Data Dashboards

Nigeria Dashboard
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour between 2007 and 2011 decreased by 17%.

-17%

2007- 2011

Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.527 (2015)

Mean School Years: 6 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

HDI Vulnerable Employment: No data

Working Poverty Rate: 43.4% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2002
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2001
Social Protections Coverage

General (at least one): 4.4% (2016)

Unemployed: 0% (2016)

Pension: 7.8% (2016)

Vulnerable: 0.2% (2016)

Children: No data

Disabled: 0.1% (2016)

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Nigeria, the percentage of child labourers has decreased overall between 2007 and 2011. Only the measure provided for 2010 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007, 2010 and 2011.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Nigeria, the latest estimates show that 0.3 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2011. The number has increased from 0.2 percent of children aged 5-14 engaged in hazardous work in 2007. Only the measure provided for 2010 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007, 2010 and 2011.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Nigeria, the latest estimates show that 0.8 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2011. The percentage has decreased from 0.9 percent of children aged 15-17 engaged in hazardous work in 2007. Only the measure provided for 2010 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007, 2010 and 2011. 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2011 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Nigeria was 7.4 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 30.5 hours in 2010.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007, 2010 and 2011.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2011, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 9.3 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2010, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 31.9.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007, 2010 and 2011.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week for children aged 5-14.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 7.8 hours per week according to the 2011 estimate. This estimate represents an increase in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2007, which found that children aged 5-14 in Nigeria worked an average of 7.5 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007 and 2011. 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Nigeria is from 2010. By the 2010 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Other Services sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Nigeria.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Nigeria.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data through their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Nigeria between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Nigeria is 0.527. This score indicates that human development is low.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Nigeria over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.”  However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases the vulnerability of individuals to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Nigeria.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

The Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition), Enforcement and Administration Act, 2003 as amended
Paragraph 81. In this Act:

“Forced Labour” includes work carried out as a result of deception, threat of or use of force, intimidation, physical or psychological or other harm;

Child Labour

Labour Act, 2004
59.1. No child shall:

a. be employed or work in any capacity except where he is employed by a member of his family on light work of an agricultural, horticultural or domestic character approved by the Minister; or
b. be required in any case to lift, carry or move anything so heavy as to be likely to injure his physical development.

59.2. No young person under the age of fifteen years shall be employed or work in any industrial undertaking: Provided that this subsection shall not apply to work done by young persons in technical schools or similar institutions if the work is approved and supervised by the Ministry of Education (or corresponding department of government) of a State.

59.3. A young person under the age of fourteen years may be employed only-

a. on a daily wage;
b. on a day-to-day basis; and
c. so long as he returns each night to the place of residence of his parents or guardian or a person approved by his parents or guardian: Provided that, save as may be otherwise provided by any regulations made under section 65 of this Act, this subsection shall not apply to a young person employed in domestic service.

59.4. No young person under the age of sixteen years shall be employed in circumstances in which it is not reasonably possible for him to return each day to the place of residence of his parent or guardian except-

a. with the approval of an authorized labour officer; and
b. on a written contract (which, notwithstanding any law to the contrary, shall not be voidable on the ground of incapacity to contract due to infancy) conforming with Part I of this Act: Provided that, save as may be otherwise provided by any regulations made under section 65 of this Act, this subsection shall not apply to a young person employed in domestic service.

59.5. No young person under the age of sixteen years shall be employed-

a. to work underground; or
b. on machine work; or
c. on a public holiday.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Labour Act, 2004
59.6. No young person shall be employed in any employment which is injurious to his health, dangerous or immoral; and, where an employer is notified in writing by the Minister (either generally or in any particular case) that the kind of work upon which a young person is employed is injurious to the young person’s health, dangerous, immoral or otherwise unsuitable, the employer shall discontinue the employment, without prejudice to the right of the young person to be paid such wages as he may have earned up to the date of discontinuance

60. 1. Subject to this section, no young person shall be employed during the night.

60.2. Young persons over the age of sixteen years may be employed during the night in the following industrial undertakings or activities which by reason of the nature of the process are required to be carried on continuously day and night, that is to say-

a. in the manufacture of iron and steel, in processes in which reverberatory or regeneratory furnaces are used and in the galvanizing of sheet metal or wire (except the pickling process);
b. glass works;
c. manufacture of paper;
d. manufacture of raw sugar; and
e. gold mining reduction work.

60.3. Young persons over the age of sixteen may be employed during the night in cases of emergency which-

a. could not have been controlled or foreseen;
b. are not of a periodical character; and
c. interfere with the normal working of an industrial undertaking.

60.4. In this section, “night” means a period of at least twelve consecutive hours, including-

a. in the case of young persons under the age of sixteen years, the interval between ten o’clock in the evening and six o’clock in the morning; and
b. in the case of young persons over the age of sixteen years but under the age of eighteen years, a prescribed interval of at least seven consecutive hours falling between ten o’clock in the evening and seven o’clock in the morning.

60.5. For the purposes of subsection 4. b. of this section, the Minister may prescribe different intervals for different areas, industries, undertakings or branches of industries or undertakings, but shall consult the employers’ and workers’ associations or organizations concerned before prescribing an interval beginning after eleven o’clock in the evening

61.1. No young person under the age of fifteen years shall be employed in any vessel, except where-

a. the vessel is a school or training vessel and the work on which the
young person is employed is-

i. work of a kind approved by the Minister, and
ii. supervised by a public officer or by a public department; or

b. only members of the young person’s family are employed.

Child Rights Act, 2003

28.1. Subject to this Act, no child shall be—

a. subjected to any forced or exploitative labour ; or
b. employed to work in any capacity except where he is employed by a member of his family on light work of an agricultural, horticultural or domestic character ; or
c. required, in any case, to life, carry or move anything so heavy as to be likely to adversely affect his physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development ; or
d. employed as a domestic help outside his own home or family environment.

28.2. No child shall be employed or work in an industrial undertaking and nothing in this subsection shall apply to work done by children in technical schools or similar approved institutions if the work is supervised by the appropriate authority.

30.1. No person shall buy, sell, hire, let on hire, dispose of or obtain possession of or otherwise deal in a child.

30.2. A child shall not be used—

a.for the purpose of begging for alms, guiding beggars, prostitution, domestic or sexual labour or for any unlawful or immoral purpose ; or
b. as a slave or for practices similar to slavery such as scale or trafficking of the child, debt bondage or serfdom and forced or compulsory labour;
c. for hawking of goods or services on main city streets, brothels or highways ;
d. for any purpose that deprives the child of the opportunity to attend and remain in school as provided for under the compulsory, Free Universal Basic Education Act ;
e. procured or offered for prostitution or for the production of pornography or for any pornographic performance ; and
f. procured or offered for any activity in the production or trafficking of illegal drugs and any other activity relating to illicit drugs as specified in the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency Act.

Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999
18.3. The State shall direct its policy towards ensuring that-

f. children, young persons and the age are protected against any exploitation what over, and against moral and material neglect;

Trafficking in Persons

The Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition), Enforcement and Administration Act, 2003 as amended
81. In this Act “Trafficking or Traffic in Persons” shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, the abuse of power of a position of vulnerability or the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person or debt bondage for the purpose of placing or holding the person whether for or not in involuntary servitude (domestic, sexual or reproductive) in forced or bonded labour, or in slavery-like conditions, the removal of organs or generally for exploitative purposes;

13.1. All acts of human trafficking are prohibited in Nigeria.

13.2.i. Any person who recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives another person by means of –

a. threat or use of force or other forms of coercion;
b. abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability; or
c. giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation of that person, commits an offence

13.2.ii. For the purpose of subsection 2.i.b., abuse of a position of vulnerability includes intentionally using or otherwise taking advantage of an individual’s personal, situational or circumstantial vulnerability to recruit, transport, transfer, harbour or receive that person for the purpose of exploiting him or her, such that the person believes that submitting to the will of the abuser is the only real or acceptable option available to him or her and that this belief is reasonable in the light of the victim’s situation.

13.4.a. the consent of a victim of trafficking in person to the intended exploitation set forth in the definition of trafficking in persons in this Act, shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth in the definition has been used.

13.4.b. the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation, shall be considered trafficking in persons even if this does not involve any of the means set forth in the definition of trafficking in persons in this Act.

Slavery

Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999
34.1. Every individual is entitled to respect for the dignity of his person, and accordingly –

a. no person shall be subject to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment;
b.no person shall he held in slavery or servitude; and
c. no person shall be required to perform forced of compulsory labour.

34.2. for the purposes of subsection (1) (c) of this section, “forced or compulsory labour” does not include –

a. any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
b. any labour required of members of the armed forces of the Federation or the Nigeria Police Force in pursuance of their duties as such;
c. in the case of persons who have conscientious objections to service in the armed forces of the Federation, any labour required instead of such service;
d. any labour required which is reasonably necessary in the event of any emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community; or
e. any labour or service that forms part of –

i. normal communal or other civic obligations of the well-being of the community.
ii. such compulsory national service in the armed forces of the Federation as may be prescribed by an Act of the National Assembly, or
iii. such compulsory national service which forms part of the education and training of citizens of Nigeria as may be prescribed by an Act of the National Assembly.

The Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition), Enforcement and Administration Act, 2003 as amended
81. In this Act:

“Slave” means a person who is held in bondage whose life; liberty, freedom and property are under absolute control of someone;

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Child Labour

Child Rights Act, 2003

16.1. Every child who is in need of special protection measures has the right to such measure of protection as is appropriate to his physical, social, economic, emotional and mental needs and under conditions which ensure his dignity, promote his self-reliance and active participation in the affairs of the community.

16.2. Every person, authority, body or institution that has the care or the responsibility for ensuring the care of a child in need of special protection measures shall endeavour, within the available resources, to provide the child with such assistance and facilities which are necessary for his education, training, preparation for employment, rehabilitation, and recreational opportunities in a manner conducive to his achieving the fullest possible social integration and individual development and his cultural and moral development.

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

The Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition), Enforcement and Administration Act, 2003 as amended

12.4 The Counselling and Rehabilitation Department [of the NAPTIP] shall have responsibility for:

i. counselling, after care rehabilitation, social reintegration and education of trafficked persons;
ii. the promotion of the welfare of victims of trafficking in persons; and
iii. supporting, advising and facilitating access to legal aid services by victims.

61. The Agency shall ensure that:

a. a trafficked person is not subjected to discriminatory treatment on account of race, colour, gender, sex, age, language, religion, political or other opinion, cultural beliefs
or practices, national, ethnic or social origin, property, birth or other status, including his status as a victim of trafficking or having worked in the sex industry;
b. a trafficked person has access to adequate health and other social services during the period of temporary residence;
c. a trafficked person has access to the embassy or consulate of the country of which he is a citizen or where there is no embassy or consulate, have access to the diplomatic
representative of the State that takes charge of the country’s interest or any national to protect him;
d. a trafficked person is able to return home safely, if he wishes and when he is able to do so;
e. a trafficked person is not denied temporary residence visas during the pendency of any criminal, civil or other legal actions;
f. investigation, detection, gathering and interpretation of evidence are conducted in such a manner as to minimize intrusion into the personal history of a trafficked person;
g. the identity of a person trafficked is protected;
h. the use of any person’s history of being trafficked to discriminate or cause harm to such person, his family or his friends in any way whatsoever, particularly with regards
to freedom of movement, marriage or search for gainful employment is prohibited;
i. it takes steps to maintain and rehabilitate facilities provided for trafficked persons; and
j. a trafficked person and his family are protected from intimidation, threats, and reprisals from traffickers and their associates including reprisals from persons in position of authority.”

62. Where the circumstances so justify, trafficked persons shall not be detained or prosecuted for offences relating to being a victim of trafficking, including non-possession of valid travel document, use of a false travel or other document.

63. A victim of trafficking in person shall be provided with:

a. information on relevant Court and administrative proceedings;
b. assistance to enable the victim’s views and concerns to be presented and
considered at appropriate stages of criminal proceedings against the traffickers; and
c. counselling and information as regards victim’s legal rights in a language that the
victim can understand.

64.1. There shall be established for the Agency Transit Shelters which shall be managed and supervised as homes to cater for rescued trafficked persons particularly women and children.

64.2. The Transit Shelters shall be run by staff of the Agency with the aim of providing protection, assistance, counselling, rehabilitation and training for the rescued victims to facilitate their reintegration into the society.

65. 1. A trafficked person, irrespective of his immigration status is entitled to compensation, restitution and recovery for economic, physical and psychological damages which shall be assessed and paid out of forfeited assets of the convicted trafficker.

65.2. Where an offender is convicted of an offence under this Act, the Court may order the offender to pay compensation to the victim, in addition to any other punishment ordered by the Court.

65.3. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, a trafficked person has the right to institute civil action against a trafficker and any other person including a public officer who may have exploited or abused his person provided that the amount awarded by the Criminal Court shall be taken into consideration in the determination of the amount of compensation to be awarded in the civil suit.

67. 1. There is established for the Agency a Victims of Trafficking Trust Fund (in this Act referred to as “the Trust Fund”), into which shall be paid:

a. any grant and special intervention funds as may be provided by the Federal Government;
b. such monies as may be appropriated to meet the objectives of the Trust Fund by the National Assembly;
c. proceeds of the sale of assets and properties of convicted traffickers derived from acts which constitute an offence under this Act;
d. aids, grants, gifts, bequests, endowments, donations or assistance from local and international Agencies, non – Governmental organizations, other donor agencies, partners and the private sector;
e. any other moneys which may accrue to the Trust Fund from time to time.

67.2. The sources of monies referred to in paragraph d of subsection 1of this section shall be acceptable to the Trust Fund by the Agency except where the terms and conditions attached to the aid, grant, gift, bequest, endowment, donation or assistance are inconsistent with the objective of the Trust Fund or the provisions of this Act.

67.3. The Minister shall make regulations and issue guidelines for the management of the Fund established under subsection 1 of this section and related matters.

67.4. The Trust Fund shall be utilized:

i. to pay compensation, restitution and damages to trafficked persons;
ii. to fund victim support services for trafficked persons.

 

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Labour Act, 2004
73. 1. Any person who requires any other person, or l permits any other person to be required, to perform forced labour contrary to section 31.1.c. of the Constitution of, the Federal Republic of Nigeria shall be guilty of an offence and on conviction shall be liable to a fine not exceeding N1,000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding two years, or to both. 2. Any person who, being a public officer, puts any constraint upon the population under his charge or upon any members thereof to work for any private individual, association or company shall be guilty of an offence and on conviction shall be liable to a fine not exceeding N200 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding six months, or to both.

Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Act, 2004
64.1. Any person who employs a young person in contravention of sections 59 to 62 of this Act or any regulations made under section 63 of this Act, the proprietor, owner and manager of any
undertaking in which a young person is so employed and any parent or guardian of a young person who permits the young person to be so employed shall be guilty of an offence and on conviction shall be liable to a fine not exceeding N100.

Child Rights Act, 2003
28.1. Subject to this Act, no child shall be—

a. subjected to any forced or exploitative labour ; or
b. employed to work in any capacity except where he is employed by a member of his family on light work of an agricultural, horticultural or domestic character ; or
c. required, in any case, to life, carry or move anything so heavy as to be likely to adversely affect his physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development ; or
d. employed as a domestic help outside his own home or family environment.

28.2. No child shall be employed or work in an industrial undertaking and nothing in this subsection shall apply to work done by children in technical schools or similar approved institutions if the work is supervised by the appropriate authority.

28.3. Any person who contravenes any provision of Subsection (1) or (2) of this section commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding fifty thousand Naira or imprisonment for a term of five years or to both such fine and imprisonment.

28.4. Where an offence under this section is committed by a body corporate, any person who at the time of the commission of the offence was a proprietor, a director, general manager or other similar officer, servant or agent of the body corporate shall be deemed to have jointly and severally committed the offence and may be produced against and liable on conviction to a fine of two hundred and fifty thousand Naira.

29. The provisions relating to young persons in Sections 58, 59, 60, 61, 62 and 63 of the Labour Act shall apply to children under this Act.

30.1. No person shall buy, sell, hire, let on hire, dispose of or obtain possession of or otherwise deal in a child.

30.2. A child shall not be used—

a.for the purpose of begging for alms, guiding beggars, prostitution, domestic or sexual labour or for any unlawful or immoral purpose ; or
b. as a slave or for practices similar to slavery such as scale or trafficking of the child, debt bondage or serfdom and forced or compulsory labour;
c. for hawking of goods or services on main city streets, brothels or highways ;
d. for any purpose that deprives the child of the opportunity to attend and remain in school as provided for under the compulsory, Free Universal Basic Education Act ;
e. procured or offered for prostitution or for the production of pornography or for any pornographic performance ; and
f. procured or offered for any activity in the production or trafficking of illegal drugs and any other activity relating to illicit drugs as specified in the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency Act.

30.3. A person who contravenes the provisions of Subsection (1) of this section commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of ten years.

Penalties, General

The Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition), Enforcement and Administration Act, 2003 as amended
13. 1. All acts of human trafficking are prohibited in Nigeria.
13.2.i. Any person who recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives another person by means of:

a. threat or use of force or other forms of coercion;
b. abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability; or
c. giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation of that person, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 2 years and to a fine of not less than N250,000.00

13.3. A person who in or outside Nigeria directly or indirectly:

a. does, or threatens any act preparatory to or in furtherance of an act of trafficking in persons;
b. omits to do anything that is reasonably necessary to prevent an act of trafficking in persons;
c. assists or facilitates the activities of persons engaged in acts of trafficking in persons or is an accessory to any offence under this Act;
d. procures any other person by any means whatsoever to commit an offence under this Act;
e. participates as an accomplice in the commission of an offence under this Act; or
f. promises or induces any other person by any means whatsoever to commit any of the offences referred to in this Act; commits an offence under this Act and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 2 years and to a fine of not less than N250,000.00.

14. Any person who:

a.imports another person into Nigeria, knowing or having reason to know that the person will be forced or induced into prostitution or other forms of exploitation in Nigeria or while in transit; or
b. exports another person from Nigeria, knowing or having reason to know, that the person will be forced or induced into prostitution or other forms of exploitation in the country to which the person is exported or while in transit; commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 5 years and to a fine of not less than N1,000,000.00.

15. Any person who by the use of force, deception, threat, coercion, debt bondage (immediate or in the near future) or any means whatsoever:

a. causes or induces any person to be conveyed from his usual place of abode or from one place to another, knowing or having reason to know that such person is likely to be forced or induced into prostitution or other forms of exploitation with or by any person or an animal; or
b. keeps, detains or harbours any other person with intent, knowing or having reason to know that such a person is likely to be forced or induced into prostitution or other forms of exploitation with or by any person or an animal, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for not less than 5 years and to a fine of not less than N500,000.00.

16. 1. Any person who procures or recruits any person under the age of 18 years to be subjected to prostitution or other forms of exploitation with himself, any person or persons, either in Nigeria or anywhere else, commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 7 years and to a fine of not less than N1,000,000.00.

16.2. Any person who procures or recruits any person under the age of 18 years to be conveyed from his usual place of abode, knowing or having reasons to know that such a person may be subjected or induced into prostitution or other forms of exploitation in any place outside Nigeria, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 7 years and to a fine of not less than N1,000,000.00.

17. 1. Any person who:

a. procures, recruits, uses or offers any person under the age of 18 years for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances; or
b. allows a person under the age of 18 years to be harboured in a brothel, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 7 years and to a fine of not less than N1,000,000.00.

17.2. Notwithstanding the punishment prescribed in subsection 1. of this section, a convicted person under this Section shall in addition to the prescribed punishment be liable to a term of not less than 1 year imprisonment where he administered or stupefied the victim with any drug substance.

18. Any person, who organizes, facilitates or promotes foreign travels, which promote
prostitution or other forms of exploitation of any person or encourages such activity, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 7 years and to a fine of not less than N1,000,000.00.

19. Any person who traffics any person under the age 18 years for the purpose of forced or compulsory recruitment for use in armed conflict, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 7 years and to a fine of not less than N1,000,000.00.

20. 1. Any person who:

a. through force, deception, threat, debt bondage or any form of coercion-

i. abuses a position of power or situation of dominance or authority arising from a given circumstance; or
ii. abuses a vulnerable situation; or

b. through the giving or receiving of payments or benefits; in order to induce or obtain the consent of a person directly or through another person who has control over him;
enlists, transports, delivers, accommodates or takes in another person for the purpose of removing the person’s organs; commits an offence and is liable on conviction to
imprisonment for a term of not less than 7 years and to a fine of not less than N5,000,000.00.

20.2. Without prejudice to the provisions of subsection 1. of this section, a person who procures or offers any person, assists or is involved in anyway –

a. in the removal of human organs; or
b. buying and selling of human organs, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 7 years and to a fine of not less than N5,000,000.00.

20.3. Any person who enlists, transports, delivers, accommodates or takes in another person under the age of 18 years, for the purpose of removing the person’s organs, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 7 years and to a fine of not less than N5,000,000.00.

21. Any person who buys, sells, hires, lets or otherwise obtains the possession or disposal of any person with intent, knowing it to be likely or having reasons to know that such a person will be subjected to exploitation, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 5 years and to a fine of not less than N2,000,000.00.

22. Any person who:

a. requires, recruits, transports, harbours, receives or hires out a person to be used for forced labour within or outside Nigeria; or
b. permits any place or premises to be used for the purpose of forced labour,
commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 5 years and to a fine of not less than N1,000,000.00.

23.1. Any person who:

a. employs, requires, recruits, transports, harbours, receives or hires out, a child under the age of 12 years as a domestic worker, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a minimum term of 6 months and not exceeding 7 years;
b. employs, requires, recruits, transports, harbours, receives or hires out, a child to do
any work that is exploitative, injurious or hazardous to the physical, social and psychological development of the child, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a minimum term of 2 years but not exceeding 7 years without an option of fine.

23.2. Notwithstanding the punishment prescribed in subsection 1. of this Section, a convicted person under this section shall in addition to the prescribed punishment be liable to –

i. a term of not less than 2 years imprisonment where the child is denied payment or reasonable compensation for services rendered;
ii. a term of not less than 3 years where the child is defiled or inflicted with bodily harm.
Paragraph 24. Any person who recruits, imports, exports, transfers, transports, buys, sells, disposes or in any way traffics in any person as a slave or accepts, receives, detains or harbours a person as a slave, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 7 years and to a fine of not less than N2,000,000.00.

25. Any person who:

a. deals, keeps, receives or harbours any person for the purpose of holding or treating that person as a slave;
b. places, receives, harbours or holds any person as a pledge, pawn, in servitude or security for debt or benefits; whether due or to be incurred;
c. transports, transfers or in any way induces any person to come into Nigeria in order to hold, possess, deal or treat such person as a slave or to be used as a pledge or security for debt; and
d. enters into any contract or agreement with or without consideration for the purpose of doing or accomplishing any of the purposes enumerated in this section, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 7 years and to a fine of not less than N2,000,000.00

26. 1. Any person who knowingly, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly a financial or material benefit, procures the illegal entry of a person into a country of which the person is not a citizen or a permanent resident commits an offence, and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 5 years without an option of fine.

26.2. Any person who, intentionally in order to obtain a financial or material benefit from another person, engages in fraudulent acts or conducts purportedly for the purpose of procuring, facilitating or promoting the actual or intended entry into, transit across or stay in a country in which that other person is not a national or a permanent resident commits an offence, and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than 5 years without an option of fine and shall refund all monies fraudulently obtained from the victims.

26.3. For the purpose of subsection 1. of this section “illegal entry” shall mean crossing borders without complying with the necessary requirements for legal entry into the receiving State.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protections: General (at Least One)
Social Protections (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protections: Pension
Social Protections: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protections: Children
Social Protections: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Nigeria. If you are a representative of Nigeria and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us at info@delta87.org.