Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Child labour data with a complete statistical definition is only provided for 2015. There is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate
The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).
- Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Human Development Index Score: 0.584 (2018)
Mean School Years: 5.0 years (2018)
Vulnerable Employment: 59.5% (2018)
Working Poverty Rate: 2.3% (2020)
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2013
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2004
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): No data
Unemployed: No data
Pension: 0.9% (2016)
Vulnerable: No data
Children: No data
Disabled: 0.4% (2016)
Poor: No data
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)
Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:
a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.
In Myanmar, data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2015.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2015.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.
In Myanmar, the latest estimates show that 2.7 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2015.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2015.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).
In Myanmar, the latest estimates show that 30.8 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2015.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2015.
Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.
According to the latest 2015 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Myanmar was 50.7 hours.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2015.
Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.
In 2015, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 51.6 hours per week.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2015.
Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.
Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 11.2 hours per week according to the 2015 estimate.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2015.
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: total (Source: ILO)
Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.
The latest data available on child labour by sector for Myanmar is from 2015. By the 2015 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector, the manufacturing sector, the Other Services sector, and the Construction, Mining and Other Industrial Sectors.
The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: area (Source: ILO)
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Myanmar.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Myanmar.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).
Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations
Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.
Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.
UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Myanmar between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Myanmar is 0.584. This score indicates that human development is medium.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Myanmar over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 1991 and 2018, Myanmar showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)
Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:
“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”
ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts.
“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”
There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.
Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Myanmar.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
359. The Union prohibits forced labor except hard labor as a punishment for crime duly convicted and duties assigned by the Union in accord with the law in the interest of the public.
“Supplements Order No. 1/1999 of 14 May 1999 by providing for prohibition of forced labour. Prohibition does not apply to requisition of work in cases of emergency due to fire, flood, storm, earthquake, epidemic disease, war or famine, posing an imminent danger to the public. Sets forth conditions for such work requisition.”
Elimination of child labour
“2. The following expressions contained in this Law shall have the meanings given hereunder:
(a) Child means a person who has attained the age of 16 years;
(b) Youth means a person who has attained the age of 16 years but has not attained the age of 18 years;”
“24. (a) Every child has –
(i) the right to engage in work in accordance with law and of his own volition-
(ii) the right to hours of employment, rest and leisure and other reliefs prescribed by law;
(b) The Ministry of Labour shall protect and safeguard in accordance with law to ensure safety of children employees at the place of work and prevention of infringement and loss of their rights.”
2. In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the Subject or context-
(a) ‘child’ means a person who has not completed his fourteenth year, the age permissible to do work (certified) by a medical practitioner, but has not completed his sixteenth year;
(b) ‘adolescent’ means a person who has completed his sixteenth but has not completed his eighteenth year;
(c) ‘young person’ means a person who is either a child or an adolescent;
(d) ‘adult’ means a person who has completed his eighteenth year;”
“Prohibition of employment of young children.
75. No child who has not completed his thirteen year shall be required or allowed to work in any factory.
Non adult workers to carry tokens
76. A child who has completed his thirteen year or an adolescent shall not be required or allowed to
work in any factory unless –
(a) a certificate of fitness granted under section 77 with reference to him is kept in the custody
of the manager of the factory; and
(b) such child of adolescent carries while he is at work a token referring to such certificate.”
(a) No person under the age of 14 shall be required or permitted to be employed in a shop or establishment.
(b) No person who has not attained the age of 16 shall be required to work overtime exceeding the working hours in any shop, commercial establishment or establishment for public entertainment.”
Worst Forms of Child Labour
“Employment of young persons on dangerous machinery
25. (1) No young person shall work or be required to work at any machine to which this section applies unless he has been fully instructed as to the dangers arising in connection there with and the precautions to be taken and;-
(a) has received sufficient training in work at the machine, or
(b) is under supervision of a person who has a through knowledge and experience of the machine.
(2) Sub-section (1) apply to such machines as may be prescribed by the President, being machines which in his opinion are of such a dangerous character that young persons ought not to work at them unless the foregoing requirements are complied with.”
“Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton openers
29. No woman or child shall be employed in any part of a factory in which a cotton opener is at work;
Provided that, if the feed end of a cotton-opener is in a room separated from the delivery end by a partition reaching to the roof, or to such height as the Inspector may in any particular case specify in writing, women and children may be employed on the side of the partition where the feed-end is situated.”
“Working hours for children
(1)No child shall be employed or permitted to work in any factory-
(a) for more than four hours in any day; and
(b) between the hours of 6 p.m and 6 a.m
(2) The period of work of all children shall be limited to two shifts which shall not overlap and both of shift shall not exceed five hours inclusive of intervals if any. Each child shall be employed in only one of the relays which shall not, expect with the consent of the Chief Inspector, be changed more than once in a month.
(3) The provision of section 60 shall apply also to child workers and no exemption from these provisions shall be granted in respect of any child.
(4) No child shall be required or allowed to work in any factory on any day on which he has already been worked in another factory.”
(a) Any person who has attained the age of 14 but not attained the age of 16 certified by the registered medical practitioner, may be employed to work for not more than 4 hours in any one day. The periods of work and interval for rest shall not exceed 5 hours.
(b) Such person shall not be required or allowed to work between 6 pm and 6 am.
(c) Such person who has already worked in a shop or establishment shall not be required or allowed to work in another shop or establishment in the same day.
(d) No person who has attained the age of 18 shall be required or allowed to work the prescribed dangerous work or in the dangerous workplace.
(e) The persons who have not attained the age of 18 but already attained the age of 16, and completed the relevant vocational trainings, and know and abide by the directives relating to the occupational safety and health, are fit to work may, certified by the registered medical practitioner, be allowed to work in the trades which are safe and do not affect the development and morale of such persons.”
“3. The expressions contained in this Law shall have the meanings given hereunder:-
(a) Trafficking in Persons means recruitment, transportation, transfer, sale, purchase, lending, hiring, harbouring or receipt of persons after committing any of the following acts for the purpose of exploitation of a person with or without his consent:
(1) threat, use of force or other form of coercion;
(5) abuse of power or of position taking advantage of the vulnerability of a person;
(6) giving or receiving of money or benefit to obtain the consent of the person having control over another person.
Explanation (1) Exploitation includes receipt or agreement for receipt of money or benefit for the prostitution of one person by another, other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour, forced service, slavery, servitude, debt-bondage or the removal and sale of organs from the body.
Explanation (2) Prostitution means any act, use, consummation or scheme involving the use of a person by another, for sexual intercourse or lascivious conduct in exchange for money, benefit or any other consideration.
Explanation (3) Debt-bondage means the pledging by the debtor of his / her personal labour or services or those of a person under his/ her control as payment or security for a debt, when the length and nature of service is not clearly defined or when the values of the services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt.
(j) Child means a person who has not attained the age of 16 years.
(k) Youth means a person who has attained the age of 16 years but has not attained the age of 18 years.”
358. The Union prohibits the enslaving and trafficking in persons.
358. The Union prohibits the enslaving and trafficking in persons.
National Action Plans, National Strategies
Aims to end all government recruitment and use of children in its armed forces. Seeks to ensure the release of children under age 18 from the armed forces and facilitate their reintegration into families and communities. Resulted in 849 children and young people who had been recruited as children being released since the start of the policy in 2012, including 49 in 2017.
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victim Support
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking
“10. The functions and duties of the Working Group on Repatriation, Reintegration and Rehabilitation of Trafficked Victims are as follows:
(a) coordinating and cooperating with relevant government departments, organizations and non-governmental organizations for the repatriation of the trafficked victims, to their native place, enquiring the circumstances of the relevant family, medical examination of trafficked victims with their consent, consolation and education and other necessary assistance;
(b) laying down schemes and implementing to get the vocational education based upon the education and technical knowledge and to get employment opportunities for the rehabilitation of trafficked victims;
(c) communicating and coordinating with different levels of State, Divisional, District and Township Bodies for Suppression of Trafficking in Persons;
(d) arranging to enable utilization from the rehabilitation fund established under this Law for the suppression of trafficking in persons and protection of trafficked victims, in carrying out the rehabilitation works for the trafficked victims;
(e) obtaining assistance of the relevant government departments, organizations and non-governmental organizations for the effective implementation of this Law;
(f) carrying out other functions and duties assigned by the Central Body.”
Safeguarding the Rights of Trafficked Victims
11. In order not to adversely affect the dignity of the trafficked victims:
(a) if the trafficked victims are women, children and youth, the relevant Court shall, in conducting the trial of offences of trafficking in persons, do so not in open Court, but in camera for the preservation of their dignity, physical and mental security.
(b) with respect to trafficking in persons, the publication of news at any stage of investigation, prosecution, adjudication shall be made only after obtaining the permission of the relevant Body for the Suppression of Trafficking in Persons.
(c) person not involved in this case shall not be allowed to peruse or make copies of documents contained in the proceedings.
12. The Central Body shall, if the trafficked victims are women, children and youth, make necessary arrangements for the preservation of dignity, physical and mental security.
13. The Central Body:
(a) shall not take action against the trafficked victims for any offence under this Law.
(b) shall determine whether or not it is appropriate to take action against the trafficked victims for any other offence arising as a direct consequence of trafficking in persons.
(c) shall, if the trafficked person who re-entered the country has a right of permanent residence protect his right to get permanent residence, security and relevant status.
14. The Central Body shall arrange and carry out for the security of life of trafficked victims and to arrange according to their wishes for repatriation and resettlement as much as possible.
15. The Central Body shall in the prosecution of a person guilty of trafficking in persons coordinate with the relevant Ministries for the temporary residence in Myanmar and repatriation to the relevant State of the trafficked victim who is a foreigner, after giving the testimony.”
Special Protection of Trafficked Victims, Women Children and Youth”
Repatriation, Reintegration and Rehabilitation”
Policies for Assistance, General
Penalties, Forced Labour
374. Whoever unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person shall punished with imprisonment, of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.
Penalties, Child Labour
“65. Whoever commits any of the following acts shall, on conviction, be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to 6 months or with fine which may extend to kyats 1000 or with both:-
(a) employing or permitting a child to perform work which is hazardous to the life of the child or which may cause disease to the child or which is harmful to the child’s moral character;”
“66. Whoever commits any of the following acts shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to 2 years or with fine which may extend to kyats 10,000 or with both: –
(c) employing a child to beg for his personal benefit; failing to prevent a child under his guardianship from begging; making use of the child in any manner in his livelihood of begging;
(d) wilfully maltreating a child, with the exception of the type of admonition by a parent, teacher or a person having the right to control the child, which is for the benefit of the child;
(e) inserting and announcing information revealing the identity of a child who is accused of having committed an offence or who is participating as a witness in any case, in the radio, cinema, television, newspapers, magazines, journals or publications and displaying or making use of the photograph of the child without the prior consent of the relevant juvenile court;
(f) using the child in pornographic cinema, video, television photography.”
“CHAPTER IX PUNISHMENTS AND PROCEDURE.
Ordinary punishment for offences
85. If in or in respect of any factory or place prescribed or declared under this Act to be a factory, the manager and the occupier thereof contravened any provisions of this Act or any rule or order made there under, they shall, on conviction, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both; and if, after such punishment, they continue to contravene, each of them shall be punishable for each day that they continue so to offend with fine which may extend to seventy – five rupees:
Provided that if both manager and occupier are punished, the aggregate of the fines imposed in respect of the same contravention shall not exceed such amounts.
Enhanced punishment after previous conviction
86. If any person who has been convicted under section 85 is again convicted of contravening of the same provision, he shall be punishable on such subsequent conviction with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which may extend from two hundred to one thousand rupees, or with both.
Provided that for the purpose of punishment under this section no cognizance shall be taken of any previous conviction received by the same offender more than two years ago.
Punishment for permitting double employment of children on the same day.
92. If a child works in a factory on any day on which he has already worked in other factory his parents or guardian, or the person having custody of or control over him, or the person obtaining any direct benefit from his wages, shall be punishable with a fine which may extend to twenty rupees, unless it appear to the Court that the Child has so worked without the consent or connivance of such parent, guardian or person.”
Penalties, Human Trafficking
“Chapter IX Offences and Penalties
24. Whoever is guilty of trafficking in persons especially women, children and
youth shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend from a minimum of 10 years to a maximum of imprisonment for life and may also be liable to a fine.
25. Whoever is guilty of trafficking in persons other than women, children and youth shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend from a minimum of 5 years to a maximum of 10 years and may also be liable to a fine.
26. Whoever is guilty of any of the following acts shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend from a minimum of 3 years to a maximum of 7 years and may also be liable to a fine:
(a) adopting or marrying fraudulently for the purpose of committing trafficking in persons.
(b) causing obtaining unlawfully the necessary documentary evidence documents or seal for enabling a trafficked victim to depart from the country or enter into the country.
27. Whoever is guilty of making use or arranging with a trafficked victim for the purpose of pornography shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend from a minimum of 5 years to a maximum of 10 years and may also be liable to a fine.
28. Whoever :
(a) is guilty of trafficking in persons with organized criminal group as provided in section 24 shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend from a minimum of 20 years to a maximum of imprisonment for life and may also be liable to a fine;
(b) is guilty of trafficking in persons with organized criminal group as provided in sections 25, 26 or 27 shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend from a minimum of 10 years to a maximum of imprisonment for life and may also be liable to a fine;
(c) is found to be a member of an organized criminal group shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment under sub-section (a) or sub- section (b) whether he has personally taken part or not in the commission of the offence.
29. Whoever is also guilty of a serious crime provided in sub-section (e) of section 3, in committing trafficking in persons shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend from a minimum of 10 years to a maximum of imprisonment for life or death sentence.
30. Any public official who demands or accepts money and property as gratification either for himself or for another person in carrying out investigation, prosecution and adjudication in respect of any offence under this Law shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend from a minimum of 3 years to a maximum of 7 years and may also be liable to a fine.
31. Whoever is guilty of any offence provided in this Law shall, after a prior conviction for the same offence be liable to the maximum punishment provided for such subsequent offence.
32. Whoever prepares, attempts, conspires, organizes, administers or abets, or provides financial assistance to commit or in commission of any such offence shall be liable to the punishment provided in this Law for such offence.
33. The Court shall, in passing a sentence for any offence provided in this Law, pass an order for confiscation or disposal in accordance with the stipulations of the property involved
in the offence, which have been seized as exhibits. It may pass an order to pay damages to the trafficked victim from the money confiscated or from the proceeds of sale of property or from the fine.”
367. Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be subjected, or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being subjected, to grievous hurt or slavery, or to the unnatural lust of any person, or knowing it to be likely that such person will be so subjected or disposed of, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to tine.
“370. Whoever imports, exports, removes, buys, sells or disposes of any person as a salve, or accepts, receives or detains against his will any person as a salve, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.
371. Whoever habitually imports, exports, removes, buys, sells, traffics or deals in slaves shall be punished will transportation for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.”
372. Whoever sells, lets to hire, or otherwise disposes of any person under the age of eighteen years with intent that such person shall at any age be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution or illicit intercourse with any person or for any unlawful and immoral purpose, or knowing it to be likely that such person will at any age be employed or used for any such purpose, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.
373. Whoever buys, hires or otherwise obtains possession of any person under the age of eighteen years with intent that such person shall at any age be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution or illicit intercourse with any person or for any unlawful and immoral purpose, or knowing it to be likely that such person will at any age be employed or used for any such purpose, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.
1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.