Data Dashboards

Palau
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.814 (2018)

Mean School Years: 12.4 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data available

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2019
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2019
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 48.0% (2010)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Palau.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Palau.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Palau.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

 

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Palau between 2000 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Palau is 0.814. This score indicates that human development is very high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Palau over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Palau.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Child Labour

National Code Title 7: Admirality and Maritime

Ҥ 826. Minimum age at sea.
(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, persons under the age of sixteen (16) years shall not be employed or work on vessels of the Republic, except on vessels upon which only members of the same family are employed, school-ships or training ships; provided that such persons may occasionally take part in the activities on board such vessels during school holidays, subject to the conditions that the activities in which they are engaged:

(1) are not harmful to their health or normal development;
(2) are not such as to prejudice their attendance at school; and
(3) are not intended for commercial profit.

(b) The Master shall keep a register of all persons under the age of sixteen (16) years employed on board his vessel, as required by regulation.
(c) Persons under the age of eighteen (18) years shall not be employed or work on coal-burning vessels as trimmers or stokers.”

Complusory Education/National Code Title 22: Education

“§ 159. Attendance; parent’s or guardian’s penalty for child’s absence.
(a) Attendance at a public or nonpublic school shall be required of all children between the ages of 6 and 17, inclusive, or until graduation from high school, unless excluded from school or excepted from attendance by the Minister. For the purpose of beginning school, a child shall be admitted at the beginning of a school year if he has attained the age of 6 on or before September 30. To implement this provision, the Ministry shall provide compulsory education. The Board, in consultation with the Ministers of Education and Health, shall adopt health, safety and educational quality standards for all preschool and kindergarten education programs. The standards shall be adopted no later than June 1997. Thereafter the Ministries of Education and Health, and the Bureau of Public Works, shall conduct periodic inspections to ensure continuing compliance with the standards.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Anti-People Smuggling and Trafficking Act, 2005

Section 7. Offense of Trafficking in Children. Every person who knowingly or recklessly recruits, transports, transfers, harbors or receives a child by any means for the purposes of exploitation shall be guilty of trafficking in children and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $500,000, or imprisoned for not more than 50 years, or both.

Maritime Regulations, 2012

“7.3 Minimum Age
a) Prohibition
In relation to Section 826 of the Act, the employment, engagement or work on board a vessel of any person under the age of 16 shall be prohibited.
b) Night Work
Night work of a Seafarer under the age of 18 shall be prohibited. For the purpose of these Regulations, “night” shall be defined as the period starting at 2000 hrs and ending at 0600 hrs.
c) Night Work Exception
An exception to strict compliance with the night work restriction may be made by the Ship Registry Administrator when:

(1) the effective training of the Seafarer concerned, in accordance with established programmes and schedules, would be impaired; or
(2) the specific nature of the duty or a recognized training programme requires that the Seafarer covered by the exception perform duties at night and the Ship Registry Administrator determines, after consultation with the ship owners’ and seafarers’ organizations concerned, that the work will not be detrimental to their health or well-being.

d) Hazardous work
The employment, engagement or work of a Seafarer under the age of 18 shall be prohibited where the work is likely to jeopardize their health or safety. The types of such work shall be determined by Ship Registry Administrator, after consultation with the ship owners’ and seafarers’ organizations concerned, and promulgated by Marine Notice.”

People Trafficking

Anti-People Smuggling and Trafficking Act, 2005

“Section 2. Definitions:
(k) Trafficked person” means any person who is the victim or object of an act of people trafficking.”

Slavery

“National Code Title 1: General Provisions  Chapter 4 Trust Territory Bill of Rights, 1966″

Ҥ 402. Slavery and involuntary servitude.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist in the Trust Territory.”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

National Code Title 21: Domestic Relations

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Anti-People Smuggling and Trafficking Act, 2005

“Section 10. Immunity of Trafficked Person. A trafficked person shall not be subject to criminal prosecution with respect to:(a) The act of people trafficking; (b) That person’s illegal entry into the receiving country; (c) That person’s period of unlawful residence in the receiving country; and (d) That person’s procurement or possession of any fraudulent travel or identity documents which he or she obtained, or with which he or she was supplied, for the purpose of entering the receiving country.”

 

Penalties
Penalties, Human Trafficking

Anti-People Smuggling and Trafficking Act, 2005

“Section 6. Offense of People Trafficking. Every person who knowingly or recklessly recruits, transports, transfers, harbors or receives any person or persons for the purpose of exploitation by threat, use of force, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, shall be guilty of people trafficking, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined not more than $250,000, or imprisoned not more than 25 years, or both.
Section 7. Offense of Trafficking in Children. Every person who knowingly or recklessly recruits, transports, transfers, harbors or receives a child by any means for the purposes of exploitation shall be guilty of trafficking in children and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $500,000, or imprisoned for not more than 50 years, or both.
Section 8. Offense of Exploiting a Trafficked Person. Every person who knowingly or recklessly engages in participates in, or profits from the exploitation of a trafficked person shall be guilty of exploitation of a trafficked person and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $50,000, or imprisoned for not more than 10 years, or both.”

Penalties, General

National Code Title 17: Crimes

“Kidnaping
§ 1801. Defined; punishment.
§ 1801. Defined; punishment.
Every person who forcibly or fraudulently and deceitfully, and without authority by law, imprisons, seizes, detains, or inveigles away any person other than his or her minor child, with intent to cause such person to be secreted within the Republic against his or her will, or sent out of the Republic against his or her will, or sold or held as a slave or for ransom, shall be guilty of kidnaping, and upon conviction thereof shall be imprisoned not more than 15 years, or fined not more than $10,000, or both.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Palau. If you are a representative of Palau and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.