Data Dashboards

Papua New Guinea
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.543 (2018)

Mean School Years: 4.6 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 78.3% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 20.8% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Not Ratified
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 0.9% (2010)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Papua New Guinea.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Papua New Guinea.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Papua New Guinea.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Papua New Guinea between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Papua New Guinea is 0.543. This score indicates that human development is low. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Papua New Guinea over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

 

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Papua New Guinea showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

 

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Papua new Guinea.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution, 1975

“43. FREEDOM FROM FORCED LABOUR.
(1) No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
(2) In Subsection (1), ―forced labour does not include–

(a) labour required by the sentence or order of a court; or (b) labour required of a person while in lawful custody, being labour that, although not required by the sentence or order of a court, is necessary for the hygiene of, or for the maintenance of, the place in which he is in custody; or (c) in the case of a person in custody for the purpose of his care, treatment, rehabilitation or welfare, labour reasonably required for that purpose; or (d) labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such a member; or (e) subject to the approval of any local government body for the area in which he is required to work, labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic duties; or (f) labour of a reasonable amount and kind (including in the case of compulsory military service, labour required as an alternative to such service in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to military service) that is required in the national interest by an Organic Law that complies with Section 38 (general qualifications on qualified rights).”

Criminal Code, 1974 amend. Criminal Code (Amendment) Act, 2013

“208B. Interpretation. For the purposes of this Division-
“”forced labour”” means all work or services which are exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the person has not offered himself voluntarily;”

Child Labour

Employment Act No. 54, 1978

“18. CONTRACTUAL AGE.
Notwithstanding any other law but subject to this Act, any person 16 years of age or over may enter into a written contract of service.”

“Division 2. Young persons.
EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PERSONS.
(1) Subject to Subsections (2) and (3), a person under 16 years of age shall not be employed.
(2) Subject to Subsection (3), a person over 11 years of age but under 16 years of age may be employed if the employer first obtains–

(a) at the employer’s own expense, a certificate from a medical practitioner indicating that the person is fit for the type of employment proposed; and
(b) the written consent of his parent or guardian to the employment.

(3) Where the employment–

(a) is not prejudicial to attendance at school; and
(b) is outside the hours prescribed for attendance at school, and the employer has complied with Subsection (2), a person–
(c) who is over 11 years of age but under 16 years of age may be employed in an undertaking in which only members of his family are employed; and
(d) of 14 or 15 years of age may be employed in any industry other than an industrial undertaking or the fishing industry.

(4) Notwithstanding Subsection (3), a person of 14 or 15 years of age may be employed during the hours prescribed for attendance at school where the employer is satisfied that the person no longer attends school.”

Lukautim Pikinini (Child) Act, 2009

“2. INTERPRETATION.
In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears –
“”child”” means a person including a boy or girl child under the age o f 18 years;
“”child labour”” means work that deprives a child of his childhood, his potential and his dignity, and that is harmful to his physical and psychological development;”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Employment Act No. 54, 1978

“EMPLOYMENT UNDER INJURIOUS CONDITIONS.
(1) A person under 16 years of age shall not be employed in any employment or in any place or under working conditions that are injurious or likely to be injurious to the health of the person.
(2) The certificate of a medical practitioner shall be conclusive evidence as to whether the employment, place of employment or working conditions is or are injurious or likely to be injurious to the health of the person.
(3) An employer who employs a person under 16 years of age in any employment–

(a) that is injurious to health, dangerous or unsuitable; or
(b) concerning which he has been notified by the Secretary that it is injurious to health, dangerous or unsuitable,
is guilty of an offence.
Penalty: A fine not exceeding K500.00.

(4) Where the employment of a person under 16 years of age is discontinued under Subsection (3), he retains his right under the terms of his contract of service to be paid all wages due to him up to and including the date of discontinuance.”

“HOURS OF EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PERSONS.
(1) A person under 16 years of age shall not be employed between the hours of 6 p.m. and 6 a.m.

(2) A person 16 or 17 years of age shall not be employed between the hours of 6 p.m. and 6 a.m, except in an undertaking in which only members of his family are employed.”

Lukautim Pikinini (Child) Act, 2009

“54. Child Labour
(1) A person who causes or permits a child to be engaged in employment-

(a) in conditions that are likely to be hazardous to the child; or
(b) that interferes with the child’s education; or
(c) that is harmful to the safety, health or physical, mental, spiritual or social development of the child,
is guilty of an offence. “

Human Trafficking

Criminal Code, 1974 amend. Criminal Code (Amendment) Act, 2013

208C. Trafficking in Persons

Slavery

Criminal Code, 1974 amend. Criminal Code (Amendment) Act, 2013

“208B. Interpretation. For the purposes of this Division-
Slavery or practices similar to slavery”” means the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised and includes, but is not limited to, the following:

a. the selling, bartering or buying of a person without that person’s consent for value received or other consideration; or
b. the selling, bartering or buying of a person under the age of 18 against the best interest of that person, for value received or other consideration; or
c. the status of debt bondage intended as the condition of a person who has no real or acceptable alternative but to provide labour or personal services or those of a person under his control to repay a debt, if the value of those services or labour, as reasonably assessed, is not applied towards the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services or labour are not limited and proportionate to the debt; or
d. the status of domestic servitude intended as the condition of a person who is fored, by physical or psychological coercion, to work without any real financial regard, deprived of liberty and in a situation contrary to human dignity”

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1976

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1976

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2000 (minimum age specified: 16 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2000

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Accession 1982

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Not signed

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Not signed

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratification 1993

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Not signed

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Not signed

National Action Plans, National Strategies

National Action Plan to Eliminate Child Labor in Papua New Guinea (2017–2020)

Promotes government coordination to eliminate the worst forms of child labor through more effective prevention, protection, rehabilitation, and reintegration measures and capacity building.

Papua New Guinea Trafficking in Persons National Action Plan (2015–2020)

Seeks to prevent human trafficking, protect victims, and prosecute offenders.

Universal Basic Education Plan (2010-2019)

Promotes enrollment of children in school and aims to improve retention rates to ensure children receive 9 years of basic education.

Tuition Fee-Free Policy

Aims to improve access to education by abolishing school fees in grades 1 through 10 and providing subsidies for students in grades 11 and 12.

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Lukautim Pikinini (Child) Act, 2009

Criminal Code, 1974 amend. Criminal Code (Amendment) Act, 2013

206I. Assistance to and Protection of Smuggled Persons

Policies for assistance, human trafficking

Criminal Code, 1974 amend. Criminal Code (Amendment) Act, 2013

“208F Immunity from Criminal Prosecution
208G. Assistance to and Protection of Trafficked Persons”

 

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Employment Act No. 54, 1978

“EMPLOYMENT UNDER INJURIOUS CONDITIONS.
(1) A person under 16 years of age shall not be employed in any employment or in any place or under working conditions that are injurious or likely to be injurious to the health of the person.
(2) The certificate of a medical practitioner shall be conclusive evidence as to whether the employment, place of employment or working conditions is or are injurious or likely to be injurious to the health of the person.
(3) An employer who employs a person under 16 years of age in any employment–

(a) that is injurious to health, dangerous or unsuitable; or
(b) concerning which he has been notified by the Secretary that it is injurious to health, dangerous or unsuitable,
is guilty of an offence.
Penalty: A fine not exceeding K500.00.

(4) Where the employment of a person under 16 years of age is discontinued under Subsection (3), he retains his right under the terms of his contract of service to be paid all wages due to him up to and including the date of discontinuance.”

Lukautim Pikinini (Child) Act, 2009

“54. Child Labour
(1) A person who causes or permits a child to be engaged in employment-

(a) in conditions that are likely to be hazardous to the child; or
(b) that interferes with the child’s education; or
(c) that is harmful to the safety, health or physical, mental, spiritual or social development of the child,
is guilty of an offence.
Penalty: a fine not exceeding K5,000.00 or imprisonemnt for a term not exceeding five years, or both.

(2) A parent or a person, having the care of a child, who aids or abets a person in the contravention of Subsection (1), is guilty of an offence.
Penalty: A fine not exceeding K5,000.00 or imprisonement for a term not exceeding five years , or both.

(3) An employer or company who causes or permits a child to be enegaged in harmful child labour or employment is guilty of an offence.
Penalty: Where-

(a) the employer is an indvidiual, a fine not exceeding K5,00000 oor imprisonement for a term not exceeding five years, or both; or
(b) the employer is a coporation, a fine not exceeding K10,000.00″

Penalties, General

Employment Act No. 54, 1978

“Division 2. General.
11. CONTRACTS OF EMPLOYMENT.
(1) A person who–

(a) employs any person; or
(b) accepts or remains in employment,
otherwise than in accordance with this Act, is guilty of an offence.
Penalty: A fine not exceeding K300.00.

(2) It is a defence to a charge for an offence against Subsection (1) if the defendant proves that he believed on reasonable grounds that the employment or proposed employment was not contrary to this Act.
(3) Where a contract is made outside the country, relating to employment within the country, this Act applies to that contract as if it had been made in the country.
(4) Every term or condition of a contract of service, whether made before or after the commencement date, which provides a condition of employment that is less favourable to an employee than any of the conditions of employment prescribed by this Act is void to the extent that it is less favourable.
12. CONTRACTS NOT BINDING ON FAMILY OF EMPLOYEE.
Subject to Section 30, a contract of service is not binding on all or any of the members of the family of an employee.”

Lukautim Pikinini (Child) Act, 2009

83. Sale of Child

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Criminal Code, 1974 amend. Criminal Code (Amendment) Act, 2013

“208C. Trafficking in Persons with Knowledge or Recklessness
208D. Consent of Trafficked Person Not a Defence”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Papua New Guinea. If you are a representative of Papua New Guinea and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.