Data Dashboards

Philippines
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data between 2001 and 2011 is not comparable.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.699 (2017)

Mean School Years: 9.3 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 38.4% (2013)

Working Poverty Rate: 8.6% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2002
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 47.1% (2016)

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 35.4% (2016)

Vulnerable: 7.8% (2016)

Children: 13.6% (2016)

Disabled: 3.1% (2016)

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In the Philippines, 9.4 percent of children were in child labour in 2011. The measure provided for 2001 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001 and 2011.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In the Philippines, the latest estimates show that 4.6 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2011. The measure provided for 2001 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001 and 2011.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In the Philippines, the latest estimates show that 20.1 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2011. The measure provided for 2001 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001 and 2011.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2011 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in the Philippines was 9.1 hours.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data is provided for 2011.

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2011, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 21.3 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data is provided for 2011.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for the Philippines  is from 2011. By the 2011 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by  the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Other Services sector.

The chart to the left displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in the Philippines.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in the Philippines.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in the Philippines between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in the Philippines is 0.682. This score indicates medium human development.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in the Philippines over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2000 and 2013, the Philippines showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies.” The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in the Philippines.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Anti-Trafficking of Persons Act, 2003 (R.A. No. 9208) amend. Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2012 (R.A. No. 10364)
Section 3. Definition of Terms. – As used in this Act:

d. Forced Labor – refers to the extraction of work or services from any person by mean of enticement, violence, intimidation or threat, use of force or coercion, including deprivation of freedom, abuse of authority or moral ascendancy, debt-bondage or deception including any work or service extracted from any person under the menace of penalty.

Child Labor

The Labor Code of the Philippines Presidential Decree No. 442 of 1974, as amended and renumbered, 2015
Art. 137. [139] Minimum Employable Age.

a. No child below fifteen (15) years of age shall be employed, except when he works directly under the sole responsibility of his parents or guardian, and his employment does not in any way interfere with his schooling.
b. Any person between fifteen (15) and eighteen (18) years of age may be employed for such number of hours and such periods of the day as determined by the Secretary of Labor and Employment in appropriate regulations.
c. The foregoing provisions shall in no case allow the employment of a person below eighteen (18) years of age in an undertaking which is hazardous or deleterious in nature as determined by the Secretary of Labor and Employment.

Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act (Act No. 7610) amend. Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Amendment Act (R.A No. 9231)
Sec. 12. Employment of Children – Children below fifteen (15) years of age shall not be employed except:

1. When a child works directly under the sole responsibility of his/her parents or legal guardian and there only members of his/her family are employed: provided however, That his/her employment neither endangers his/her life, safety, health, and morals, nor impairs his/her normal development: Provided, further, That the parent or legal guardian shall provide the said child with the prescribed primary and/or secondary education; or
2. Where a child’s employment or participation in public entertainment or information through cinema, theater, radio, television or other forms of media is essential; Provided, That the employment contract is concluded by the child’s parents or legal guardian, with the express agreement of the child concerned, if possible, and the approval of the department of Labor and Employment; Provided, further, That the following requirements in all instances are strictly complied with:

a. The employer shall ensure the protection , health, safety, morals, and normal development of the child;
b. The employer shall institute measures to prevent the child’s exploitation or discrimination taking into account the system and level of remuneration, and the duration and arrangement of working time;
c. The employer shall formulate and implement, subject to the approval and supervision of competent authorities a continuing program for training and skills acquisition of the child.

In the above-exceptional cases where any such child may be employed, the employer shall first secure, before engaging such child, a work permit from the Department of Labor and Employment which shall ensure observance of the above requirements.

For purposes of this Article, the term ‘child’ shall apply to all persons under eighteen (18) years of age.

Worst Forms of Child Labor

Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act (Act No. 7610) amend. Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Amendment Act (R.A No. 9231)
Sec. 12-D. Prohibition Against Worst Forms of Child Labor. – No child shall be engaged in the worst forms of child labor. The phrase ‘worst forms of child labor’ shall refer to any of the following:

1. All forms of slavery, as defined under the ‘Anti-trafficking in Persons Act of 2003,’ or practices similar to slavery such as sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom and forced or compulsory labor, including recruitment of children for use in armed conflict; or
2. the use, procuring, offering or exposing of a child for prostitution, for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances; or
3. The use, procuring of or offering of a child for illegal or illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of dangerous drugs and volatile substances prohibited under existing laws; or
4. Work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is hazardous or likely to be harmful to the health, safety or morals of children, such that it :

a. Debases, degrades or demeans the intrinsic worth and dignity of a child as a human being or;
b. Exposes the child to physical, emotional or sexual abuse, or is found to be highly stressful psychologically or may prejudice morals; or
c. Is performed underground, underwater or at dangerous heights;
d. Involves the use of dangerous machinery, equipment and tools such as power-driven or explosive power-actuated tools; or
e. Exposes the child to physical danger such as, but not limited to the dangerous feats of balancing, physical strength or contortion, or which requires the manual transport of heavy loads; or
f. Is performed in an unhealthy environment exposing the child to hazardous working conditions, elements, substances, co-agents or processes involving ionizing, radiation, fire, flammable substances, noxious components and the like, or to extreme temperatures, noise levels, or vibrations; or
g. Is performed under particularly difficult conditions; or
h. Exposes the child to biological agents such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, nematodes and other parasites; or
i. Involves the manufacture or handling of explosives and other pyrotechnic products.

Trafficking in Persons

Anti-Trafficking of Persons Act, 2003 (R.A. No. 9208) amend. Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2012 (R.A. No. 10364)
Section 3. Definition of Terms. – As used in this Act:

a. Trafficking in Persons – refers to the recruitment, obtaining, hiring, providing, offering, transportation, transfer, maintaining, harboring, or receipt of persons with or without the victim’s consent or knowledge, within or across national borders by means of threat or use of force, or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or of position, taking advantage of the vulnerability of the person, or, the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation which includes at a minimum, the exploitation or the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery, servitude or the removal or sale of organs.
The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, adoption or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation or when the adoption is induced by any form of consideration for exploitative purposes shall also be considered as “trafficking in persons” even if it does not involve any of the means set forth in the preceding paragraph.

Section 4. Acts of Trafficking in Persons. – It shall be unlawful for any person, natural or juridical, to commit any of the following acts:

a. To recruit, obtain, hire, provide, offer, transport, transfer, maintain, harbor, or receive a person by any means, including those done under the pretext of domestic or overseas employment or training or apprenticeship, for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, or sexual exploitation;
b. To introduce or match for money, profit, or material, economic or other consideration, any person or, as provided for under Republic Act No. 6955, any Filipino woman to a foreign national, for marriage for the purpose of acquiring, buying, offering, selling or trading him/her to engage in prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
c. To offer or contract marriage, real or simulated, for the purpose of acquiring, buying, offering, selling, or trading them to engage in prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor or slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
d. To undertake or organize tours and travel plans consisting of tourism packages or activities for the purpose of utilizing and offering persons for prostitution, pornography or sexual exploitation;
e. To maintain or hire a person to engage in prostitution or pornography;
f. To adopt persons by any form of consideration for exploitative purposes or to facilitate the same for purposes of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
g. To adopt or facilitate the adoption of persons for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
h. To recruit, hire, adopt, transport, transfer, obtain, harbor, maintain, provide, offer, receive or abduct a person, by means of threat or use of force, fraud, deceit, violence, coercion, or intimidation for the purpose of removal or sale of organs of said person;
i. To recruit, transport, obtain, transfer, harbor, maintain, offer, hire, provide, receive or adopt a child to engage in armed activities in the Philippines or abroad;
j. To recruit, transport, transfer, harbor, obtain, maintain, offer, hire, provide or receive a person by means defined in Section 3 of this Act for purposes of forced labor, slavery, debt bondage and involuntary servitude, including a scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause the person either:

1. To believe that if the person did not perform such labor or services, he or she or another person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint; or
2. To abuse or threaten the use of law or the legal processes; and

k. To recruit, transport, harbor, obtain, transfer, maintain, hire, offer, provide, adopt or receive a child for purposes of exploitation or trading them, including but not limited to, the act of buying and/or selling a child for any consideration or for barter for purposes of exploitation. Trafficking for purposes of exploitation of children shall include:

1. All forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, involuntary servitude, debt bondage and forced labor, including recruitment of children for use in armed conflict;
2. The use, procuring or offering of a child for prostutution, for the production of pornography, or for pornographic performances;
3. The use, procuring or offering of a child for the production and trafficking of drugs; and
4. The use, procuring or offering of a child for illegal activities or work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm their health, safety or morals; and

l. To organize or direct other persons to commit the offenses as acts of trafficking under this Act.

Section 6. Qualified Trafficking in Persons. – The following are considered as qualified trafficking:

a. When the trafficked person is a child;
b. When the adoption is effected through Republic Act No. 8043, otherwise known as the “Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995” and said adoption is for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
c. When the crime is committed by a syndicate, or in large scale. Trafficking is deemed committed by a syndicate if carried out by a group of three (3) or more persons conspiring or confederating with one another. It is deemed committed in large scale if committed against three (3) or more persons, individually or as a group;
d. When the offender is a spouse, an ascendant, parent, sibling, guardian or a person who exercises authority over the trafficked person or when the offense is committed by a public officer or employee;
e. When the trafficked person is recruited to engage in prostitution with any member of the military or law enforcement agencies;
f. When the offender is a member of the military or law enforcement agencies;
g. When by reason or on occasion of the act of trafficking in persons, the offended party dies, becomes insane, suffers mutilation or is afflicted with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS);
h. When the offender commits one or more violations of Section 4 over a period of sixty (60) or more days, whether those days are continuous or not; and
i. When the offender directs or through another manages the trafficking victim in carrying out the exploitative purpose of trafficking.

Anti-Trafficking of Persons Act, 2003 (R.A. No. 9208) amend. Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2012 (R.A. No. 10364)
Section 3. Definition of Terms. – As used in this Act:

d. Slavery – refers to the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised.

International Commitments
National Strategies

Philippine Program against Child Labor (2017-2022)

“Aims to remove one million children from child labor by the year 2025. Implementation led by the Bureau of Workers with Special Concerns.”

National Strategic Action Plan Against Trafficking in Persons (2017–2021)

“Aims to address labor trafficking and sex trafficking, including the online sexual exploitation of children.”

Philippine Development Plan (2017–2022)

“Aims to build the socio-economic resilience of individuals and families by reducing their vulnerability to various risks and disasters; this includes the goal of universal social protection for all Filipinos. Aims to reduce the number of children engaged in child labor by 30 percent or roughly 630,000 children.”

National Strategic Framework for Plan Development for Children (Child 21) (2000-2025)

“Sets out broad goals for national government agencies, local governments, and NGOs to achieve improved quality of life for Filipino children by 2025. Addresses concerns related to the worst forms of child labor under the section on children in need of special protection.”

Child Protection Compact Partnership (2017–2021)

“Seeks to increase prevention efforts and protections for child victims of OSEC and labor trafficking, while holding perpetrators accountable. Aims to improve the response to child trafficking, including live-streaming online of child sexual exploitation and child trafficking for labor purposes, by increasing criminal investigations, prosecutions, and convictions; strengthening the government’s and civil society’s capacities to identify and provide comprehensive services for victims; and strengthening existing community-based mechanisms that identify and protect victims of child trafficking. The government committing approximately $800,000 for its implementation.”

Philippine Plan of Action to End Violence Against Children (2017–2022)

“Aims to gradually reduce violence against children through consultations with government institutions, local and international NGOs, civil society organizations, faith-based groups, professional associations, academe, private sector, parents, and children.”

3rd National Plan of Action for Children (2017–2022)

“Solidifies strategies, policies, and programs for children to achieve Child 21’s vision for Filipino children by 2025.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratified 2005

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratified 1960

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratified 1998 

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratified 2000

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Accession 1955

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Ratified 1964

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratified 2002

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratified 1990

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratified 2003

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratified 2002

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Anti-Trafficking of Persons Act, 2003 (R.A. No. 9208) amend. Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2012 (R.A. No. 10364)
Section 17. Legal Protection to Trafficked Persons. – Trafficked persons shall be recognized as victims of the act or acts of trafficking and as such shall not be penalized for crimes directly related to the acts of trafficking enumerated in this Act or in obedience to the order made by the trafficker in relation thereto. In this regard, the consent of a trafficked person to the intended exploitation set forth in this Act shall be irrelevant.
Section 18. Preferential Entitlement Under the Witness Protection Program. – Any provision of Republic Act No. 6981 to the contrary notwithstanding, any trafficked person shall be entitled to the witness protection program provided therein.
Section 19. Trafficked Persons Who are Foreign Nationals. – Subject to the guidelines issued by the Council, trafficked persons in the Philippines who are nationals of a foreign country shall also be entitled to appropriate protection, assistance and services available to trafficked persons under this Act: Provided, That they shall be permitted continued presence in the Philippines for a length of time prescribed by the Council as necessary to effect the prosecution of offenders.
Section 23. Mandatory Services to Trafficked Persons. – To ensure recovery, rehabilitation and reintegration into the mainstream of society, concerned government agencies shall make available the following services to trafficked persons:

a. Emergency shelter or appropriate housing;
b. Counseling;
c. Free legal services which shall include information about the victims’ rights and the procedure for filing complaints, claiming compensation and such other legal remedies available to them, in a language understood by the trafficked person;
d. Medical or psychological services;
e. Livelihood and skills training; and
f. Educational assistance to a trafficked child.

Sustained supervision and follow through mechanism that will track the progress of recovery, rehabilitation and reintegration of the trafficked persons shall be adopted and carried out.

Section 24. Other Services for Trafficked Persons.

a. Legal Assistance. – Trafficked persons shall be considered under the category “Overseas Filipino in Distress” and may avail of the legal assistance created by Republic Act No. 8042, subject to the guidelines as provided by law.
b. Overseas Filipino Resource Centers. – The services available to overseas Filipinos as provided for by Republic Act No. 8042 shall also be extended to trafficked persons regardless of their immigration status in the host country.
c. The Country Team Approach. – The country team approach under Executive Order No. 74 of 1993, shall be the operational scheme under which Philippine embassies abroad shall provide protection to trafficked persons insofar as the promotion of their welfare, dignity and fundamental rights are concerned.

Penalties

Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act (Act No. 7610) amend. Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Amendment Act (R.A No. 9231)
Sec. 16. Penal Provisions

a. Any employer who violates Sections 23, 23-A, and Section 14 of this Act, as amended, shall be penalized by imprisonment of sic (:6) months and one (1) day to six (6) years or a fine of not less than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) but not more than Three hundred thousand pesos (P300,000.00) or both at the discretion of the court.
b. Any person who violates the provision of Section 12-D of this Act or the employer of the subcontractor who employs, or the one who facilitates the employment of a child in hazardous work, shall suffer the penalty of a fine of not less than One hundred thousand pesos (P100,00000) but not more than One million pesos (P1,000,000.00), or the imprisonment of not less than twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20) years, or both such fine and imprisonment at the discretion of the court.
c. Any person who violates Sections 12-D.1 and 12-D.2 shall be prosecuted and penalized in accordance with the penalty provided for by R.A. 9208 otherwise known as the ‘Anti-trafficking in Persons Act of 2003’: Provided, That such penalty shall be imposed in its maximum period.
d. Any person who violates Section 12-D.3 shall be prosecuted and penalized in accordance with R.A. 9165, otherwise known as the ‘Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002’: Provided, That such penalty shall be imposed in its maximum period.
e. If a corporation commits any of the violations aforecited, the board of directors/trustees and officers, which include the president, treasurer and secretary of the said corporation who participated in or knowingly allowed the violation, shall be penalized accordingly as provided for under this Section.
f. Parents, biological or by legal fiction, and legal guardians found to be violating Sections 12, 12A, 12B, and 12-C of this Act shall pay a fine of not less than Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) but not more than One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00), or be required to render community service for not less than thirty (30) days but not more than one (1) year, or both such fine and community service at the discretion of the court: Provided, That the maximum length of community service shall be imposed on parents or legal guardians who have violated the provisions of this Act three (3) times: Provided, further, That in addition to the community service, the penalty of imprisonment of thirty (30) days but not more than one (1) year or both at the discretion of the court, shall be imposed on the parents or legal guardians who have violated the provisions of this Act more than three (3) times.
g. The Secretary of Labor and Employment or his/her duly authorized representative may, after due notice and hearing, order the closure of any business firm or establishment found to have violated any of the provisions of this Act more than three (3) times. He/she shall likewise order the immediate closure of which firm or establishment if :

1. The violation of any provision of this Act has resulted in the death, insanity or serious physical injury of a child employed in such establishment; or
2. such firm or establishment is engaged or employed in prostitution or in obscene or lewd shows.

h. In case of such closure, the employer shall be required to pay the employee’s separation pay and other monetary benefits provided for by law.

Anti-Trafficking of Persons Act, 2003 (R.A. No. 9208) amend. Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2012 (R.A. No. 10364)
Section 10. Penalties and Sanctions. – The following penalties and sanctions are hereby established for the offenses enumerated in this Act:

a. Any person found guilty of committing any of the acts enumerated in Section 4 shall suffer the penalty of imprisonment of twenty (20) years and a fine of not less than One million pesos (P1,000,000.00) but not more than Two million pesos (P2,000,000.00);
b. Any person found guilty of committing any of the acts enumerated in Section 4-A shall suffer the penalty of imprisonment of fifteen (15) years and a fine of not less than Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00) but not more than One million pesos (P1,000,000.00);
c. Any person found guilty of committing any of the acts enumerated in Section 4-B shall suffer the penalty of imprisonment of fifteen (15) years and a fine of not less than Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00) but not more than One million pesos (P1,000,000.00);
In every case, conviction shall cause and carry the automatic revocation of the license or registration of the recruitment agency involved in trafficking. the license of a recruitment agency which trafficked a child shall be automatically revoked.
d. Any person found guilty of committing any of the acts enumerated in Section 5 shall suffer the penalty of imprisonment of fifteen (15) years and a fine of not less than Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00) but not more than One million pesos (P1,000,000.00);
e. Any person found guilty of qualified trafficking under Section 6 shall suffer the penalty of life imprisonment and a fine of not less than Two million pesos (P2,000,000.00) but not more than Five million pesos (P5,000,000.00);
f. Any person who violates Section 7 hereof shall suffer the penalty of imprisonment of six (6) years and a fine of not less than Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00) but not more than One million pesos (P1,000,000.00);
g. If the offender is a corporation, partnership, association, club, establishment or any juridical person, the penalty shall be imposed upon the owner, president, partner, manager, and/or any responsible officer who participated in the commission of the crime or who shall have knowingly permitted or failed to prevent its commission;
h. The registration with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and license to operate of the erring agency, corporation, association, religious group, tour or travel agent, club or establishment, or any place of entertainment shall be cancelled and revoked permanently. The owner, president, partner or manager thereof shall not be allowed to operate similar establishments in a different name;
i. If the offender is a foreigner, he shall be immediately deported after serving his sentence and be barred permanently from entering the country;
j. Any employee or official of government agencies who shall issue or approve the issuance of travel exit clearances, passports, registration certificates, counseling certificates, marriage license, and other similar documents to persons, whether juridical or natural, recruitment agencies, establishments or other individuals or groups, who fail to observe the prescribed procedures and the requirement as provided for by laws, rules and regulations, shall be held administratively liable, without prejudice to criminal liability under this Act. The concerned government official or employee shall, upon conviction, be dismissed from the service and be barred permanently to hold public office. His/her retirement and other benefits shall likewise be forfeited; and
k. Conviction by final judgment of the adopter for any offense under this Act shall result in the immediate rescission of the decree of adoption.

Section 11. Use of Trafficked Persons. – Any person who buys or engages the services of trafficked persons for prostitution shall be penalized with the following: Provided that the Probation Law (Presidential Decree No. 968) shall not apply:

a. Prison Correctional in its maximum period to prison mayor or six (6) years to twelve (12) years imprisonment and a fine of not less than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) but not more than One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00);

1. If an offense under paragraph a involves sexual intercourse or lascivious conduct with a child, the penalty shall be reclusion temporal in its medium period to reclusion perpetua or seventeen (17) years to forty (40) years imprisonment and a fine of not less than Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00) but not more than One million pesos (P1,000,000.00);
2. If an offense under paragraph a involves carnal knowledge of , or sexual intercourse with, a male or female trafficking victim and also involves the use of force or intimidation to a victim deprived of reason or to an unconscious victim, or a victim under twelve (12) years of age, instead of the penalty prescribed in the subparagraph above the penalty shall be a fine of not less than One million pesos (P1,000,000.00) but not more than Five million pesos (P5,000,000.00) and imprisonment of reclusion perpetua or forty (40) years imprisonment without possibility of parole except that if a person violating paragraph a of this section knows the person that provided prostitution services is in fact a victim of trafficking, the offender shall not be likewise penalized under this section but under Section 10 as a person violating Section 4; and if in committing such an offense the offender also knows a qualifying circumstance for trafficking the offender shall be penalized under Section 10 for qualified trafficking. If in violating this section the offender also violates Section 4 , the offender shall be penalized under Section 10 and if applicable for qualified trafficking instead of under this section;

b. Deportation – If a foreigner commits any offense described by paragraph 1 or 2 of this section or violates any pertinent provision of this Act as an accomplice or accessory to, or by attempting any such offense, he or she shall be immediately deported after serving his or her sentence and be barred permanently from entering the country and
c. Public Official – If the offender is a public official, he or she shall be dismissed from service and shall suffer perpetual absolute disqualification to hold public office, in addition to any imprisonment or fine received pursuant to any other provision of this Act.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Philippines Official Response

Based on the Official Response from the Philippine Statistics Authority, the Dashboard for the Philippines has been revised as follows:

  • HDI and Education index updated to 2017 values on the ‘Overview’ tab and will be implemented in the figures.