Data Dashboards

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Measurement
Measuring the Change

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data:

No Data Available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No nationally representative data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.856 (2015)

Mean School Years: 9.8 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 0.2% (2013)

Working Poverty Rate: 0% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2009
Social Protections Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 18% (2016)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: 6.5% (2016)

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Qatar.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Qatar.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Qatar.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Qatar between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Qatar is 0.856. This score indicates that human development is high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Qatar over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

In 2013, the only year for which data is provided, the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment was 0.2 percent.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts.  As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries for migrant and non-migrant workers.

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Qatar.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Law No. 11 of 2004 Issuing the Penal Code 11, 2004
Article 322. Whoever forcibly, takes somebody to work with or without salary shall be liable to imprisonment of a term up to six months and a fine not exceeding three thousand Qatari Riyals (QR 3.000), or one of these two penalties.

Child Labour

Employment of Juveniles, Qatar Labour Law 2004
Article 86. A child who has not attained the age of sixteen may not be employed in a work of whatsoever nature and shall not be permitted to enter into any of the place of work.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Minister of Civil Service Affairs and Housing Decree No. 15/2005 concerning prohibited jobs for young workers

“Contains a list of all the positions and jobs that young workers are not allowed to do.”

Law No. 11 of 2004 Issuing the Penal Code 11, 2004
Article 322. Whoever forcibly, takes somebody to work with or without salary shall be liable to imprisonment of a term up to six months and a fine not exceeding three thousand Qatari Riyals (QR 3.000), or one of these two penalties.
If the victim is under sixteen years of age, the penalty shall be up to six years in prison and/or a fine not exceeding ten thousand Qatari Riyals (10.000QR).

Trafficking in Persons

Law No. 15 of 2011 concerning combating Human Trafficking
Article 2. Whoever recruits, transports, submits, harbors, receives a natural person in any form, whether inside a state territory or across its national borders, through the use of force, violence or threat to use any of them or through abduction, fraud, misrepresentations or through the abuse of power or by exploiting a position of vulnerability or need or by promising to provide or receive of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation in whatever form, is committing the crime of trafficking in human beings. Exploitation shall include the exploitation of the prostitution of others or any forms of sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of children , pornography or begging , forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery servitude or removal of human organs, tissues or parts of it , commits a crime of trafficking in human beings.

Article 3. The consent of the victim of the crime of trafficking in human beings shall be considered as irrelevant where any of the means set forth in the above article have been used. The use of the above mentioned means are not considered as prerequisite for the commission of the crime of trafficking in children or persons who lack capacity.

Slavery

Law No. 11 of 2004 Issuing the Penal Code 11, 2004
Article 321. Whoever brings into or takes out of Qatar a person as a slave, or buys, sells, or donates a person as a slave, shall be liable to imprisonment of a term not exceeding seven years. Whoever imports, exports, buys, sells, traffics, offers or gives as a gift or disposes of any person as a slave, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend up to seven years.

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Policies for Assistance

Law No. 15 of 2011 concerning combating Human Trafficking
Article 4. The victim shall not be subject to criminal or civil liability of any of trafficking in human beings crimes when such a crime is initiated or directly associated with such person as being a victim.

Article 5. The competent authorities shall ensure the protection and the physical and psychological safety of the victims and shall provide them with medical, educational and social care and shall work to provide the suitable circumstances to rehabilitate and merge them in the society in a manner appropriate to their needs, human dignity, age and gender. The competent authorities shall in cooperation and coordination with the victims’ countries or with countries in which the victims have a permanent residence, return them home safety.

Article 6. The competent authorities shall ensure the provision of the following rights for the victims:

1. Maintaining their personal dignity and identity.
2. Giving them the opportunity to state their position and being recognized.
3. Obtaining advice with regard to their rights and enlightening them with the followed legal and administrative procedures.
4. Remaining in the state ‘s territory until the conclusion of investigation and trial.
5. Obtaining legal aid including counseling of attorney.
6. Obtaining an appropriate compensation for damages suffered.
7. Obtaining the necessary security protection.

Article 7. The competent authorities shall provide appropriate places for the purpose of harboring victims in a manner that allows them to receive their relatives, attorneys and representatives of the competent authorities in addition to any other securities prescribed by any other law.

Article 8. The competent authorities shall be committed to keep confidential any information obtained in connection with crimes provided in this law, and shall not disclose such information except to the extent required to enforce the provisions of this law.

Article 9. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs shall undertake , through its diplomatic and consular missions abroad, to provide all necessary assistance to Qatari victims and create the appropriate circumstances for their protection and return them to the state as soon as possible.

Article 10. The competent court having jurisdiction to consider a criminal action arising from any of the offences provided in this Law, shall also decide on civil suit arising from such crimes.

Penalties

Law No. 11 of 2004 Issuing the Penal Code 11, 2004
Article 321. Whoever brings into or takes out of Qatar a person as a slave, or buys, sells, or donates a person as a slave, shall be liable to imprisonment of a term not exceeding seven years. Whoever imports, exports, buys, sells, traffics, offers or gives as a gift or disposes of any person as a slave, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend up to seven years.

Article 322. Whoever forcibly, takes somebody to work with or without salary shall be liable to imprisonment of a term up to six months and a fine not exceeding three thousand Qatari Riyals (QR 3.000), or one of these two penalties.
If the victim is under sixteen years of age, the penalty shall be up to six years in prison and/or a fine not exceeding ten thousand Qatari Riyals (10.000QR).

Law No. 15 of 2011 concerning combating Human Trafficking
Article 13. Without prejudice to any more severe penalty provided by another law, penalties provided by this law shall be applied.

Article 14. A person who has committed one of human trafficking offences provided by Article (2) of this Law shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not exceeding seven (7) years and a fine not exceeding two hundred fifty thousand (250,000) Riyals.

Article 15. A person who has committed an offence of human trafficking shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not exceeding fifteen (15) years and a fine not exceeding three hundred thousand (300,000) Riyals, in the following cases:

1- If the victim was a female, a child, an incapable person or a person with disabilities.
2- If the crime resulted in the death of the victim or caused him to suffer a permanent disability or an incurable disease.
3- If the perpetrator was a spouse, one of the ascendants or descendants, custodian or guardian of the victim, or has authority over the victim.
4- If the act was committed by threat of death, serious harm or physical or psychological torture; or by a person carrying a weapon.
5- If the perpetrator was a public employee or was assigned to carry out a public service and committed the crime by exploiting this capacity.
6- If the crime was committed by an organized criminal group and the accused person was one of its members.
7- If the crime was of a transnational nature.”

Article 16. A person who uses force, threats, or offers gifts or an advantage of any kind or a promise thereof to induce another person to provide false testimony, to conceal a matter, or to provide false statements or information in any stage of evidence collection, investigation, or trial related to the commission of any of the offences provided by this Law shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not exceeding five (5) years and a fine not exceeding two hundred thousand (200,000) Riyals.

Article 17. A person who attempts to commit any of human trafficking offences provided by Article 2 of this Law shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not exceeding three (3) years and a fine not exceeding two hundred thousand (200,000) Riyals.

Article 18. A person who knowingly conceals one of the perpetrators, objects or funds derived from any of the offences provided by this Law or hid any of the features of the offence or its instruments, shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not exceeding three (3) years and a fine not exceeding a hundred and fifty thousand (150,000) Riyals.
The court may exempt penalty if the person who concealed one of the perpetrators was his spouse, one of his ascendants or descendants up to the second degree.

Article 23. Without prejudice to the rights of a bona fide third party, in all cases, funds, possessions, means of transport, or instruments derived from any of the offences
provided by this Law or used in its commission shall be confiscated.

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protections (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

The ILO measures social protections coverage through the Social Security Inquiry (SSI). Every two years, national governments, including responsible ministries, provide data to the SSI on social protections including coverage and expenditure.

Qatar has data available on persons above retirement age receiving a pension and persons with severe disabilities collecting disability social protection benefits for 2016.

There are no visualizations, as there is not a sufficient amount of data provided on social protections for the Arab States region.

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Qatar. If you are a representative of Qatar and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us at info@delta87.org.