Data Dashboards

Oman
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.834 (2018)

Mean School Years: 9.7 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 2.6% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 0.1% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2005
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 24.7% (2010)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Oman.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Oman.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

 

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Oman.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Oman between 2000 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Oman is 0.834. This score indicates that human development is very high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Oman over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Oman showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Oman.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Labour Law, 2003

“Article (2):
The provisions of this law shall not apply to:
Members of the armed forces and public security organizations and employees of the state administrative apparatus and other government units.
Members of the employers family who are dependent upon him.
Domestic servants working inside houses or outside houses such as a driver, maid and a cook and those with similar jobs. The Minister shall by his decision issue the rules and terms of work relating to these categories.

Article (3):
Any condition which is contrary to the provisions of this law shall be null and void even if it was prior to its operation unless the condition is of more benefit to the worker. Any release or settlement or waiver of rights arising out of this law shall be null and void if it is contrary to its provisions. Andy conditions prescribed by the laws, regulations and decisions which were in force at the date of coming into force of this law which are more advantageous to the worker shall continue to be enforced.”

“Article (3Bis):
The employer has no right to impose any form of compulsory or coercive work.”

Basic Statute of the State, 1996

“Article 12: The Social Principles:
-The State enacts Laws for the protection of the employee and the employer and regulates the relationship between them. Every citizen has the right to pursue the profession he chooses within the limits of the Law. It is not permitted to impose any compulsory work on anybody except by virtue of a law and only for rendering a public service and in return for a fair remuneration.”

Child Labour

Labour Law, 2003

“PART FIVE : Employment of Juveniles & Women
CH ONE : Employment of Juveniles
Article (75):
The employment of juveniles from both sexes or permission thereto to enter the places of work before they attain the age of fifteen is prohibited.
The aforesaid age may be raised by a decision of the Minister in respect of certain industries and works that so require.”

Sultani Decree 22/2014 Promulgating the Child Law, 2014

Article 46

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Labour Law, 2003

“””Article (76):

Juvenile employees who are less than eighteen years of age shall not be required to work between 6 pm an d6 am nor shall they be required to do actual work for a period exceeding six hours a day.

Juvenile employees shall not be caused to stay in the work place for more than seven continuous hours and the working hours shall be separated by one or more intervals for rest and meal taking the total of which shall not be les than one hour. Such interval or intervals shall be specified in such manner as to ensure that they do not work for more than four continuous hours.”””

Sultani Decree 22/2014 Promulgating the Child Law, 2014

Article 45

Human Trafficking

Royal Decree 126/2008 Promulgating the Law Combating Trafficking in Persons, 2008

“Article 1. In application of the provisions of this Law the following terms shall have the meanings indicated against each unless otherwise provided for in the text:
Minor : Any person, male or female under the age of 18. The age is considered in the Gregorian calendar.”

Article 2. Any person shall be deemed committing a human trafficking crime if they intentionally or for the purpose of exploitation: a. Use, transfer, shelter, or receive a person by coercion, under threat, trick, exploitation of position or power, exploitation of weakness, by use of authority over that person, or by any other illegal means directly or indirectly. b. Use, transfer, shelter or receive a minor, even if the means mentioned in the preceding paragraph are not used.

Slavery

Omani Criminal Code Issued by Sultani Decree No. 7/74, 1974

“Article 261 states that a term of from three to five years in prison shall be imposed on anyone who brings a person in a condition of involuntary servitude or slavery into or out of Oman, or in any way disposes of, receives, takes possession of or acquires that person or keeps him or her in that condition.”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, human trafficking

Royal Decree 126/2008 Promulgating the Law Combating Trafficking in Persons, 2008

“Article 5. In the investigation or trial of a human trafficking crime, the following procedures shall be taken:

a. A victim shall be informed of their legal rights in a language that they understand, and be given a chance to state their legal, physical, psychological and social status.
b. Where a victim is in need of special care or accommodation, they shall be presented to the entity concerned, and shall be, as the case may be, lodged in a medical or psychological rehabilitation centre, a welfare house or a housing centre.
c. A victim or witness shall be provided with protection as necessary.
d. By order of the Public Prosecution or a court, as the case may be, a victim or witness shall be allowed to stay in Oman if deemed necessary for investigation or trial.”

Article 17. A victim of trafficking in persons’ crime shall be exempted from the fees of the civil procedures they made to claim compensation for the damage caused by their exploitation in the crime of trafficking in persons.

“Article 22. A national committee called the ‘National Committee for Anti-trafficking in Persons’ shall be established by a council of ministers’ decision, and shall be chaired by a minister. Article 23. The Committee shall be responsible for the following:
4. Set up care and rehabilitation programmes to help the victims to integrate rapidly with the community.”

Policies for Assistance, General

Sultani Decree 22/2014 Promulgating the Child Law, 2014

X. Child Protection

Penalties
Penalties, Human Trafficking

Royal Decree 126/2008 Promulgating the Law Combating Trafficking in Persons, 2008

“Article 7. Without prejudice to secondary, additional or any more severe punishment stated in Oman Penal Code or any other law, the crimes mentioned herein shall be subject to the punishments stipulated herein.

Article 8. Whoever commits a human trafficking crime shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than three years and not more than 7 years, and a fine of not less than five thousand Rials and not more than one hundred thousand Rials.

Article 9. A human trafficking crime shall be punishable by imprisonment for not less than seven years and not more than15 years, and a fine of not less than ten thousand Rials and not more than one hundred thousand Rials in any of the following cases: a. Where the victim is a minor or one of special need. b. Where the culprit carries an arm. c. Where the crime has been committed by more than one person. d. Where the culprit is spouse of the victim, one of their ascendants, descendants, their guardian or has power over them, e. Where the crime is committed by an organized criminal group, or the culprit is a member thereof. f. Where the culprit is a public employee or being assigned to public service, and exploited their post in committing the crime. g. Where the crime is transnational. h. Where because of being exploited in the human trafficking crime the victim becomes mad, contracts AIDS, or suffers an untreatable psychological or organic disease. Whoever forms, establishes, organizes, manages, holds a leading position in or calls for membership of an organized criminal group, which trafficking in persons is its aim or one of its aims.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Law, 2003

Article 15. The attempt to commit a crime of trafficking in persons shall punishable by the punishment of a completed crime.

“Article (118): :

Violators of Chapter Five shall be punished by a fine of R.O. 500/-. The fine may be doubled according to the number of Women Jeureniles employed in violation the provisions. If the same incident is repeated after one year, the employer may be subject to maximum of one month imprisonment in addition to the fine.”

Penalties, Forced Labour

Labour Law, 2003

“Article (123): :

Failure to observe “” Article No. 3 [bis]”” will result in imprisonment of a maximum of one month and a fine of R.O. 500/- or either of them. The penalty will be doubled in case of recurrence.”

Penalties, General

Penal Code, 1974

“2. – Subjective competence
Article 8 – The Omani legislation shall be applicable to any Omani or foreign person, be it either offender, instigator or participant, who:
– Commits outside Oman a crime harmful to the state’s interior or foreign security;
– Forges the state seals or currency, or the Omani or foreign bonds circulated either by law or by custom in Oman;
– Kidnaps an Omani national, or trades or enslaves him.
These provisions shall not be applicable to a foreigner whose act is not infringing the rules of intemational law .”

Omani Criminal Code Issued by Sultani Decree No. 7/74, 1974

“Article 261 states that a term of from three to five years in prison shall be imposed on anyone who brings a person in a condition of involuntary servitude or slavery into or out of Oman, or in any way disposes of, receives, takes possession of or acquires that person or keeps him or her in that condition.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

The ILO measures social protections coverage through the Social Security Inquiry (SSI). Every two years, national governments, including responsible ministries, provide data to the SSI on social protections including coverage and expenditure.

There are no visualizations, as there is not a sufficient amount of data provided on social protections for the Arab States region.

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Oman. If you are a representative of Oman and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.