Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Child labour data between 2008 and 2014 is not comparable.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate
The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by inter-agency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and the World Bank, though, some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).
- Child labour: ILO/UNICEF Data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Human Development Index Score: 0.602 (2019)
Mean School Years: 4.1 years (2019)
Vulnerable Employment: No data
Working Poverty Rate: 7.7% (2016)
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2002
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Not ratified
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): No data
Unemployed: No data
Pension: 62.5% (2010)
Vulnerable: No data
Children: No data
Disabled: No data
Poor: No data
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)
Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:
a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.
In Nepal, 27.6 percent of children were in child labour in 2008. The measure provided for 2014 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2008 and 2014.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.
In Nepal, estimates show that 5.8 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2008. The measure provided for 2014 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2014.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).
In Nepal, estimates show that 19.4 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2008. The measure provided for 2014 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2008 and 2014.
Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.
According to the latest 2014 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Nepal was 9.1 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 18 hours in 2008.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2008 and 2014.
Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.
In 2014, the latest year of available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 13.3 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2008, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 28.7.
The chart displays differences in number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2008 and 2014.
Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week for children aged 5-14.
Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 9.7 hours per week according to the 2014 estimate. This estimate represents an increase in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2008, which found that children aged 5-14 in Nepal worked an average of 9.4 hours per week.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data is available for each group between 2008 and 2014.
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)
Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.
The latest data available on child labour by sector for Nepal is from 2008. By the 2008 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Construction, Mining and Other Industrial sector and the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector.
The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)
SDG Indicator 8.7.1, Economic Activity (Source: ILO)
While the concept of child labour includes working in activities that are hazardous in nature, to ensure comparability of estimates over time and to minimize data quality issues, work beyond age-specific hourly thresholds is used as a proxy for hazardous work for the purpose of reporting on SDG indicator 8.7.1. Similarly, while the worst forms of child labour other than hazardous also form part of the concept of child labour more broadly, data on the worst forms of child labour are not currently captured in regular household surveys given difficulties with accurately and reliably measuring it. Therefore, this element of child labour is not captured by the indicators used for reporting on SDG 8.7.1.
In accordance with the ICLS resolutions, child labour can be measured on the basis of the production boundary set by the United Nations System of National Accounts (SNA), which limits the frame of reference to economic activity.
The chart displays the proportion and number of children aged 5-17 years engaged in economic activities at or above age-specific hourly thresholds in Nepal for the year 2014. Gender disaggregated data is provided for 2014.
SDG Indicator 8.7.1, Household Chores (Source: ILO)
In addition to being measured on the basis of SNA, child labour can also be measured on the basis of the general production boundary, which includes economic activity and unpaid household services, that is, the production of domestic and personal services by a household member for consumption within their own household, commonly called “household chores”.
The chart displays the proportion of children aged 5-17 years engaged in economic activities and household chores at or above age-specific hourly thresholds in Nepal for the year 2014. Gender disaggregated data is provided for 2014.
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Nepal.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Nepal.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).
Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations
Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data through their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.
Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.
UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Nepal between 1990 and 2019. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2019, shows that the average human development score in Nepal is 0.602. This score indicates medium human development.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitative labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Nepal over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)
Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:
“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”
ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases the vulnerability of individuals to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates</span of persons of concern in Nepal.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
Kamaay shram (Bonded Labour)
Bonded Labour (prohibition) Act, 2058, 2002
Section 2. Definition
a.”Bonded labour (Kamaya shram)” means the labour or service to be rendered for a creditor for the following reasons without wages or with nominal wages.
1. To pay back the debt obtained by him/ her or family and to pay the interest thereof.
2. To pay back the debt obtained by his/her ascendant and to pay back the interest thereof.
3. To pay back the bonded debt of bonded labourer by a person who has given a guarantee before the creditor on behalf of a bonded labourer.
Section 3. To be freed from bonded labourer: Every person who is serving as bonded labourer at the time of the commencement of this Act shall, ipso facto, be freed from bonded labour after the commencement of this Act.
Section 5. To be freed from bonded debt: After the commencement of this Act, no bonded labourer shall be obliged to pay back the bonded debt obtained by him/her from any creditor.
Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 2000
Section 3. Child not to be Engaged in work:
1. No child having not attained the age of 14 years shall be engaged in works as a laborer.
2. No child shall be engaged in any risky business or work referred to in the schedule.
Worst Forms of Child Labour
Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 2000
Section 3.2 No child shall be engaged in any risky business or work referred to in the schedule.
Section 2. Definition: Unless the subject or context otherwise requires, in this Act, –
a. “Child” means a minor not having completed the age of sixteen years.
Section 4. No Child to be Engaged in Works Against Will: No child shall be engaged in works as a laborer against his/her will by way of persuasion, misrepresentation or by subjecting him/her to any influence or fear or threat or coercion or by any other means.
Schedule -1 Relating to Sub-section 2 of Section 3
Risky Business or Works
a. Business relating to tourism including tourism, residence, motel, hotel, casino, restaurant, bar, pub, resort, skiing, guiding, water rafting, cable car complex, Pony trekking, mountaineering, hot air ballooning, parasailing, golf course, polo, horse riding and so on;
b. Service-oriented business such as workshop, laboratory, animal slaughterhouse, cold storage and so on;
c. Public transport and construction business;
d. Works relating to manufacture of cigarette, biri; carpet, weaving, dyeing; wool cleaning; fabrics weaving, dying, washing and printing strips; leather tanning; cement manufacturing and packing; production, sale and distribution of matches, explosives and other flammable materials; production of beer, liquor and other drink items; production of soap; production of bitumen; production of pulp and paper; production of slate, pencil, insecticides, lubricating oils; collection of garbage; processing and electroplating; photo processing and works relating to rubber, synthetic, plastic, lid and mercury;
e. Works relating to water resources, air, solar power, coal, natural oil or gas, biogas or the like works relating to producing energy and its transmission and distribution;
f. Works relating to mines, mineral substances, exploration, processing and distribution of natural oil or gas.
g. Works relating to rickshaw and carts pulled by human beings.
h. Works relating to cutting machine.
i. Works to be done in underground, underwater or in excessive height.
j. Works to be done having contact with chemical substances and
k. Other risky works or business prescribed by the prevailing laws.
Trafficking in Persons
Human Trafficking and Transportation (Control) Act, 2064, 2007
Section 4.1. If anyone commits any of the following acts, that shall be deemed to have committed human trafficking:
a. To sell or purchase a person for any purpose,
b. To use someone into prostitution, with or without any benefit,
c. To extract human organ except otherwise determined by law,
d. To go for in prostitution.
Constitution of Nepal, 2072, 2015
Section 29. Right Against Exploitation
1. Every person shall have the right against exploitation.
2. No person shall be exploited in any manner on the grounds of religion, custom, tradition, usage, practice or on any other grounds.
3. No one shall be subjected to trafficking nor shall one be held in slavery or servitude.
4. No one shall be forced to work against his or her will.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the making of law empowering the State to require citizens to perform compulsory service for public purposes.
“Promotes and protects the rights of human trafficking victims and survivors, and outlines policies for providing justice and punishing perpetrators.”
“Prioritizes ending the worst forms of child labor by 2022, and all forms of child labor by 2025. Uses five strategies to achieve goals.”
Aims to expand access to education and provide alternative schooling and non-formal education to vulnerable populations, including children who are out of school and at risk of entering the worst forms of child labor.
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)
Policies for Assistance
Assistance, Bonded Labour
“The Act establishes Freed Kamaiya Rehabilitation and Monitoring Committee in districts prescribed by HMG and sets out their functions. In addition, Welfare Officers are to be designated to assist freed Kamaiya labourers (arts. 10-11). The HMG shall have the power to fix minimum wages for agricultural labourers (art. 13). “
Assistance, Child Labour
Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 2000
Section 24. Child Labor Prohibition Fund:
1. Government of Nepal shall form a Child Labor Prohibition Fund for child working in an enterprise for their health, security, education, vocational training and for suitable employment of child to discourage
to have children involved in works and to eliminate child labour.
2. The following amounts shall be deposited in the Child Labor Prohibition Fund: –
a. Grants amount received from Government of Nepal,
b. Grants, donation, fee and amount of assistance to be received from various national and international organizations and associations,
c. Amounts to be received from other sources.
3. Amounts to be deposited in the Child Labor Prohibition Fund and operation of the fund shall be as prescribed.
Assistance, Human Trafficking
Human Trafficking and Transportation (Control) Act, 2064, 2007
Section 13. Rehabilitation Center:
1. Nepal government shall establish necessary rehabilitation centers for physical and mental treatment, social rehabilitation and family reconciliation of the victim.
2. Any organization can obtain permission as prescribed to establish and run rehabilitation center to address the objectives under Sub-section (1). Nepal government shall make regular and effective monitoring of that organization and rehabilitation center established by it.
3. Nepal government may provide economic support as well as other assistance, as prescribed, to the center run under Sub-section (2).
4. Center shall manage for the social rehabilitation and family reconciliation of the person stationed at the Center.
5. Center shall manage for the medical treatment and consultation service and facility to the victims.
6. No one shall make the victim in the Center engage in any work against his/her wish.
7. Management, operation standard, monitoring of the rehabilitation center, skillful training and employment, rehabilitation, family reconciliation shall be carried out as prescribed.
Section 14. Rehabilitation Fund:
1. Nepal government shall establish a rehabilitation fund for operation of the rehabilitation center established under Sub-section (1) of Section 13.
2. The fund established under the Sub-section (1) shall receive contributions as follows:
a. Funding received from Government of Nepal,
b. Funding received from national and international organizations, and individuals,
c. Half of the amount received as fines under Section 15.
3. Management and operation of the rehabilitation fund shall be as prescribed.
Section 16. Exemption from Punishment: If a person knows or there is reasonable ground to believe that he/she is being bought, sold or engaged in prostitution or taken for the same and he/she does not get help to get rid of from those acts or somebody creates obstacle or stops or takes into control or uses force, in such case, if he or she believes that it is impossible to get rid of from such control and on such faith the perpetrator happens to be killed or injured in the course of release, such person shall not be liable for any punishment notwithstanding anything in the prevailing law.
Section 17. Compensation:
1. A court shall issue order to provide compensation to the victim which shall not be less than half of the fine levied as punishment to the offender
2. If the victim dies before receiving the compensation under SubSection 1 and if he/she does have children below the age of 18, the children shall receive the compensation. If the victim does not have any children, the dependant parents
shall receive the compensation.
3. If there are no dependant parents and minor children to receive compensation under Sub-Section (2), the amount should be accrued in the Rehabilitation Fund.
Penalties, Bonded Labour
Bonded Labour (prohibition) Act, 2058, 2002
Section 16. Penalty
1. If a person employs any one as a bonded labourer violating Section 4, the Adjudicating Authority shall impose a fine on him/her not less than Fifteen Thousand Rupees and not exceeding Twenty five thousand Rupees; and shall provide the two-fold amount of the minimum wage as determined pursuant to this Act for the each day of employment to the victim from such employer (offender).
2. If a person fails to refund the property taken as a mortgage or guarantee pursuant to Section 7, the Adjudicating Authority shall impose a fine on him /her not less than Ten Thousand Rupees and not exceeding
Fifteen Thousand Rupees and shall cause to refund the said property to the concerned person.
3. If a person employs any one without paying wages or with lower wages than the minimum rate, the Adjudicating Authority shall impose a fine on him/her not less than One Thousand Rupees and not exceeding Three Thousand Rupees; and shall provide the two-fold amount of the minimum wage as determined pursuant to this Act for the each day of employment to the victim from such employer (offender).
4. If a person hinders or obstructs to anyone in the course of investigation of any act committed contrary to this Act, the Adjudicating Authority shall impose a fine on him/her not less than Three Thousand Rupees and not exceeding Ten Thousand Rupees.
5. Save as provided in Sub-section (1), (2), (3) and (4), if a person commits an act in contravention of this Act and the Rules framed here under, the Adjudicating Authority shall impose a fine on him/her not less than One Thousand Rupees and not exceeding Three Thousand Rupees.
6. If a person knowingly/willingly or with an intention to make trouble to anyone lodges a fake complaint, the Adjudicating Authority shall impose a fine on him/her not less than One Thousand Rupees and not exceeding Three Thousand Rupees.
7. If a person, who has committed an act as referred to in Subsection (1), (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6), holds an office of public profit or a person who has been already punished under this Act, again commits the same act, the Adjudicating Authority shall impose two-fold punishment of the punishment mentioned in the concerned Sub-section
Penalties, Child Labour
Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 2000
Section 19. Punishment:
1. Whoever commits any act in contravention of Sub-section 1 of section 3 shall be liable to a punishment of imprisonment of three months in maximum or a fine of Rs. 10,000/- in maximum or the both.
2. Whoever commits any act in contravention of Sub-section 2 of section 3 and section 4 shall be liable to a punishment of an imprisonment of one year in maximum or a fine of fifty thousand rupees in maximum or the both.
3. In case any entrepreneur commits any act in contravention to sections 6, 7, 9, 10 or 11, he/she shall be liable to the punishment of an imprisonment up to two months or a fine of five thousand rupees in maximum or the both.
4. In case any entrepreneur commits any act in contravention of sections 5, 13 or 14, he/she shall be liable to a punishment of one month in maximum or a fine of three thousand rupees in maximum or the both.
5. Whoever commits any act in contravention of this Act, except as referred to in Sub-sections 1, 2, 3 and 4 this section or the Rules framed under this Act, he/she shall be liable to a punishment of imprisonment of 15 days in maximum or a fine of one thousand rupees in maximum or the both.
6. Whoever commits the same act again after having been punished pursuant to Sub-sections 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5, he/she shall be liable to double of the punishment referred to in the same Sub-sections.
Penalties, Human Trafficking
Human Trafficking and Transportation (Control) Act, 2064, 2007
Section 15. Punishment:
1. Any person who commits an offence as prescribed under Section 3 shall be punished as follows:
a. Twenty years imprisonment and a fine of Two Hundred Thousand Rupees for selling or buying a human being,
b. Ten years to Five years imprisonment and a fine of Fifty Thousand Rupees to One Hundred Thousand Rupees for forcing into prostitution, with or without financial benefit,
c. 10 years imprisonment and a fine of Rs Two Hundred Thousand to Five Hundred Thousand Rupees for extracting human organ except otherwise determined by law,
d. One month to three months imprisonment and a fine of Two Thousand Rupees to Five Thousand Rupees for a person engaged in prostitution.
e. For a person who is involved in transportation of human being for the purpose of buying, selling and engaging someone in prostitution-
1. Ten years to Fifteen years imprisonment and a fine of Fifty Thousand Rupees to One Hundred Thousand Rupees for taking a person out of the country. Fifteen years to Twenty years imprisonment and a fine of One Hundred Thousand Rupees to Two Hundred Thousand Rupees for taking a child out of the country.
2 Ten years of prison and a fine of Fifty Thousand Rupees to One Hundred Thousand Rupees for taking a person from one place to another place within the country. Ten years to Twelve years imprisonment and a fine of One Hundred Thousand Rupees for taking a child from one place to another place within the country.
f. One years to two years of imprisonment for taking a person from one place to another place within the country, and two years to five years of prison for taking out of the country for the purpose of exploitation under Clause (b) of Sub-section (2) of Section 4.
g. Except otherwise written in clause (e) and (f), seven years to ten years of prison for a person committing an offence under clause (b) of Subsection (2) of Section 4.
h. The person engaged in provocation, conspiracy and attempt of an offence of human trafficking or transportation or an abettor of that offence shall get half out of full punishment envisioned for that offence.
2. Notwithstanding anything written in Sub-section (1), the punishment in the following matters shall be as follows:
a. If same person is involved in buying or selling and forcing into prostitution, with or without any benefit; he/she shall be liable for punishment under both offences,
b. If same person is involved in buying or selling or forcing into prostitution, with or without any benefit, and in an offence under Clause (b) of Sub-section (2) of Section 4, he/she shall be liable for punishment under both offences,
c. Notwithstanding anything mentioned in Clause (b), if same person is involved in an offence under Clause (b) of Sub-Section (2) of Section 4 and in transporting a human being from one place to another place within Nepal or outside the country for the purpose of buying, selling or forcing into prostitution, with or without any benefits; he/she shall be liable for separate punishment for each offence
3. If an offence under Section 3 is committed by person holding a public post; in addition to the regular punishment for that offence, he/she shall be liable for Twenty five 25 percentage additional punishments.
4. If anyone commits an offence under Section 3 with a person under protection or guardianship or if the victim is relative of the offender as incorporated in the Chapter of Incest in civil code , he/she is shall be liable for ten percentage additional punishment besides regular punishment under this Act.
5. If anyone commits an offence under Section 3 repeatedly, for every offence he/she shall le liable for it additional one-fourth punishment in addition to the regular punishment.
6. If, in the course of proceeding of the case, a person involved in reporting the offence under Section 5 of this Act gives contrary statement to that of the statement giver earlier or if he/she does not appear before the court on its notice or does not assist to the court, shall be liable for three months to one year of imprisonment.
Section 18. Seizure of Property:
1. Any movable or immovable property acquired as a result of an offence under this Act shall be seized.
2. If it is proved that anyone uses or provides to use any house, land or vehicle for any offence under this Act, that house, land or vehicle shall be seized.
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.
Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled
Based on the Official Response from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Nepal, the Dashboard for Nepal has been revised as follows:
- Unfortunately, the link to the data on women trafficked provided in the Official Response does not work. Please send the file (in English if possible) to firstname.lastname@example.org.
- The ‘Government Efforts’ tab includes law and policy information on forced labour and bonded labour. If there is any additional information that should be featured in this section, please send the reports and/or data sources to email@example.com.
- When it becomes available, we’d be grateful to receive the recently completed Nepal Labour Force Survey 2017/2018 at firstname.lastname@example.org.