Data Dashboards

New Zealand
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative child labour data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.921 (2018)

Mean School Years: 12.7 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 12. 4% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2019
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2002
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 66.6% (2016)

Unemployed: 44.9% (2016)

Pension: 100% (2014)

Vulnerable: 9.7% (2016)

Children: No data

Disabled: 80.3% (2016)

Poor: 37.4% (2016)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Although there is no specified legal minimum working age in New Zealand, the Health and Safety at Work Act outlines the various protections afforded to young workers and the associated conditions and restrictions on their employment. There is no data available on child labour in New Zealand, most likely due to relatively low incidence.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

Human trafficking in New Zealand is sanctioned in accordance with the amendments to The Crimes Act of 1961 that criminalizes all forms of labour trafficking and some forms of sex trafficking. According to the Draft Plan of Action for 2020-25, “New Zealand adopts an all-of-government approach against forced labour, trafficking and slavery, bringing together the various actions of government agencies under the three internationally recognized pillars of prevention, protection and enforcement”.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in New Zealand between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in New Zealand is 0.921. This score indicates that human development is very high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in New Zealand over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, New Zealand showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

 

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in New Zealand.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Child Labour

Education Act, 1989

“30. Employment of school-age children
(1) No person shall employ any person who has not turned 16 at any time—

(a) within school hours; or
(ab) in the case of a person who is a student participating in a secondary-tertiary programme, when the employment interferes with the person’s ability to undertake the secondary-tertiary programme; or
(b) in the case of a person enrolled at a correspondence school, when the employment interferes with the person’s ability to do the work of the course in which the student is enrolled; or
(c) in the case of a person who has been granted a certificate of exemption under section 21, when the employment interferes with the person’s ability to be taught as well and regularly as in a registered school; or
(d) if the employment then—

(i) prevents or interferes with the person’s attendance at school; or
(ia) in the case of a person who is a participating student, interferes with the person’s ability to undertake his or her secondary-tertiary programme; or
(ii) in the case of a person enrolled at a correspondence school, interferes with the person’s ability to do the work of the course in which the person is enrolled,—
unless there has been produced to the employer a certificate of exemption, or other satisfactory evidence that the person is exempted (otherwise than under section 21(1)) from enrolment at any school.”

Human Trafficking

Crimes Act 1961 (No. 43 of 1961).

“98D Trafficking in persons
(1) Every person is liable to the penalty stated in subsection (2) who arranges, organises, or procures—

(a) the entry of a person into, or the exit of a person out of, New Zealand or any other State—

(i) for the purpose of exploiting or facilitating the exploitation of the person; or
(ii) knowing that the entry or exit of the person involves 1 or more acts of coercion against the person, 1 or more acts of deception of the person, or both; or

(b) the reception, recruitment, transport, transfer, concealment, or harbouring of a person in New Zealand or any other State—

(i) for the purpose of exploiting or facilitating the exploitation of the person; or
(ii) knowing that the reception, recruitment, transport, transfer, concealment, or harbouring of the person involves 1 or more acts of coercion against the person, 1 or more acts of deception of the person, or both.

(2) The penalty is imprisonment for a term not exceeding 20 years, a fine not exceeding $500,000, or both.
(3) Proceedings may be brought under this section even if—

(a) parts of the process by which the person was exploited, coerced, or deceived were accomplished without an act of exploitation, coercion, or deception:
(b) the person exploited, coerced, or deceived—

(i) did not in fact enter or exit the State concerned; or
(ii) was not in fact received, recruited, transported, transferred, concealed, or harboured in the State concerned.

(4) For the purposes of this section, exploit, in relation to a person, means to cause, or to have caused, that person, by an act of deception or coercion, to be involved in—

(a) prostitution or other sexual services:
(b) slavery, practices similar to slavery, servitude, forced labour, or other forced services:
(c) the removal of organs.”

Slavery

Crimes Act 1961 (No. 43 of 1961).

“98 Dealing in Slaves
(2) For the purposes of this section—
debt-bondage means the status or condition arising from a pledge by a debtor of his or her personal services, or of the personal services of any person under his or her control, as security for a debt, if the value of those services, as reasonably assessed, is not applied towards the liquidation of the debt or if the length and nature of those services are not limited and defined
serfdom means the status or condition of a tenant who is by any law, custom, or agreement bound to live and labour on land belonging to another person and to render some determinate service to that other person, whether for reward or not, and who is not free to change that status or condition
slave includes, without limitation, a person subject to debt-bondage or serfdom.”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance

Victims Rights Act, 2002

“A victim or member of a victim’s family who has welfare, health, counseling, medical, or legal needs arising from the offence should have access to services that are responsive to those needs.”

Health and Disability Services Eligibility Direction 2011

B12 Victim of trafficking in people offence

A person is eligible to receive services funded under the Act if –

(a) the person is a victim of an offence against section 98D of the Crimes Act 1961 (which relates to trafficking in people by means of coercion or deception) or

(b) the New Zealand Police suspects that the person is a victim of an offence against the section referred to in paragraph (a)

Accident Compensation Act 2001

Cover for mental injury caused by certain acts dealt with in Crimes Act 1961

Immigration Act 2009

New Zealand Immigration Operational Manual

S4.15 Residence Category for victims of people trafficking

S4.15.1 Objective

The objectives of the residence category for victims of people trafficking are to:

  1. enable victims of people trafficking to remain in New Zealand where they cannot return home because they will be endangered, at risk of being re-victimised or at risk of suffering significant social stigma and financial hardship as a result of being trafficked; and
  2. recognise New Zealand’s international obligations, particularly to:
    1. offer protection and assistance to victims of people trafficking who are likely to be suffering the effects of trauma and abuse; and
    2. enable trafficking offenders to be prosecuted.

U10.5 Student visas and permission to study for child victims of people trafficking

a. child victims of people trafficking wishing to study at primary or secondary school may be granted student visas valid for 12 months

WI16 Special work visa for victims of people trafficking

V3.135 Visitor visa for child victims of people trafficking

a. Child victims of people trafficking may be granted visitor visas valid for 12 months.

b. The applicant must have certification from the New Zealand Police that they are believed to be a victim of people trafficking

Penalties
Penalties, General

Immigration Act, 2009

“Exploitation of unlawful employees and temporary workers

(1) Every employer commits an offence against this Act who,—

(a) while allowing an unlawful employee or temporary worker to work in the employer’s service,—

(i) is responsible for a serious failure to pay to the employee or worker money payable under the Holidays Act 2003; or
(ii) is in serious default under the Minimum Wage Act 1983 in respect of the employee or worker; or
(iii) is responsible for a serious contravention of the Wages Protection Act 1983 in respect of the employee or worker; or

(b) while allowing an unlawful employee or temporary worker to work in the employer’s service, takes an action with the intention of preventing or hindering the employee or worker from—

(i) leaving the employer’s service; or
(ii) leaving New Zealand; or
(iii) ascertaining or seeking his or her entitlements under the law of New Zealand; or
(iv) disclosing to any person the circumstances of his or her work for the employer.

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1)(a), the following are questions of fact:

(a) whether a failure to pay to a person money payable under the Holidays Act 2003 is serious:
(b) whether a default under the Minimum Wage Act 1983 in respect of a person is serious:
(c) whether a contravention of the Wages Protection Act 1983 in respect of a person is serious.

(3) For the purposes of subsection (1)(a), the following matters may be taken into account in deciding whether a failure, default, or contravention is serious:

(a) the amount of money involved:
(b) whether it comprises a single instance or a series of instances:
(c) if it comprises a series of instances,—

(i) how many instances it comprises:
(ii) the period over which they occurred:

(d) whether or not it was intentional:
(e) whether the employer concerned has complied with the record-keeping obligations imposed by the Act concerned:
(f) any other relevant matter.”

“(4) The following are examples of actions of the kind referred to in subsection (1)(b):

(a) taking or retaining possession or control of a person’s passport, any other travel or identity document, or travel tickets:
(b) preventing or hindering a person from—

(i) having access to a telephone; or
(ii) using a telephone; or
(iii) using a telephone privately; or
(iv) leaving premises; or
(v) leaving premises unaccompanied:

(c) preventing or hindering a labour inspector (within the meaning of the Employment Relations Act 2000) from entering or having access to any place or premises to which he or she is entitled to have access under any enactment.

(5) Subsection (4) does not limit subsection (1)(b).
(6) A charge alleging an offence against subsection (1) may specify any day on which it is alleged the person was working for the employer, and need not state the day on which that work is alleged to have commenced.
(7) For the purposes of this section, an employer is treated as knowing—

(a) that an employee is not entitled under this Act to do any particular work if, at any time in the preceding 12 months (whether before or after the commencement of this subsection) the employer has been informed of that fact in writing by an immigration officer; and
(b) that a worker holds a temporary entry class visa if, at any time in the preceding 12 months (whether before or after the commencement of this subsection) the employer has been informed of that fact in writing by an immigration officer.

(8) In this section, in relation to an employer,—
temporary worker means a person—

(a) who the employer knows holds a temporary entry class visa; or
(b) who holds a temporary entry class visa and in respect of whom the employer is reckless as to whether or not the person holds a temporary entry class visa
unlawful employee means a person who undertakes work for the employer that—
(a) the employer knows, under this Act, the person is not entitled to undertake; or
(b) the person is, under this Act, not entitled to undertake and in respect of which the employer is reckless as to whether or not the person is entitled to undertake the work.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Education Act, 1989

“30. Employment of school-age children
(1) No person shall employ any person who has not turned 16 at any time—

(a) within school hours; or
(ab) in the case of a person who is a student participating in a secondary-tertiary programme, when the employment interferes with the person’s ability to undertake the secondary-tertiary programme; or
(b) in the case of a person enrolled at a correspondence school, when the employment interferes with the person’s ability to do the work of the course in which the student is enrolled; or
(c) in the case of a person who has been granted a certificate of exemption under section 21, when the employment interferes with the person’s ability to be taught as well and regularly as in a registered school; or
(d) if the employment then—

(i) prevents or interferes with the person’s attendance at school; or
(ia) in the case of a person who is a participating student, interferes with the person’s ability to undertake his or her secondary-tertiary programme; or
(ii) in the case of a person enrolled at a correspondence school, interferes with the person’s ability to do the work of the course in which the person is enrolled,—
unless there has been produced to the employer a certificate of exemption, or other satisfactory evidence that the person is exempted (otherwise than under section 21(1)) from enrolment at any school.

(2) Every person who—

(a) being a parent of any other person, permits the other person to be employed contrary to subsection (1); or
(b) employs any other person in contravention of the subsection,—
commits an offence, and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $1,000.”

Health and Safety at Work (General Risk and Workplace Management) Regulations, 2016

“43 Duty to ensure young persons do not carry out certain work
(1) A PCBU must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that no worker aged under 15 years carries out the following types of work:

(a) the manufacture or preparation of goods for trade or sale:
(b) construction work:
(c) logging or tree-felling:
(d) the manufacture, use, or generation of hazardous substances:
(e) any other work of a type that is likely to cause harm to the health and safety of a person aged under 15 years.

(2) Subclause (1) does not apply in relation to a worker aged under 15 years who is carrying out administrative or retail work in a business or undertaking that does work of a type specified in any of paragraphs (a) to (e) of subclause (1).
(3) A PCBU who contravenes subclause (1) commits an offence and is liable on conviction,—

(a) for an individual, to a fine not exceeding $10,000:
(b) for any other person, to a fine not exceeding $50,000.”

“44 General duties relating to young persons at workplace
(1) A PCBU with management or control of a workplace must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that no person aged under 15 years is present in any area of the workplace at any time when—

(a) goods are being prepared or manufactured in that area for trade or sale:
(b) construction work is being carried out in that area:
(c) a logging operation or tree-felling operation is being carried out in that area:
(d) work involving the manufacture, use, or generation of hazardous substances is being carried out in that area:
(e) any work is being carried out in that area that is likely to cause harm to the health and safety of a person aged under 15 years.

(2) Subclause (1) does not apply in relation to a person aged under 15 years who is present at all times—

(a) in any part of that area to which the public generally has access; or
(b) under the direct and active supervision of an adult in that area that is appropriate to the age of the young person and the nature of the risks present in the workplace; or
(c) on a guided tour of that area; or
(d) in any part of that area that is used only for selling goods or services.

(3) A PCBU who contravenes subclause (1) commits an offence and is liable on conviction,—

(a) for an individual, to a fine not exceeding $10,000:
(b) for any other person, to a fine not exceeding $50,000.”

“45 Duty to ensure young persons do not perform harmful tasks
(1) A PCBU with management or control of a workplace must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that no worker aged under 15 years is required to lift any weight or to perform any task if lifting the weight or performing the task would be likely to be harmful to the worker’s health.
(2) A PCBU who contravenes this regulation commits an offence and is liable on conviction,—

(a) for an individual, to a fine not exceeding $10,000:
(b) for any other person, to a fine not exceeding $50,000.”

Penalties, Worst Forms of Child Labour

Crimes Act 1961 (No. 43 of 1961).

“98AA Dealing in people under 18 for sexual exploitation, removal of body parts, or engagement in forced labour
(1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who—

(a) sells, buys, transfers, barters, rents, hires, or in any other way enters into a dealing involving a person under the age of 18 years for the purpose of—

(i) the sexual exploitation of the person; or
(ii) the removal of body parts from the person; or
(iii) the engagement of the person in forced labour; or

(b) engages a person under the age of 18 years in forced labour; or
(c) permits a person under the age of 18 years to be engaged in forced labour; or
(d) detains, confines, imprisons, or carries away a person under the age of 18 years for the purpose of—

(i) the sexual exploitation of the person; or
(ii) the removal of body parts from the person; or
(iii) the engagement of the person in forced labour; or

(e) removes, receives, transports, imports, or brings into any place a person under the age of 18 years for the purpose of—

(i) the sexual exploitation of the person; or
(ii) the removal of body parts from the person for a material benefit; or
(iii) the engagement of the person in forced labour; or

(f) induces a person under the age of 18 years to sell, rent, or give himself or herself for the purpose of—

(i) the sexual exploitation of the person; or
(ii) the removal of body parts from the person for a material benefit; or
(iii) the engagement of the person in forced labour; or

(g) induces a person to sell, rent, or give another person (being a person who is under the age of 18 years and who is dependent on him or her or in his or her charge) for the purpose of—

(i) the sexual exploitation of the other person; or
(ii) the removal of body parts from the other person; or
(iii) the engagement of the other person in forced labour; or

(h) builds, fits out, sells, buys, transfers, rents, hires, uses, provides with personnel, navigates, or serves on board a ship, aircraft, or other vehicle for the purpose of doing an act stated in any of paragraphs (a) to (g); or
(i) agrees or offers to do an act stated in any of paragraphs (a) to (h).

(2) It is a defence to a charge under this section if the person charged proves that he or she believed on reasonable grounds that the person under the age of 18 years concerned was of or over the age of 18 years.
(3) For the purposes of subsection (1), sexual exploitation, in relation to a person, includes the following acts:

(a) the taking by any means, or transmission by any means, of still or moving images of the person engaged in explicit sexual activities (whether real or simulated):
(b) the taking by any means or transmission by any means, for a material benefit, of still or moving images of the person’s genitalia, anus, or breasts (not being an act described in subsection (4) or subsection (5)):
(c) the person’s participation in a performance or display (not being an act described in subsection (4)) that—

(i) is undertaken for a material benefit; and
(ii) involves the exposure of the person’s genitalia, anus, or breasts:

(d) the person’s undertaking of an activity (for example, employment in a restaurant) that—

(i) is undertaken for a material benefit; and
(ii) involves the exposure of the person’s genitalia, anus, or breasts.

(4) For the purposes of paragraphs (b) and (c) of subsection (3), sexual exploitation, in relation to a person, does not include the recording or transmission of an artistic or cultural performance or display honestly undertaken primarily for purposes other than the exposure of body parts for the sexual gratification of viewers.
(5) For the purposes of subsection (3)(b), sexual exploitation, in relation to a person, does not include the taking or transmission of images of the person’s genitalia, anus, or breasts for the purpose of depicting a medical condition, or a surgical or medical technique, for the instruction or information of health professionals.
(6) For the purposes of subsection (3)(b), sexual exploitation, in relation to a person, does not include the taking or transmission of images of the person’s genitalia, anus, or breasts if the images are honestly intended—

(a) to provide medical or health education; or
(b) to provide information relating to medical or health matters; or
(c) to advertise a product, instrument, or service intended to be used for medical or health purposes.

(7) The person under the age of 18 years in respect of whom an offence against this section was committed cannot be charged as a party to the offence.
(8) This section does not limit or affect the generality of section 98.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Crimes Act 1961 (No. 43 of 1961).

“98D Trafficking in persons
(1) Every person is liable to the penalty stated in subsection (2) who arranges, organises, or procures—

(a) the entry of a person into, or the exit of a person out of, New Zealand or any other State—

(i) for the purpose of exploiting or facilitating the exploitation of the person; or
(ii) knowing that the entry or exit of the person involves 1 or more acts of coercion against the person, 1 or more acts of deception of the person, or both; or

(b) the reception, recruitment, transport, transfer, concealment, or harbouring of a person in New Zealand or any other State—

(i) for the purpose of exploiting or facilitating the exploitation of the person; or
(ii) knowing that the reception, recruitment, transport, transfer, concealment, or harbouring of the person involves 1 or more acts of coercion against the person, 1 or more acts of deception of the person, or both.

(2) The penalty is imprisonment for a term not exceeding 20 years, a fine not exceeding $500,000, or both.
(3) Proceedings may be brought under this section even if—

(a) parts of the process by which the person was exploited, coerced, or deceived were accomplished without an act of exploitation, coercion, or deception:
(b) the person exploited, coerced, or deceived—

(i) did not in fact enter or exit the State concerned; or
(ii) was not in fact received, recruited, transported, transferred, concealed, or harboured in the State concerned.

(4) For the purposes of this section, exploit, in relation to a person, means to cause, or to have caused, that person, by an act of deception or coercion, to be involved in—

(a) prostitution or other sexual services:
(b) slavery, practices similar to slavery, servitude, forced labour, or other forced services:
(c) the removal of organs.”

“98E Aggravating factors
(1) When determining the sentence to be imposed on, or other way of dealing with, a person convicted of an offence against section 98C or section 98D, a court must take into account—

(a) whether bodily harm or death (whether to or of a person in respect of whom the offence was committed or some other person) occurred during the commission of the offence:
(b) whether the offence was committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, an organised criminal group (within the meaning of section 98A(2)):
(c) whether a person in respect of whom the offence was committed was subjected to inhuman or degrading treatment as a result of the commission of the offence:
(d) if during the proceedings concerned the person was convicted of the same offence in respect of 2 or more people, the number of people in respect of whom the offence was committed.

(2) When determining the sentence to be imposed on, or other way of dealing with, a person convicted of an offence against section 98D, a court must also take into account—

(a) whether a person in respect of whom the offence was committed was subjected to exploitation (for example, sexual exploitation, a requirement to undertake forced labour, or the removal of organs) as a result of the commission of the offence:
(b) the age of the person in respect of whom the offence was committed and, in particular, whether the person was under the age of 18 years:
(c) whether the person convicted committed the offence, or took actions that were part of it, for a material benefit.

(3) The examples in paragraph (a) of subsection (2) do not limit the generality of that paragraph.
(4) This section does not limit the matters that a court may take into account when determining the sentence to be imposed on, or other way of dealing with, a person convicted of an offence against section 98C or section 98D.”

Prostitution Reform Act, 2003 amend. Criminal Procedure Act, 2011

“Prohibitions on use in prostitution of persons under 18 years
23 Offence to breach prohibitions on use in prostitution of persons under 18 years
(1) Every person who contravenes section 20, section 21, or section 22 commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years.
(2) No person contravenes section 20 merely by providing legal advice, counselling, health advice, or any medical services to a person under 18 years of age.
(3) No person under 18 years of age may be charged as a party to an offence committed on or with that person against this section.”

Penalties, Slavery

Crimes Act 1961 (No. 43 of 1961).

“98 Dealing in slaves
(1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who, within or outside New Zealand,—

(a) sells, purchases, transfers, barters, lets, hires, or in any way whatsoever deals with any person as a slave; or
(b) employs or uses any person as a slave, or permits any person to be so employed or used; or
(c) detains, confines, imprisons, carries away, removes, receives, transports, imports, or brings into any place whatsoever any person as a slave or to be dealt with as a slave; or
(d) induces any person to sell, let, or give himself or herself, or any other person dependent on him or her or in his or her charge, as a slave; or
(e) in any case not covered by paragraph (d), induces any person to sell, let, or give any other person into debt-bondage or serfdom; or
(f) builds, fits out, sells, purchases, transfers, lets, hires, uses, provides with personnel, navigates, or serves on board any ship or aircraft for any of the purposes in paragraphs (a) to (e); or
(g) for gain or reward gives in marriage or transfers any woman to another person without her consent; or
(h) is a party to the inheritance by any person of a woman on the death of her husband; or
(i) being a parent or guardian of any child under the age of 18 years, delivers that child to another person with intent that the child or his or her labour shall be exploited; or
(j) agrees or offers to do any of the acts mentioned in this subsection.”

National Statistical Office

Statistics New Zealand

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

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