Data Dashboards

Namibia
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.645 (2018)

Mean School Years: 6.9 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 24.8% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 6.6% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2017
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2002
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 98.4% (2011)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Namibia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Namibia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Namibia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Namibia between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Namibia is 0.645. This score indicates that human development is medium. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Namibia over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Namibia showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Namibia.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution, 1990

“Article 9 [Slavery and Forced Labour {Labor}]
(1) No persons shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No persons shall be required to perform forced labour {labor}.
(3) For the purposes of this article, the expression “”forced labour”” shall not include:

a) any labour required in consequence of a sentence or order of a Court;
b) any labour required of persons while lawfully detained which, though not required in consequence of a sentence or order of a Court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene;
c) any labour required or members of the defence force, the police force and the prison service in pursuance of their duties as such or, in the case of persons who have conscientious objections to serving as members of the defence force, any labour which they are required by law to perform in place of
such service;
d) any labour required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity which threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that requiring such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation;
e) any labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic obligations.”

Labour Act, 2007

“Prohibition of Forced Labour
4. (1) A person must not directly or indirectly cause, permit or require any individual to perform forced labour.
(2) Forced labour does not include any labour described in Article 9(3)(a) to (e) of the Namibian Constitution and, for the purposes of this Act, “forced labour” includes –

(a) any work or service performed or rendered involuntarily by an individual under threat of any penalty, punishment or other harm to be imposed or inflicted on or caused to that individual by any other individual, if the first- mentioned individual does not perform the work or render the service;
(b) any work, performed by an employee’s child who is under the age of 18 years, if the work is performed in terms of an arrangement or scheme in any undertaking between the employer and the employee;
(c) any work performed by any individual because that individual is for any reason subject to the control, supervision or jurisdiction of a traditional leader in that leader’s capacity as traditional leader.”

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2018

“Definitions
1.(2) For the purposes of subsection (1) –
“forced labour or services” means labour or services obtained or maintained through threats, the use of force, intimidation, exploitation or other forms of coercion or physical restraint;”

Child Labour

Labour Act, 2007

“Prohibition and restriction of child labour
3. (1) A person must not employ or require or permit a child to work in any circumstances prohibited in terms of this section.
(2) A person must not employ a child under the age of 14 years.”

Regulations relating to domestic workers, 2014

“Prohibition of child domestic work
2. (1) Domestic work constitutes work-related activities contemplated in section
3(3)(d)(vi) of the Act.
(2) A person must not employ a child under the age of 18 years as a domestic worker.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Constitution, 1990

“Article 15 [Children’s Rights]
(2) Children are entitled to be protected from economic exploitation and shall not be employed in or required to perform work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with their education, or to be harmful to their health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral, or social development. For the purposes of this paragraph children shall be under the age of sixteen (16) years.
(3) No children under the age of fourteen (14) years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine, save under conditions and circumstances regulated by Act of Parliament. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as derogating in any way from Paragraph (2).
(4) Any arrangement or scheme employed on any farm or other undertaking, the object or effect of which is to compel the minor children of an employee to work for or in the interest of the employer of such employee, shall for the purposes of Article 9 be deemed to constitute an arrangement or scheme to compel the performance of forced labour {labor}.”

Labour Act, 2007

“Prohibition and restriction of child labour
3. (3) In respect of a child who is at least aged 14, but under the age of 16 years, a person –

(a) must not employ that child in any circumstances contemplated in Article 15(2) of the Namibian Constitution;
(b) must not employ that child in any circumstances in respect of which the Minister, in terms of subsection (5)(a), has prohibited the employment of such children;
(c) must not employ that child in respect of any work between the hours of 20h00 and 07h00; or
(d) except to the extent that the Minister by regulation in terms of subsection (5)(b) permits, must not employ that child, on any premises where –

(i) work is done underground or in a mine;
(ii) construction or demolition takes place;
(iii) goods are manufactured;
(iv) electricity is generated, transformed or distributed;
(v) machinery is installed or dismantled; or
(vi) any work-related activities take place that may place the child’s health, safety, or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development at risk.

(4) In respect of a child who is at least aged 16 but under the age of 18 years, a person may not employ that child in any of the circumstances set out in subsection (3)(c) or (d), unless the Minister has permitted such employment by regulation in terms of subsection (5)(c).
(5) The Minister may make regulations to –

(a) prohibit the employment of children between the ages of 14 and 16 at any place or in respect of any work;
(b) permit the employment of children between the ages of 14 and 16 in circumstances contemplated in subsection (3)(d), subject to any conditions or restrictions that may be contained in those regulations;
(c) permit the employment of children between the ages of 16 and 18 in circumstances contemplated in subsections (3)(c) or (d), subject to any conditions or restrictions that may be contained in those regulations.”

Child Care and Protection Act 3, 2015

“Definitions
1. In this Act, unless the context indicates otherwise –
“abuse”, in relation to a child, means any form of harm or ill-treatment deliberately inflicted on a child, including –
(d) a labour practice that exploits a child;
“child” means a person who has not attained the age of 18 years;”

“Child labour and exploitation of children
234. (1) A person may not –

(a) use, procure or offer a child for slavery or other practices similar to slavery, including debt bondage and servitude or forced or compulsory labour or provision of services;
(b) recruit, procure, enlist or employ a child in any national, private or foreign armed or security force or cause such child to be used in any armed conflict;
(c) use, procure, offer or employ a child for purposes of commercial sexual exploitation;
(d) induce, procure, offer, allow or cause a child to be used for purposes of creating child pornography, whether for reward or not;
(e) use, procure, offer or employ a child for purposes of drug production, drug trafficking or the commission of any other crime;
(f) use, procure, employ or force a child to beg;
(g) force a child to perform labour for that person or any other person, whether for reward or not, that –

(i) by its nature or circumstances is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of a child;
(i) is inappropriate for a person of that child’s age; or
(iii) places the child’s well-being, education, physical or mental health, or spiritual, moral or social development at risk;

(h) force a child to participate in any performance, display, activity, contest or event, whether for reward or not, unless such performance, display, activity, contest or event forms part of a school curriculum or requirement or unless the participation in question falls within the reasonable exercise of parental authority; or

(i) induce or allow a child to participate in any labour, performance, display, activity, contest or event, whether for reward or not, that –
(i) by its nature or circumstances is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of a child;
(ii) is inappropriate for a person of that child’s age; or
(iii) places the child’s well-being, education, physical or mental health, or spiritual, moral or social development at risk.

(2) It is not considered employment for the purposes of section 3 of the Labour Act, 2007 (Act No. 11 of 2007) for a person to use, procure, offer, employ, allow, induce or encourage a child to participate in –

(a) work within the framework of a programme that is designed to promote personal development and vocational training;
(b) any performance, display, activity, contest or event for advertising, beauty, sport, educational, religious, traditional, cultural or artistic purposes, that is not in any way intended to, used to or does not generate income for any person or organisation unless the income is generated solely for the charitable benefit of a registered non-profit organisation, registered welfare organisation, school, religious institution or for other charitable purpose; or
(c) any performance, display, activity, contest or event for advertising, beauty, sport, educational, religious, traditional, cultural or artistic purposes, that is in any way intended to, used to or does generate income for any person or entity other than for the charitable benefit of a registered non-profit organisation, registered welfare organisation, school, religious institution or for other charitable purpose, if –

(i) prior to any child’s participation, a licence is obtained from a children’s commissioner; and
(ii) regulations and conditions governing the licence contemplated in paragraph (i) are fully complied with,
but, a parent, guardian or care-giver must provide written consent for the child’s participation.

(3) Subsection (2)(c) does not apply to activities in respect of which authorisation has been obtained from a local authority council or a regional council concerned.
(4) Subsection (2) does not apply to participation by a child in any performance, display, activity, contest or event that has been prohibited in regulations made by the Minister.
(5) The Minister must take all reasonable steps to assist in ensuring the enforcement of the prohibition on any exploitative forms of child labour prohibited in terms of this section, including steps providing for the confiscation in terms of the Prevention of Organised Crime Act, 1998 (Act No. 29 of 2004), of assets acquired through the use of such child labour.”

Human Trafficking

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2018

“Prohibition of trafficking in persons
3. (1) A person commits an offence of trafficking in persons if he or she intentionally recruits, transports, delivers, transfers, harbours, sells, exchanges, leases or receives a person by means of –

(a) threat;
(b) use of force or other forms of coercion;
(c) abduction;
(d) fraud;
(e) deception;
(f) kidnapping;
(g) abuse of power or abuse of position of vulnerability; or
(h) giving or receiving of payments or benefits to obtain the consent of a person who has control over another person,
for the purposes of exploitation.

(2) The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receiving of a child for the purposes of exploitation is trafficking in persons even if this does not involve any of the means set out in paragraph (a), (b), (c), (e), (f), (g) or (h) of subsection (1).”

Slavery

Constitution, 1990

“Article 9 [Slavery and Forced Labour {Labor}]
(1) No persons shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No persons shall be required to perform forced labour {labor}.
(3) For the purposes of this article, the expression “”forced labour”” shall not include:

a) any labour required in consequence of a sentence or order of a Court;
b) any labour required of persons while lawfully detained which, though not required in consequence of a sentence or order of a Court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene;
c) any labour required or members of the defence force, the police force and the prison service in pursuance of their duties as such or, in the case of persons who have conscientious objections to serving as members of the defence force, any labour which they are required by law to perform in place of
such service;
d) any labour required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity which threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that requiring such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation;
e) any labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic obligations.”

Child Care and Protection Act 3, 2015

“Definitions
1. In this Act, unless the context indicates otherwise –
“slavery” means reducing a person by any means to a state of submitting to the control of another person as if that other person were the owner of that person;”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Legal Aid Act, 1990

Child Care and Protection Act 3, 2015

Policies for Assistance, Children

Child Care and Protection Act 3, 2015

“Criminal prosecution of victim of child trafficking prohibited
211. Criminal prosecution may not be instituted against a child who is found to be a
victim of trafficking after an investigation contemplated in section 139, for –

(a) entering or remaining in Namibia in contravention of the Immigration Control Act, 1993 (Act No. 7 of 1993);
(b) assisting another person to enter or remain in Namibia in contravention of the Immigration Control Act, 1993 (Act No. 7 of 1993);
(c) possessing any fabricated or falsified passport, identity document or other document used for the facilitation of movement across borders; and
(d) being involved in an illegal activity to the extent that he or she has been compelled to do so,
as a direct result of his or her situation as a victim of child trafficking.”

“PART 2
PROTECTIVE MEASURES IN RESPECT OF VICTIM OF CHILD TRAFFICKING
Assistance to victim of child trafficking
213. (1) The Minister may appoint or designate a person or organisation to render
support services in respect of a child who is the victim of child trafficking.
(2) A person or organisation appointed or designated in terms of subsection (1) must –

(a) ensure that the victim of child trafficking is placed in appropriate accommodation with access to food, water, clothes and bedding;
(b) arrange for counselling of the victim of child trafficking concerned, if required;
(c) ensure that the victim of child trafficking is informed of his or her rights in a language which the child understands;
(d) ensure that the victim of child trafficking receives medical or psychological services, if required;
(e) ensure the safety of the victim of child trafficking;
(f) assist in finding employment for the victim of child trafficking, if such child seeks employment, is of an employable age and is by law allowed to be employed and is likely to remain in Namibia for a period exceeding six months or is allowed to stay in Namibia for the duration of an order of the children’s court in respect of such child if the duration of such order exceeds six months; and
(g) ensure that the victim of child trafficking receives educational and training opportunities if he or she is likely to remain in Namibia for a period exceeding six months or is allowed to stay in Namibia for the duration of an order of the children’s court in respect of such child if the duration of such order exceeds six months.

(3) If it is essential in the best interests of a child who is or has been trafficked, either to or from or within Namibia, the Minister must authorise an adult at State expense to escort the child from the place where the child was found to the place from which the child was trafficked or, if that is not appropriate or safe, to any other suitable place, including a place where the child’s parent or care-giver resides.
(4) The Minister may not act in terms of subsection (3) unless the Minister satisfied that the parent, guardian, care-giver or other person who has parental responsibilities and rights in respect of the child does not have the financial means to travel to the place where the child is in order to escort the child back.
(5) A victim of child trafficking must, pending the completion of an investigation contemplated in section 139, be placed in a place of safety, unless the child can be placed in an alternative safe facility or place during such period.
(6) Placement of a child in a place of safety as contemplated in subsection (5) without an order of the children’s court does not disqualify such child from any state grant contemplated in Chapter 16 and which in payable in respect of children in a place of safety.”

“Provision of health care and education services to non-resident victim of child trafficking
214. A victim of child trafficking who is not a citizen or lawful resident of Namibia is entitled to the same services, including public health care and education services, as any other child in Namibia.
Non-resident victim of child trafficking found in Namibia

215. (1) If, after an investigation contemplated in section 139, a child who is illegally present in Namibia is brought before the children’s court, the court may order that the child be assisted in applying for asylum in terms of the Namibia Refugees (Recognition and Control) Act, 1999 (Act No. 2 of 1999).
(2) A finding in terms of section 139 that a child who is illegally present in Namibia and who is a victim of child trafficking is a child in need of protective services serves as authorisation for allowing the child to remain in Namibia for the duration of the children’s court order.
Repatriation of non-resident victim of child trafficking from Namibia

216. The minister responsible for home affairs and immigration may not repatriate a child who is not a Namibian resident and who is a victim of child trafficking to his or her country of origin or the country from where the child is or has been trafficked without giving due consideration to the –

(a) best interests of the child standard set out in section 3;
(b) safety of the child during the repatriation process;
(c) availability and suitability of care arrangements and the safety of the child in the country to which the child is to be repatriated; and
(d) possibility that the child might be harmed, trafficked again or killed.
Repatriation of suspected victim of child trafficking to Namibia

217. With due regard to the safety of a child and without delay –

(a) the minister responsible for foreign affairs must facilitate the return to Namibia of a child who is a habitual resident of Namibia and who is a victim of child trafficking; and
(b) the minister responsible for home affairs must –

(i) facilitate and accept the return of a child contemplated in paragraph (a);
(ii) issue such travel documents or other authorisations as may be necessary to enable such a child to travel to and enter Namibia;
(iii) at the request of another State that is a party to the United Nations Protocol to Prevent Trafficking in Persons or to an agreement relating to trafficking in children, verify that the victim of child trafficking is a citizen or lawful resident of Namibia; and
(iv) on the child’s entry into Namibia refer the child to a designated social worker who must act in accordance with the provisions of section 139 and who may, if required in the circumstances, place the child in a place of safety pending the outcome of the investigation referred to in that section.”

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2018

“CHAPTER 3
PROTECTION OF AND ASSISTANCE TO VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING
CHAPTER 4
PROVISIONS RELATING TO CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING”

“Compensation
26. The court that has convicted a trafficker may, at the request of the victim of trafficing or on it’s own accord order the convicted trafficker to compensate the victim of trafficking for any –
[The word “trafficking” is misspelt in the Government Gazette, as reproduced above. The word “it’s” in the phrase “it’s own accord” should be “its”.]
(a) damage to, or loss of property, including money, suffered by the victim; and
(b) loss of income and support suffered by the victim.”

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Labour Act, 2007

“Prohibition of Forced Labour
4. (1) A person must not directly or indirectly cause, permit or require any individual to perform forced labour.
(2) Forced labour does not include any labour described in Article 9(3)(a) to (e) of the Namibian Constitution and, for the purposes of this Act, “forced labour” includes –

(a) any work or service performed or rendered involuntarily by an individual under threat of any penalty, punishment or other harm to be imposed or inflicted on or caused to that individual by any other individual, if the first- mentioned individual does not perform the work or render the service;
(b) any work, performed by an employee’s child who is under the age of 18 years, if the work is performed in terms of an arrangement or scheme in any undertaking between the employer and the employee;
(c) any work performed by any individual because that individual is for any reason subject to the control, supervision or jurisdiction of a traditional leader in that leader’s capacity as traditional leader.

(3) It is an offence for any person to directly or indirectly, cause, permit or require an individual to perform forced labour prohibited under this section and a person who is convicted of the offence is liable to a fine not exceeding N$20 000, or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding four years or to both the fine and imprisonment.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Act, 2007

“Prohibition and restriction of child labour
3. (1) A person must not employ or require or permit a child to work in any circumstances prohibited in terms of this section.
(2) A person must not employ a child under the age of 14 years.
(3) In respect of a child who is at least aged 14, but under the age of 16 years, a person –

(a) must not employ that child in any circumstances contemplated in Article 15(2) of the Namibian Constitution;
(b) must not employ that child in any circumstances in respect of which the Minister, in terms of subsection (5)(a), has prohibited the employment of such children;
(c) must not employ that child in respect of any work between the hours of 20h00 and 07h00; or
(d) except to the extent that the Minister by regulation in terms of subsection

(5)(b) permits, must not employ that child, on any premises where –

(i) work is done underground or in a mine;
(ii) construction or demolition takes place;
(iii) goods are manufactured;
(iv) electricity is generated, transformed or distributed;
(v) machinery is installed or dismantled; or
(vi) any work-related activities take place that may place the child’s health, safety, or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development at risk.

(4) In respect of a child who is at least aged 16 but under the age of 18 years, a person may not employ that child in any of the circumstances set out in subsection (3)(c) or (d), unless the Minister has permitted such employment by regulation in terms of subsection (5)(c).
(5) The Minister may make regulations to –

(a) prohibit the employment of children between the ages of 14 and 16 at any place or in respect of any work;
(b) permit the employment of children between the ages of 14 and 16 in circumstances contemplated in subsection (3)(d), subject to any conditions or restrictions that may be contained in those regulations;
(c) permit the employment of children between the ages of 16 and 18 in circumstances contemplated in subsections (3)(c) or (d), subject to any conditions or restrictions that may be contained in those regulations.

(6) It is an offence for any person to employ, or require or permit, a child to work in any circumstances prohibited under this section and a person who is convicted of the offence is liable to a fine not exceeding N$20 000, or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding four years, or to both the fine and imprisonment.”

Child Care and Protection Act 3, 2015

“Child trafficking
202. (1) A person may not traffic a child.
(2) A person who contravenes subsection (1) commits an offence and is on conviction liable to –
(a) a fine not exceeding N$1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 20 years or to both such fine and such imprisonment; or
(b) imprisonment for a period not exceeding 20 years, without the option of a fine.
Behaviour facilitating trafficking in children prohibited”

“Child labour and exploitation of children
234. (7) A person who contravenes a provision of subsection (1) commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding N$50 000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 10 years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.
(8) A person who is the owner, lessor, manager, tenant or occupier of any premises on which any exploitative form of child labour has occurred commits an offence if that person, on gaining information of that occurrence, fails to take reasonable steps to report the occurrence to a member of the police promptly and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding N$20 000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2018

“Prohibition of trafficking in persons
3. (1) A person commits an offence of trafficking in persons if he or she intentionally recruits, transports, delivers, transfers, harbours, sells, exchanges, leases or receives a person by means of –

(a) threat;
(b) use of force or other forms of coercion;
(c) abduction;
(d) fraud;
(e) deception;
(f) kidnapping;
(g) abuse of power or abuse of position of vulnerability; or
(h) giving or receiving of payments or benefits to obtain the consent of a person who has control over another person,
for the purposes of exploitation.

(2) The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receiving of a child for the purposes of exploitation is trafficking in persons even if this does not involve any of the means set out in paragraph (a), (b), (c), (e), (f), (g) or (h) of subsection (1).
(3) A person who facilitates or secures the adoption of a child, for the purpose of
exploiting that child, commits an offence.
(4) A person convicted of an offence under subsection (1), (2) or (3) –

(a) in the case of a first conviction, is liable to a fine not exceeding N$1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 30 years or to both such fine and such imprisonment; and
(b) in the case of a second or subsequent conviction, is liable to a fine not exceeding N$2 500 000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 50 years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.”

“Facilitating trafficking in persons4. (1) A person commits an offence if he or she –

(a) leases, subleases, uses or allows to be used any room, house, premises, building or
structure for the purpose of facilitating or promoting trafficking in persons;
(b) subsequent to the lease or sublease of any room, house, premises, building or structure, becomes aware or ought reasonably to have known or suspected that it is being used to facilitate or promote trafficking in persons and fails to report that knowledge to a police officer;
(c) intentionally advertises, publishes, prints, broadcasts, distributes or causes the advertisement, publication, printing, broadcasting or distribution of information that facilitates or promotes trafficking in persons by any means, including the use of electronic communications; or
(d) finances, controls or organises the commission of an offence under this subsection.

(2) Every electronic communications service provider operating in Namibia who becomes aware or is aware that any electronic communications, stored on or transmitted over its electronic communications system contains information in contravention of subsection (1)(c), must –

(a) report the particulars relating to any such communication to a police officer;
(b) take such reasonable steps as are necessary to preserve evidence as may be required by the relevant investigative and prosecuting authorities, for purposes of investigation and prosecution by the relevant authorities; and
(c) without delay take such reasonable steps as are necessary to prevent continued access to those electronic communications by any –

(i) of the customers of that electronic communications service provider; or
(ii) person if the electronic communications are stored on the electronic communications system of the electronic communications service provider.

(3) An electronic communications service provider, who fails to comply with the provisions of paragraphs (a), (b) or (c) of subsection 2, commits an offence.
(4) A person who is convicted of an offence under subsection (1) or (3) is liable to a fine not exceeding N$1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 30 years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.”

“Possession, destruction, confiscation, concealment or tampering with identification documents and travel documents
6. (1) A person commits an offence if he or she possesses, destroys, confiscates or conceals an identification document or a travel document or tampers with an identification document or a travel document of a person in facilitating or promoting an offence of trafficking in persons.
(2) A person who is convicted of an offence under subsection (1) is liable to a fine not exceeding N$1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 30 years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.
Fraudulent identification documents and travel documents

7. A person commits an offence if he or she makes, gives or sells a fraudulent identification document or travel document for the purposes of facilitating or promoting the trafficking in persons and is on conviction liable to a fine not exceeding N$1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 30 years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.
Using services of victims of trafficking

8. (1) A person commits an offence if he or she intentionally benefits, financially or otherwise, from the services of a victim of trafficking in persons or uses or allows another person to use the services of a victim of trafficking in persons.
(2) A person who is convicted of an offence under subsection (1), is liable –

(a) in the case of a first conviction, to a fine not exceeding N$1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 30 years or to both such fine and such imprisonment; and
(b) in the case of a second or subsequent conviction, to a fine not exceeding N$2,500,000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 50 years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.”

Penalties, General

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2018

“Debt bondage
5. A person who intentionally engages in conduct that causes another person to enter
into debt bondage commits an offence and is on conviction liable –
(a) in the case of a first conviction, to a fine not exceeding N$1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 30 years or to both such fine and such imprisonment; and (b) in the case of a second or subsequent conviction to a fine not exceeding N$2,500,000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 50 years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

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