Data Dashboards

Pakistan
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour between 2000 and 2002 decreased by 9.7%

-9.7%

2000-2002

Best 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.55 (2015)

Mean School Years: 5.14 years (2014)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 61.2% (2005)

Working Poverty Rate: 7.6% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Not Signed
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No Data Available

Unemployed: No Data Available

Pension: 2.3% (2010)

Vulnerable: No Data Available

Children: No Data Available

Disabled: No Data Available

Poor: No Data Available

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 10-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes: 

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Pakistan, the percentage of child labourers aged 10-17, has decreased overall from 2000 to 2002. Only the measures provided for 2000 and 2002 cover the full definition of hazardous work for children aged 10-17, and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 10-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2002, 2004, 2007-2011 and 2013-2015.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 10-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Pakistan, estimates show that 4.7 percent of children aged 10-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2002. The number is lower than the estimate of 5.1 percent of children aged 10-17 engaged in hazardous work in 2000. Only the measures provided for 2000 and 2002 cover the full definition of hazardous work for children aged 10-17 and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 10-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2002, 2004, 2007-2011 and 2013-2015.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)). 

 In Pakistan, the latest estimates show that 16.7 of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2002. The percentage is lower than the estimates of 7 percent of children aged 15-17 engaged in hazardous work in 2000. Only the measures provided for 2000 and 2002 cover the full definition of hazardous work for children aged 15-17 and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2002, 2004, 2007-2011 and 2013-2015.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 10-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2015 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 10-14 in Pakistan was  31.9 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 33.3 hours in 2014.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 10-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2002, 2004, 2007-2011 and 2013-2015. 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 10-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2015, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 32.7 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2014, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 34.3. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 10-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2002, 2004, 2007-2011 and 2013-2015. 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 10-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for children aged 10-17 in Pakistan is from 2015. By the 2015 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants Other Services sector.

The chart to the left displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region. 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 10-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 10-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Pakistan.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Pakistan.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Pakistan between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Pakistan is 0.55. This score indicates that human development is low.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Pakistan over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1995 and 2005, Pakistan showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants. 

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

 As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Pakistan.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour
Constitution, 1973

Slavery, forced labour, etc., prohibited
11. (1) Slavery is non-existent and forbidden and no law shall permit or facilitate its introduction into Pakistan in any form.
(2) All forms of forced labour and traffic in human beings are prohibited.
(3) No child below the age of fourteen years shall be engaged in any factory or mine or any other hazardous employment.
(4) Nothing in this Article shall be deemed to affect compulsory service
(a) by any person undergoing punishment for an offence against any law; or
(b) required by any law for public purpose:
Provided that no compulsory service shall be of a cruel nature or incompatible with human dignity.

Child Labour

Factories Act, 1934
2. Definitions. In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context.-

(a) “adolescent” means a person who has completed his fifteenth but has not completed his seventeenth year ;
(b) “adult” means a person who has completed his seventeenth year ;
(c) “child” means a person who has not completed his fifteenth year ;

Chapter V: Special Provisions for Adolescents and Children

50. Prohibition of employment of young children. No child who has not completed his [fourteenth] year shall be allowed to work in any factory.
51. Non-adult workers to carry tokens giving reference to certificates of fitness. No child who has completed his [fourteenth] year and no adolescent shall be allowed to work in any factory unless

(a) a certificate of fitness granted to him under section 52 is in the custody of the manager of the factory, and
(b) he carries while he is at work a token giving a reference to such certificate.

Mines Act, 1923
3.Definitions. In this Act unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,-

(c) Child means a person who has not completed his fifteenth year;

26. Children. No child shall be employed in a mine, or be allowed to be present in any part of a mine which is below ground.

Road Transportation Workers Ordinance, 1961
3. Age limit.

(1) No person, other than a driver, shall be employed in any road transport service unless he has attained the age of eighteen years.
(2) No person shall be employed in any road transport service for the purpose of driving a vehicle unless he has attained the age of twenty-one years.

West Pakistan Shops and Establishments Ordinance, 1969
2. Definitions.– In this Ordinance, unless the context otherwise requires–

(c) “child” means a person who has not completed his [fourteenth] year of age.
(y) “young person” means a person who is not a child and has not completed his seventeenth year of age.

20. Prohibition of employment of children.– No child shall be required or allowed to work in any establishment.

The Children (Pledging of Labour) Act, 1933
2. Definitions. In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context, “an agreement to pledge the labour of a child” means an agreement, written or oral, express or implied, whereby the parent or guardian of a child, in return for any payment or benefit received or to be received by him, undertakes to cause or allow the services of the child to be utilised in any employment: Provided that an agreement made without detriment to a child, and not made in consideration of any benefit other than reasonable wages to be paid for the child’s services, and terminable at not more than a week’s notice, is not an agreement within the meaning of this definition; “child” means a person who is under the age of fifteen years ; and “guardian” includes any person having legal custody of or control over a child.
3. Agreements contrary to the Act to be void. An agreement to pledge the labour of a child shall be void.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Employment of Children Act, 1991
2. Definitions. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,___

(i) “adolescent” means a person who has completed his fourteenth but has not completed his eighteenth year;
(iii) “child” means a person who has not completed his fourteenth year of age;

Part II: Prohibition of Employment of Children in children in Certain Occupations and Processes
3. Prohibition on employment. No child shall be employed or permitted to work in any of the occupations set forth in Part I of the Schedule or in any workshop wherein any of the processes set forth in Part II of that Schedule is carried on:
Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to an establishment wherein such process is carried on by the occupier with the help of his family or to any school established, assisted or recognized by Government.

THE SCHEDULE

Factories Act, 1934
54. Restrictions of the working hours of a child.
(1) No child shall be allowed to work in a factory for more than five hours in any day.
(2) The hours of work of a child shall be so arranged that they shall not spread over more than seven-and-a-half hours in any day.
(3) No child [or adolescent] shall be allowed to work in a factory except between 6 A. M. and 7 P.M. :
Provided that the [Provincial Government] may, by notification in the 3[official Gazette], in respect of any class or classes of factories and for the whole year or any part of it, vary these limits to any span of thirteen hours between 5 A. M. and 4[7-30 P.M.].
(4) The provisions of section 35 shall apply also to child workers, but no exemption from the provisions of that section may be granted in respect of any child.
(5) No child shall be allowed to work in any factory on any day on which he has already been working in another factory.

Mines Act, 1923
26B. Limitation of working hours for young persons.

Constitution, 1973
Slavery, forced labour, etc., prohibited
11. (1) Slavery is non-existent and forbidden and no law shall permit or facilitate its introduction into Pakistan in any form.
(2) All forms of forced labour and traffic in human beings are prohibited.
(3) No child below the age of fourteen years shall be engaged in any factory or mine or any other hazardous employment.

Human Trafficking

Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance, 2002
2. Definition—In this Ordinance, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,—

(b) “child” means any person who has not attained the age of eighteeen years;
(h) “human trafficking” means obtaining, securing, selling, purchasing, recruiting, detaining, harbouring or receiving a person, notwithstanding his implicit or explicit consent, by the use of coercion, kidnapping, abduction, or by giving or receiving any payment or benefit, or sharing or receiving a share for such person’s subsequent transportation out of or into Pakistan by any means whatsoever for any of the purposes mentioned in section 3;

Constitution, 1973
Slavery, forced labour, etc., prohibited
11. (1) Slavery is non-existent and forbidden and no law shall permit or facilitate its introduction into Pakistan in any form.
(2) All forms of forced labour and traffic in human beings are prohibited.
(3) No child below the age of fourteen years shall be engaged in any factory or mine or any other hazardous employment.

Slavery

Constitution, 1973
Slavery, forced labour, etc., prohibited
11. (1) Slavery is non-existent and forbidden and no law shall permit or facilitate its introduction into Pakistan in any form.
(2) All forms of forced labour and traffic in human beings are prohibited.
(3) No child below the age of fourteen years shall be engaged in any factory or mine or any other hazardous employment.

Bonded Labour

Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1992
2. Definitions. In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,—

(c) “bonded labour” means any labour or service rendered under the bonded labour system ;
(d) “bonded labourer” means a labour who incurs, or has, or is presumed to have, incurred, a bonded debt;
(e) “bonded labour system” means the system of forced, or partly forced, labour under which a debtor enters, or has, or is presumed to have, entered into an agreement with the creditor to the effect that,—

(i) in consideration of advance (peshgi) obtained by him or by any of the members of his family [whether or not such advance (peshgi) is evidence by any document] and in consideration of the interest, if any, due on such advance (peshgi), or
(ii) in pursuance of any customary or social obligation, or
(iii) for any economic consideration received by him or by any of the members of his family ;
he would—

(1) render, by himself or through any member of his family, or any person dependent on him, labour or service to the creditor, or for the benefit of the creditor, for a specified period or for an unspeci- fied period, either without wages or for nominal wages, or
(2) forfeit the freedom of employment or adopting other means of livelihood for a specified period or for an unspecified period, or
(3) forfeit the right to move freely from place to place, or
(4) forfeit the right to appropriate or sell at market value any of his properly or product of his labour or the labour of a member of his family or any person dependent on him,
and includes the system of forced, or partly forced, labour under which a surety for a debtor enters, or has or is presumed to have, entered, into an agreement with the creditor to the effect that, in the event of the failure of the debtor to repay the debt, he would render the bonded labour on behalf of the debtor ;

4. Abolition of bonded labour system.—

(1) On the commencement of this Act, the bonded labour system shall stand abolished and every bonded labourer shall stand freed and discharged from any obligation to render any bonded labour.
(2) No person shall make any advance under, or in pursuance, of, the bonded labour system or compel any person to render any bonded labour or other form of forced labour.

5. Agreement, custom, etc., to be void. Any custom or tradition or practice or any contract, agreement or other instrument, whether entered into or executed before or after the commencement of this Act, by virtue of which any person, or any member of his family, is required to do any work or render any service as a bonded labourer, shall be void and inoperative.
6. Liability to repay bonded debt to stand extinguished. — (1) On the commencement of this Act, every obligation of a bonded labourer to repay any bonded debt, or such part of any bonded debt as remains unsatisfied immediately before such commencement, shall stand extinguised.

(2) After the commencement of this Act, no suit or other proceeding shall lie in any civil court, tribunal or before any other authority for the recovery of any bonded debt or any part thereof.
(3) Every decree or order for the recovery of bonded debt, passed before the commencement of this Act and not fully satisfied before such commencement, shall be deemed, on such commencement, to have been fully satisfied.
(4) Where, before the commencement of this Act, possession of any property belonging to a bonded labourer or a member of his family was forcibly taken by any creditor for the recovery of any bonded debt, such property shall be restored, within ninety days of such commencement, to the possession of the person from whom it was sized.
(5) Every attachment made before the commencement of this Act for the recovery of any bonded debt shall, on such commencement, stand vacated; and, where, in pursuance of such attachment, any movable property of the bonded labourer was seized and removed from his custody and kept in the custody of any court, tribunal or other authority pending sale thereof, such movable property shall restored, within ninety days of such commencement, to the possession of the bonded labourer :
Provided that, where any attached property was sold before the commencement of this Act, in execution of a decree or order for the recovery of a bonded debt such sale shall not be affected by any vision of this Act.
(6) Subject to the proviso to sub-section (5), any sale, transfer or assignment of any property of a bonded labourer made in any manner whatsoever before the commencement of this Act for recovery of bonded debt shall not be deemed to have created or transferred any right, or interest in or encumbrance upon any such property and such property shall be restored, within ninety days of such commencement, to the possession of the bonded labourer.
(7) If restoration of the possession of any property referred to in sub- section (4) or sub-section (5) or sub-section (6) is not made within ninety days from the commencement of this Act, the aggrieved person may, within such time as may be prescribed, apply to the prescribed authority for the restoration of the possession of such property and the prescribed authority may, after giving the creditor a reasonable opportunity of being heard, direct the creditor to retore to the applicant the possession of the said property within such time as may be specified in the order.
(8) An order made by any prescribed authority under subsection (7) shall be deemed to be an order made by a civil court and may be executed by the court of the lowest pecuniary jurisdiction within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the creditor voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain.
(9) Where any suit or proceeding for the enforcement of any obligation under the bonded labour system, including a suit or proceeding for the recovery of any advance (peshgi) made to a bonded labourer, is pending at the commencement of this Act, such suit or other proceeding shall, on such commencement, stand dismissed.
(10) On the commencement of this Act, every bonded labourer who has been detained in civil prison, whether before or after judgement, shall be released from detention forthwith.

Sardari

System of Sardari (Abolition) Ordinance, 1976
“An Ordinance to provide for the abolition of the system of Sardari and for matters ancillary thereto. A “Sardar”, “Tumandar” or chief of a tribe is a person who, under any custom or usage or otherwise could obtain free labour from other persons or compel them to work against their will.”

International Commitments
National Strategies

Provincial Plans of Action to Combat Child Labor
Detail how each province plans to revise child labor legislation, including by strengthening the capacity of labor inspectors, generating awareness of child labor, improving reporting, and computerizing labor inspection data. Research did not discover what steps were taken in 2017 to implement these plans.

Sindh and Punjab Provincial Plans of Action to Combat Bonded Labor
Detail how the Sindh and Punjab provinces plan to revise their bonded labor laws. Include plans to strengthen the capacity of labor inspectors, generate awareness of bonded labor, improve reporting, and computerize labor inspection data. Research did not discover what steps were taken in 2017 to implement these plans.

Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) Child Protection Policy
Describes how FATA will promote and create a protective environment for all children. Includes actions to be taken toward the prevention and elimination of child labor. Research did not discover what steps were taken in 2017 to implement this policy.

Punjab Labor Policy
Seeks to improve working conditions, eradicate child and bonded labor, and establish social safety for workers and their families. Includes the goal of ending all child labor in brick kilns, in addition to the construction of schools, hospitals, and residences for workers. Research did not discover what steps were taken in 2017 to implement this policy.

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1957

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratified 1960

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2006 (minimum age specified: 14 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratified 2001

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Accession 1955

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 1958

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Not signed

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratified 1990

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2016

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2011

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Penalties
Child Labour

Employment of Children Act, 1991
PART I V MISCELLANEOUS
(1) Whoever employs any child or permits any child to work in contravention of the provisions of section 3 shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to twenty thousand rupees or with both.
(2) Whoever, having been convicted of an offence under section 3, commits a like offence afterwards, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to two years.
(3) Whoever

(a) fails to give notice as required by section 9; or
(b) fails to maintain a register as required by section 11 or makes any false entry in any such register; or
(c) fails to display a notice; or
(d) fails to comply with or contravenes any provisions of this Act or the rules made thereunder.
shall be punishable with simple imprisonment which may extend to one month or with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees or with both

15. Modified application of Certain Laws in relation to Penalties.

(1) Where any person is found guilty and convicted of contravention of any of the provisions regarding children and adolescents mentioned in sub-section (2), he shall be liable to penalties as provided in subsections (1) and (2) of section 14 of this Act and not under other relevant Acts.
(2) The provisions mentioned in section (1) are the provisions regarding children and adolescents in the following Acts:

(a) The Mines Act, 1923.
(b) The Factories Act, 1934.
(c) The Shops and Establishments Ordinance, 1969.

Factories Act, 1934
CHAPTER VI PENALTIES AND PROCEDURE
60. Penalty for contraventions of Act and rules. If in any factory—

(e) any adolescent or child. is allowed to work in contravention of any of the provisions of sections 50, 51, 54, 55, 57 and 58, or
(f) there is any contravention of section 55 or section 56 or of any rules made under either of these sections, or under clause (d) of section 59, 1[or]
the manager and occupier of the factory shall each be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees :
Provided that if both the manager and the occupier are convicted, the aggregate of the fines inflicted in respect of the same contravention shall not exceed this amount.

61. Enhanced penalty in certain cases after previous conviction. If any Person who has been convicted at any offence punishable under clauses (b) to 3[(g)] inclusive of section 60 is again guilty of an offence Involving a contravention of the same provision, he shall be punishable on the second conviction with fine which may extend to seven hundred and fifty rupees and shall not be less than one hundred rupees, and if he is again so guilty, shall be punishable, on the, third or any subsequent conviction with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees and shall not be less than two hundred and fifty rupees:
Provided that for the purposes of this section no cognizance shall be taken of any conviction made more than two years before the commission of the offence which is being punished:
Provided further that the Court, if it is satisfied that there are exceptional circumstances warranting such a course, may, after recording its reasons writing, impose a smaller fine than is required by this section.

67. Penalty for using false certificate. Whoever knowingly uses or attempts to use, as a certificate granted to himself under section 52, a certificate granted to another person under that section, or who, having procured such a certificate, knowingly allows it to be, used or an attempt to use it to be made, by another person, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to twenty rupees.

68. Penalty on guardian for permitting double employment of a child. lf a child works in a factory on any day on which he has already been working in another factory, the parent or guardian of the child or the person having, custody of or control over him, or obtaining any direct benefit from his wages, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to twenty rupees, unless it appears to the Court that the child so worked without the consent, connivance or wilful default of such parent, guardian or person.

69. Penalty for failure to display certain notices. A manager of a factory who fails to display the notice required under sub-section (1) of section 76 or by any rule made under this Act, or to display or maintain any such notice as required by sub-section (2) of that section, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees.

72. Presumption as to employment. If a child over the age of six years is found inside any part of a factory in which children are working, he shall, until the contrary is proved, be deemed to be working in the factory.

73. Evidence as to age._

(1) When an act or omission would, if a person were under or over a certain age, be an offence punishable under this Act, and such person is in the opinion of Court apparently under or over such age, the burden shall be on the accused to prove that such person is not under or over such age.

(2) A declaration in writing by a certifying surgeon relating to a worker that he has personally examined him and believes him to be under or over the age set forth in such declaration shall, for the purposes of this Act, be admissible as evidence of the age of that worker.

Mines Act, 1923

37. Contraventions of provisions regarding employment of labour. Whoever save as permitted by section 25 contravenes any provision of this Act or of any regulation, rule or bye-law or any order made thereunder prohibiting, restricting or regulating the employment or presence of persons in or about a mine shall be punishable with fine which may extend to [one thousand] rupees.

Road Transportation Workers Ordinance, 1961
11. Penalties. Whoever contravenes any of the provisions of this Ordinance, or any of the rules made thereunder, shall be [punishable]

(a) for the first offence, with fine not exceeding one thousand rupees ; and
(b) for every subsequent offence, with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, and fine not exceeding one thousand rupees.]

Provided that

(a) in the case of any contravention of the provisions of section 8, the employer shall be liable, on conviction, to a fine not exceeding ten rupees for every day on which the contravention occurs of continues, and
(b) if any employer, with intent to deceive, makes or causes or allows to be made in any record, register, notice or other documents as provided under section 8 an-entry which is to his knowledge false in any material particular, or wilfully omits or causes or allows to be omitted from any such record, register, notice or document an entry, required to be made therein, shall be liable on conviction 10,.simple imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees or both.

West Pakistan Shops and Establishments Ordinance, 1969
27. Penalties.

(1) If any employer, with intent to deceive, makes or causes or allows to be made, in any register, record or notice required to be maintained under the provisions of this Ordinance or the rules made thereunder, any entry, or wilfully omits or causes or allows to be omitted from any such register, record or notice, any entry which is required to be made thereunder, or maintains or causes or allows to be maintained more than one set of any such register, record or notice except the office copy of such notice, or sends or causes or allows to be sent to an Inspector any statement, information or notice required to be sent under the provisions of this Ordinance or the rules made thereunder, which to his knowledge is false in any material particulars, he shall, on conviction, be punished with fine which shall not be less than fifty rupees and which may extend to two hundred and fifty rupees.
(2) Whoever contravenes any of the provisions of section 6, 7, 19 or 20 shall, on conviction, be punishable with fine which for the first offence may extend to rupees two hundred and fifty, and for a second or subsequent offence with fine which may extend to rupees five hundred or with simple imprisonment which may extend to three months, or with both.

The children (Pledging of Labour) Act, 1933
4. Penalty for parent or guardian making agreement to pledge the labour of a child. Whoever, being the parent or guardian of a child, makes an agreement to pledge the labour of that child, shall be punished with fine which may extend to fifty rupees.
5. Penalty for making with a parent or guardian an agreement to pledge the labour of a child. Whoever makes with the parent or guardian of a child an agreement whereby such parent or guardian pledges the labour of the child shall be punished with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees.
6. Penalty for employing a child whose labour has been pledged. Whoever, knowing or having reason to believe that an agreement has been made to pledge the labour of a child, in furtherance of such agreement employs such child, or permits such child to be employed in any premises or place under his control, shall be punished with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees.

Penalties, Bonded Labour

Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1992
11. Punishment for enforcement of bonded labour. Whoever, after the commencement of this Act compels any person to render any bonded labour shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than two years nor more than five years, or with fine which shall not be less than fifty-thousand rupees, or with both.
12. Punishment for extracting bonded labour under the bonded labour system. Whoever enforces, after the commencement of this Act any custom, tradition, practice, contract, agreement or other instrument, by virtue of which any person or any member of his family is required to render any service under the bonded labour system, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than two years nor more than five years or with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees, or with both ; and out of the fine, if recovered, payment shall be made to the bonded labourer at the rate of not less than fifty rupees for each day for which bonded labour was extracted from him.
13. Punishment for omission or failure to restore possession of property to, bonded labourer. Whoever, being required by this Act to restore any property to the possession of any bonded labour, omits or fails to do so, within a period of ninety days from the commencement of this Act shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both ; and out of the fine, if recovered, payment shall be made to the bonded labourer at the rate of ten rupees for each day during which possession of the property was not restored to him.
14. Abetment to be an offence. Whoever abets any offence punishable under this Act shall, whether or not the offence abetted is committed, be punishable with the same punishment as is provided for the offence which has been abetted.
Explanation.—For the purpose of this section, “abetment” has the same meaning as is assigned to it in the Pakistan Penal Code (Act XLV of 1860).

18. Offences by companies.

 (1) Where an offence under this Act
has been committed by a company, every person who, at the time the offence was committed, was in charge of, and was responsible to, the company for the conduct of the business of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where any offence under this Act, has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of, or is attributable to, any neglect on the part of any director, manager or other officer of the company, such director, manager or other officer shall be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—
(a) “company” means any body corporate, and includes a firm or other association of individuals ; and
(b) “director”, in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm.

Human Trafficking

Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance, 2002
3. Punishment for human trafficking. —The human trafficking shall be punishable as under: –

(i) Whoever knowingly plans or executes any such plan for human trafficking into or out of Pakistan for the purpose of attaining any benefit, or for the purpose of exploitative entertainment, slavery or forced labour or adoption in or out of Pakistan shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to fine:
Provided that in case of an accused who, in addition to committing an offence as aforesaid has also been guilty of kidnapping or abducting or any attempt thereto in connection with such offence, the imprisonment may extend to ten years with fine:
Provided further that whoever plans to commit an offence under this clause but has not as yet executed the same shall be punishable with a term of imprisonment, which may extend to five years and shall also be liable to fine.
(ii) Whoever knowingly provides, obtains or employs the labour or services of a person by coercion, scheme, plan or method intended to make such person believe that in the event of non-performance of such labour or service, he or any other person may suffer from serious harm or physical restraint or legal proceedings, shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to fine:
Provided that if the commission of the offences under this clause involves kidnapping or abduction or any attempt thereto, the term of imprisonment may extend to ten years with fine:
Provided further that payment of any remuneration in lieu of services or labour of the victim shall not be treated as mitigating circumstance while awarding the punishment.
(iii) Whoever knowingly purchases, sells, harbours, transports, provides, detains or obtains a child or a woman through coercion, kidnapping or abduction, or by giving or receiving any benefit for trafficking him or her into or out of Pakistan or with intention thereof, for the purpose of exploitative entertainment by any person and has received or expects to receive some benefit in lieu thereof shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to ten years and shall also be liable to fine:
Provided that if the commission of the offence sunder this clause involves kidnapping or abduction or any attempt thereto of the victim, the term of imprisonment may extend to fourteen years with fine:
Provided further that plea, if any, taken by the biological parents of the child shall not prejudice the commission of offence under this clause.
(iv) Whoever knowingly takes, confiscates, possesses, conceals, removes or destroys any document related to human trafficking in furtherance of any offence committed under this Ordinance or to prevent or restrict or attempt to prevent or restrict, without lawful authority, a person’s liberty to move or travel shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to fine.

Penal Code, 1898
[369A. Trafficking of human beings.__ Whoever involves himself in human trafficking shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than five years and may extend upto seven years, or with fine which shall not be less than five hundred thousand rupees and may extend upto seven hundred thousand rupees, or with both.
Explanation.— The word “human trafficking” in this section, shall have the same meaning as is assigned to it in the Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance, 2002 (LIX of 2002).]

General

Penal Code, 1898
367. Kidnapping or abducting in order to subject person to grievous hurt, slavery, etc. Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be subjected, or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being subjected to grievous hurt, or slavery, or knowing it to be likely that such person will be so subjected or disposed of, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

370. Buying or disposing of any person as a slave. Whoever imports, exports, removes, buys, sells or disposes of any person as a slave, or accepts, receives or detains against his will any person as a slave, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

371. Habitual dealing in slaves. Whoever habitually imports, exports, removes, buys, sells, traffics or deals in slaves, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

374.

(1) Unlawful compulsory labour. Whoever unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.
(2) Whoever compels a prisoner of war or a protected person to serve in the armed forces of Pakistan shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year.
Explanation.__ In this section the expressions “prisoner of war” and “protected person” shall have the same meaning as have been assigned to them respectively by Article 4 of the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of prisoners of War of August 12, 1949, and Article 4 of the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of August 12, 1949, ratified by Pakistan on the second June, 1951.]

Foreigners Act, 1946
13B. Prohibition of employ an illegal entrant. No one shall knowingly employ or provide employment to a person who has no permission to stay in Pakistan
14. Penalties.—(1) where any person contravenes any provisions of this Act, or of any order made thereunder, or any direction given in pursuance of this Act or order, he shall, except as otherwise provided herein, be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine, and if such person has entered into a bond in pursuance of clause (f) of sub­section (2) of section 3, his bond shall be liable to be forfeited, and any person bound thereby shall be liable to pay the penalty thereof, or show cause to the satisfaction of the convicting court as to why such penalty should not be paid.
(2) Where any person knowingly enters into Pakistan illegally, he shall be guilty of an offence under this Act and shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years and fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees.

 

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (At Least One)
Social Protections (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployment
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Pakistan. If you are a representative of Pakistan and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.