds an integrated social and child protection system, including monthly social assistance, health care, and a child allowance that is conditional on school attendance.”

International Commitments

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 2006

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 2006

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2006

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2006

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Accession 1990

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 1990

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Succession 2006

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Succession 2006

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Succession 2007

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Succession 2006

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Act of October 2004 on witness protection
“Regulates conditions and procedures for providing out-of-court protection and assistance to a witness.”

Law on Compensation of Victims of Violent Crime
Scope Article 1
This Law governs the requirements, manner and procedure for realisation of the right to compensation to victims of intentional crimes of violence.
Violent crime Article 2
Violent crime within the meaning of this Law is a criminal offence committed with intent, as follows:

  • crime committed with the use of force or other violent acts harming mental integrity;
  • crime against sexual freedom;
  • crime threatening the life or limb or property by way of a generally dangerous act or means resulting in death, serious bodily injury or serious impairment of physical or mental health of one or more individuals, provided it is classified by the Criminal Code of Montenegro as a more serious form of a elementary crime committed with intent.

Purpose and types of compensation Article 4
For the purpose of timely elimination of harmful consequences of serious physical and mental state of the victim, the victim is entitled to compensation (hereinafter referred to as “compensation”), including:

  • compensation for lost earnings;
  • compensation for healthcare costs (costs of treatment and hospitalization);
  • compensation for funeral costs.

Where the victim has died in the cases referred to in Article 3 of this Law, the person who received support from the victim under the law governing family relations (hereinafter referred to as “the dependent”) is entitled to compensation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article and to compensation for the loss of statutory support.
The victim and the dependant may claim one or more types of compensation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, depending on the circumstances of the case

Nationality or permanent residence of the victim Article 8
The right to compensation shall belong to the victim who is:

  • a national of Montenegro;
  • a national of a State Party to the European Convention on the Compensation of Victims of Violent Crimes (hereinafter referred to as a “State Party to the Convention”)
  • a national of a member state of the Council of Europe with permanent residence in Montenegro;
  • a national of a member state of the European Union.

Foreigners Law, 2014
The Rights of a Foreigner Issued a Temporary Residence for Humanitarian Reasons Article 51
A foreigner who has been issued a temporary residence permit on humanitarian grounds has the right to an accommodation, health security, education, employment and financial support, in accordance with the Law.

Reflection Period Article 52
A foreigner for whom the police determined to had been the victim of a crime of trafficking in human beings has the right to decide within 90 days if he will cooperate in the criminal proceeding, i.e. whether he will join the prosecuting or will be a witness in that process (reflection period).
The police shall determine if a foreigner is a victim of a crime of trafficking in human beings, in cooperation with the authorities, non-governmental and other competent organizations, i.e. those performing prevention, education, reporting and prosecution of offenders and protection of victims of trafficking in human beings, and, in the case of underage foreigner, with the Centre for Social Work.

The Protection of a Foreigner Issued a Temporary Residence for Humanitarian Reasons Article 53
A foreigner issued a temporary residence for humanitarian reasons shall not be forcibly removed because of illegal entry or residence in Montenegro.
A foreigner referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, for whom there is reasonable fear that by giving a statement he/she could be exposed to danger to life, health, physical integrity or liberty, shall be provided with physical protection and rights under the provisions of the law governing the protection of witnesses.
An underage foreigner for whom it was established that had been the victim of the crime of trafficking in human beings will not be returned to any state, if, after a risk and his/her security estimation, there are circumstances that indicate that such a return would not be in his/her best interest.

Penalties
Penalties, General

Penal Code
Breach of Labor Rights Article 224
Anyone who knowingly does not abide by laws or other regulations, collective agreements and other general legal acts on labor rights and occupational health of youth, women and persons with a disability and thereby denies or limits the statutory right of another person shall be punished by a fine or a prison term up to two years.

Labour Code
Article 172.1. A fine in the amount from EUR 500 to EUR 20,000 shall be imposed to an employer with the status of a legal entity for an infringement if the referred employer:

1. concludes a contract of employment contrary to the provision of Article 16 of this Law;
2. concludes a contract of employment with a person under the age of 18, contrary to the provisions of this Law (Article 17);

Criminal Code
Trgovina ljudima Član 444

1. Ko silom ili prijetnjom, dovođenjem u zabludu ili održavanjem u zabludi, zloupotrebom ovlašćenja, povjerenja, odnosa zavisnosti, teških prilika drugog, zadržavanjem ličnih isprava ili davanjem ili primanjem novca ili druge koristi, radi dobijanja saglasnosti od lica koje ima kontrolu nad drugim licem: vrbuje, prevozi, prebacuje, predaje, prodaje, kupuje, posreduje u prodaji, sakriva ili drži drugo lice, a u cilju eksploatacije njegovog rada, prinudnog rada, dovođenja u položaj sluge, ropstva ili ropstvu sličan odnos, vršenja kriminalne djelatnosti, prostitucije ili druge vrste seksualne eksploatacije, prosjačenja, upotrebe u pornografske svrhe, sklapanja nedozvoljenog braka, radi oduzimanja dijela tijela za presađivanje ili radi korišćenja u oružanim sukobima, kazniće se zatvorom od jedne do deset godina.
2. Smatra se da je djelo iz stava 1 ovog člana učinjeno prema maloljetnom licu i kada učinilac nije upotrijebio silu, prijetnju ili neki drugi od navedenih načina izvršenja.
3. Ako je djelo iz stava 1 ovog člana učinjeno prema maloljetnom licu ili je djelo iz stava 1 ovog člana učinjeno od strane službenog lica u obavljanju službene dužnosti ili je sa umišljajem doveden u opasnost život jednog ili više lica, učinilac će se kazniti zatvorom najmanje tri godine.
4. Ako je usljed djela iz st. 1 do 3 ovog člana nastupila teška tjelesna povreda nekog lica, učinilac će se kazniti zatvorom od jedne do dvanaest godina.
5. Ako je usljed djela iz st. 1 i 3 ovog člana nastupila smrt jednog ili više lica, učinilac će se kazniti zatvorom najmanje deset godina.
6. Ko se bavi vršenjem krivičnog djela iz st. 1 do 3 ovog člana ili je djelo izvršeno na organizovan način od strane više lica, kazniće se zatvorom najmanje deset godina.
7. Ko koristi usluge lica za koje zna da je prema njemu učinjeno djelo iz stava 1 ovog člana, kazniće se zatvorom od šest mjeseci do pet godina.
8. Ako je djelo iz stava 7 ovog člana učinjeno prema maloljetnom licu, učinilac će se kazniti zatvorom od tri do petnaest godina.
9. Pristanak žrtve prema kojoj je izvršeno djelo iz st. 1 do 3 ovog člana bez uticaja je na postojanje tog krivicnog djela.

Article 446.1. Anyone who, in breach of rules of international law, submits another person to slavery or other similar position or keeps another person in such a position, or who buys, sells, surrenders to another person or mediates in buying, selling or surrendering of such a person or who incites another person to sell his own freedom or freedom of persons he supports or cares for shall be punished by a prison term from one to ten years.

446.2. Anyone who transports persons in the position of slavery or other similar position from one country to another shall be punished by a prison term from six months to five years.
446.3. A perpetrator who commits the offences under paras 1 and 2 above against a minor shall be punished by a prison term from five to fifteen years.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection Coverage (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Montenegro. If you are a representative of Montenegro and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.