Data Dashboards

Paraguay
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour between 1999 and 2013 increased by 22%.

22%

1999- 2013

Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.693 (2015)

Mean School Years: 8.1 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 38.1% (2014)

Working Poverty Rate: 2.1% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2004
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 46.7% (2016)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: 32.8% (2016)

Disabled: 21.6% (2016)

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Paraguay, the percentage of child labourers has increased overall from 1999 to 2013. The measures provided for 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2014 do not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for all sample years.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Paraguay, estimates show that 3.7 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2013. The number is lower than in 2011, and has decreased from 2.6 percent in 1999. The measures provided for 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2014 do not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for all sample years.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Paraguay, estimates show that 15.7 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2013. The percentage is lower than in 2011, and has decreased from 18.5 percent in 1999. The measures provided for 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2014 do not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for all sample years.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2014 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Paraguay was 30.7 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 30.9 hours in 2013.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for all sample years.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2014, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 43.9 hours per week. This number has increased since 2013, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 39.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for all sample years.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 7.8 hours per week according to the 2011 estimate.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2011.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Paraguay is from 2014. By the 2014 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Manufacturing sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Paraguay.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Paraguay.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Paraguay between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Paraguay is 0.693. This score indicates medium human development.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Paraguay over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1990 and 2014, Paraguay showed an increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Paraguay.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitución Nacional de 1992
Artículo 86. Del Derecho al Trabajo
Todos los habitantes de la República tienen derecho a un trabajo lícito, libremente escogido y a realizarse en condiciones dignas y justas.
La ley protegerá el trabajo en todas sus formas y los derechos que ella otorga al trabajador son irrenunciables.

Ley núm. 4788 integral contra la trata de personas, 2012
Artículo 4. Definiciones
A los efectos de la presente Ley, se entenderá como:

9. Trabajo o servicio forzoso: Aquel obtenido bajo amenaza de una sanción y para los que el prestador del trabajo o servicio no se ha ofrecido voluntariamente.

Child Labour

Constitución Nacional de 1992
Artículo 90. Del Trabajo de los Menores
Se dará prioridad a los derechos del menor trabajador para garantizar su normal desarrollo físico, intelectual y moral.

Código del Trabajo, 1993
Artículo 119. Los menores que no hayan cumplido quince años de edad no podrán trabajar en ninguna empresa industrial, pública o privada o en sus dependencias, con excepción de aquellas en las que estén ocupados únicamente miembros de la familia del empleador, siempre que por naturaleza del trabajo o por las condiciones en que se efectúe, no sea peligroso para la vida, salud o moralidad de los menores.

Exceptuase también el trabajo en escuelas profesionales, ya sean públicas o establecidas por empresas privadas, siempre que se realice con fines de formación profesional, y sea aprobado y vigilado por la autoridad competente.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Constitución Nacional de 1992
Artículo 54. De la Protección Al Niño
La familia, la sociedad y el Estado tienen la obligación de garantizar al niño su desarrollo armónico e integral, así como el ejercicio pleno de sus derechos protegiéndolo contra el abandono, la desnutrición, la violencia, el abuso, el tráfico y la explotación. Cualquier persona puede exigir a la autoridad competente el cumplimiento de tales garantías y la sanción de los infractores.
Los derechos del niño, en caso de conflicto, tienen carácter prevaleciente.

Decreto núm. 4951 por el cual se reglamenta la Ley núm. 1657/2001 y se aprueba el listado de trabajo infantil peligroso, 2005

“Prohíbe los trabajos mencionados en la lista que incluye para los menores de dieciocho años. Establece asimismo que las autoridades competentes podrán autorizar el trabajo doméstico a partir de la edad de dieciséis años.”

Código de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia, 2001
Artículo 54. De Los Trabajos Prohibidos: Queda prohibido el trabajo del adolescente, sin perjuicio de lo establecido en el Código del Trabajo:

a. en cualquier lugar subterráneo o bajo agua;
b. en otras actividades peligrosas o nocivas para su salud física, mental o moral.

Artículo 58. Del Horario De Trabajo
El adolescente trabajador que haya cumplido catorce años y hasta cumplir los dieciséis años no podrá trabajar más de cuatro horas diarias ni veinte y cuatro horas semanales.
El adolescente trabajador de dieciséis años hasta cumplir los dieciocho años no podrá trabajar más de seis horas diarias ni treinta y seis semanales.
Para los trabajadores que todavía asistan a instituciones educativas, las horas diarias de trabajo quedarán reducidas a cuatro.
El adolescente trabajador que haya cumplido catorce años y hasta cumplir los dieciocho años no será empleado durante la noche en un intervalo de diez horas, que comprenderá entre las veinte a las seis horas.

Código del Trabajo, 1993
Artículo 120. Los menores entre catorce y dieciocho años podrán ser empleados en empresas no industriales en las siguientes condiciones:

a. que hayan completado la instrucción primaria obligatoria o que el trabajo no impida su asistencia a la escuela;
b. que posean certificado de capacidad física y mental para el trabajo, expedido por la autoridad sanitaria competente;
c. que se trate de tareas diurnas, livianas, no peligrosas ni insalubres;
d. que medie autorización del representante legal del menor, visada por la autoridad competente;
e. que no trabajen más de cuatro horas diarias, ni más de veinticuatro semanales.
Para los menores que todavía asistan a la escuela, las horas diarias de trabajo quedarán reducidas a dos y siempre que el número total de horas dedicadas a la escuela y el trabajo no excedan en ningún caso de siete diarias; y
f. que no trabajen en domingo ni en los días de fiestas que la ley señala.

Artículo 125. Se prohíbe la ocupación de menores de dieciocho años en trabajos tales como:

a. expendio de bebidas embriagantes de consumo;
b. tareas o servicios susceptibles de afectar su moralidad o sus buenas costumbres;
c. trabajos ambulantes, salvo autorización especial;
d. trabajos peligrosos o insalubres;
e. trabajos superiores a la jornada establecida, a sus fuerzas físicas, o que puedan impedir o retardar el desarrollo físico normal; y
f. trabajos nocturnos, en los períodos previstos en el artículo 122 y otros que determinen las leyes.

Human Trafficking

Ley núm. 4788 integral contra la trata de personas, 2012
Artículo 5. Tipificación de la Trata de Personas.

1. El que, con el propósito de someter a otro a un régimen de explotación sexual; captare, transportare, trasladare, acogiere o recibiere a la víctima directa, sera sancionada con pena privativa de libertad de hasta ocho anos.
2. El que con el propósito de someter a otro a un régimen de servidumbre, matrimonio servil, trabajo o servicio forzado, esclavitud o cualquier practica analoga a la esclavitud; captare, transportare, trasladare, acogiere o recibiere a la víctima directa, sera sancionado con pena privativa de libertad de hasta ocho anos.

Slavery

Constitución Nacional de 1992
Artículo 10. De la Proscripción de la Esclavitud y Otras Servidumbres
Están proscritas la esclavitud, las servidumbres personales y la trata de personas. La ley podrá establecer cargas sociales en favor del Estado.

Ley núm. 4788 integral contra la trata de personas, 2012
Artículo 4. Definiciones
A los efectos de la presente Ley, se entenderá como:

11. Otras prácticas similares de esclavitud: La esclavitud por razón de deuda y servidumbre de la gleba
14. Esclavitud de la Deuda: Aquella situación o condición resultante de un promesa de un deudor de prestar sus servicios personales, o los de una persona bajo su razonablemente, no se destina a la liquidación de la deuda o si la duración de esos servicios no esta limitada y definida

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Working Adolescents (2016–2020)

“Aims to raise awareness and strengthen enforcement of child labor laws. Provides child laborers
access to free, quality education and offers livelihood alternatives for their families.”

National Strategy to Prevent Forced Labor

“Aims to prevent and eradicate forced labor and care for victims.”

National Plan for Development (2014–2030)

“Aims to reduce social exclusion and poverty, including by preventing and eliminating child labor.”

National Plan on Human Rights

“Promotes human rights, including the prevention and elimination of child labor and forced labor.”

Inter-Institutional Agreement on Government Procurement

“Prohibits Government procurement of goods or services involving child labor. Established between
SNNA and the National Bureau for Public Contracts.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1967

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1968

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2004

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2001

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Participation 2007

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 2007

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2004

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratification 1990

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2002

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2003

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Ley núm. 4788 integral contra la trata de personas, 2012
Artículo 14. No punibilidad
Artículo 19. Ausencia de la víctima
Titulo III: Protección y Asistencia a Victimas y Testigos de la Trata de Personas

Penalties
Penalties Child Labour

Código del Trabajo, 1993
Artículo 389. Los empleadores que obligan a los varones menores de dieciocho años de edad, a realizar labores en lugares insalubres o peligrosos, o trabajos nocturnos industriales, serán sancionados con la multa establecida en el artículo anterior.
Al empleador que ocupe a niños menores de doce años, se le impondrá multa de cincuenta jornales mínimos que se duplicará en caso de reincidencia, por cada menor ocupado en contravención a la ley.
La autorización dada para trabajar por los representantes legales de los menores, en fraude a la ley, constituirá causa de nulidad del contrato de trabajo, y serán pasibles dichos representantes legales de una multa de cincuenta jornales mínimos, por cada menor afectado, que duplicará en caso de reincidencia.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Ley núm. 4788 integral contra la trata de personas, 2012
Artículo 5. Tipificación de la Trata de Personas.
1. El que, con el propósito de someter a otro a un régimen de explotación sexual; captare, transportare, trasladare, acogiere o recibiere a la víctima directa, sera sancionada con pena privativa de libertad de hasta ocho anos.
2. El que con el propósito de someter a otro a un régimen de servidumbre, matrimonio servil, trabajo o servicio forzado, esclavitud o cualquier practica analoga a la esclavitud; captare, transportare, trasladare, acogiere o recibiere a la víctima directa, sera sancionado con pena privativa de libertad de hasta ocho anos.
3. El que, con el propósito de someter a otro a la extracción ilícita de sus órganos tejidos; captares, transportare, trasladare, acogiere o recibiere a la víctima directa, sera sancionado con pena privativa de libertad de hasta ocho anos.

Artículo 6. Circunstancias agravantes

Artículo 7. Circunstancias agravantes especiales

Código Penal, 1997
Artículo 129. Trata de personas
1. El que mediante fuerza, amenaza de mal considerable o engaño, condujera a otra persona fuera del territorio nacional o la introdujera en el mismo y, utilizando su indefensión la indujera a la prostitución, será castigado con pena privativa de libertad de hasta seis años.
2. Cuando el autor actuara comercialmente406 o como miembro de una banda que se ha formado para la realización de hechos señalados en el inciso anterior, se aplicará lo dispuesto en los artículos 57 y 91.

Artículo 223. Tráfico de menores
1. El que explotando la necesidad, ligereza o inexperiencia del titular de la patria potestad, mediante contraprestación económica, indujera a la entrega de un niño para una adopción o una colocación familiar, será castigado con pena privativa de libertad de hasta cinco años. Con la misma pena será castigado el que interviniera en la recepción del niño.
2. Cuando el autor:
1. aludiera los procedimientos legales para la adopción o colocación familiar;
2. actuará con el fin de obtener un beneficio económico; o
3. mediante su conducta expusiera al niño al peligro de una explotación sexual o laboral,
la pena podrá ser aumentada a pena privativa de libertad de hasta diez años.

Penalties, General

Código Penal, 1997
Artículo 125. Extrañamiento de personas
1. El que mediante fuerza, engaño o amenaza condujera a otro fuera del territorio nacional para exponerle a un régimen que pusiera en peligro su vida, su integridad física o su libertad, será castigado con pena privativa de libertad de hasta diez años.
2. El que actuara sin intención, pero previendo la exposición del otro al régimen descrito en el inciso anterior, será castigado con pena privativa de libertad de hasta cinco años.
3. Será castigada también la tentativa.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection Coverage (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Official Response from the Dirección General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos (DGEEC)

In its reply to the Official Response from the Dirección General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos, Delta 8.7 confirmed that the visualization for Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 is based on the sources shared by DGEEC.