Data Dashboards

Republic of Moldova Dashboard
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data is only available for 2009. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.699 (2015)

Mean School Years: 11.9 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 32% (2014)

Working Poverty Rate: 0.4% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2002
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2005
Social Protections Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: 11.4% (2014)

Pension: 72.8% (2016)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In the Republic of Moldova, data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2009.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2009.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In the Republic of Moldova, the latest estimates show that 0.4% percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2009. The measure provided for 2000 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2009.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In the Republic of Moldova, the latest estimates show that 3 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2009.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data is provided for 2009.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2009 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in the Republic of Moldova was 7 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 16 hours in 2000.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data is provided for 2000 and 2009.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2009, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 2.7 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2000, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 11.7.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups by sex is not provided for 2009.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 5.4 hours per week according to the 2011 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2000, which found that children aged 5-14 in the Republic of Moldova worked an average of 15.7 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2009.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for the Republic of Moldova is from 2009. By the 2009 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Other Services sector and the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in the Republic of Moldova.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in the Republic of Moldova. However, national reports and legislation on human trafficking can be found here. According to the National Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Health, Labour and Social Protection, national authorities responsible for trafficking in human beings are currently working on sectoral reports for the national report of 2018.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in the Republic of Moldova between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in the Republic of Moldova is 0.699. This score indicates medium human development.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in the Republic of Moldova over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2000 and 2014, the Republic of Moldova showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating on sex and migrant status.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in the Republic of Moldova.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constituţia Republicii Moldova (Constitution of the Republic of Moldova), 1994
Article 44. Prohibition of Forced Labour

1. Forced labour shall be prohibited.
2. There is not considered forced labour:

a. any service of military nature or activities performed instead thereof by those who, ac­cording to the law, are exempted from compul­sory military service;
b. the work of a sentenced person, carried out under normal conditions within the period of detention or of conditional release;
c. services required to deal with calamities or other dangers as well as those which are part of normal civil obligations, laid down by the law.

Labour Code, 2003
Article 5 Basic principles of regulation of labor relations and other relations related directly to them
The main principles of regulation of the labor relations and other relations directly related to them, the principles resulting from the norms of international right and from those of the Constitution of Republic of Moldova, are the following:

a. labour freedom;
b. prohibition of forced (obligatory) work and of discrimination in the field of labour relations;
c. protection against unemployment and assistance for employment;
d. provision of each employee with the right for fair labour conditions, including work conditions which comply with the requirements of labour protection and hygiene, as well as with the right for rest, including regulation of the working time, granting annual rest leave, daily rest breaks, rest and holiday nonworking days;

Article 7 Prohibition of forced (obligatory) work

1. Forced (obligatory) work shall be prohibited.
2. By forced (obligatory) work is understood any work or service imposed to one person by threatening or without his consent.
3. Utilization, under any form, of forced (obligatory) work is prohibited, and namely:

a. as method of political or educational influence or as punishment for supporting or expressing some political opinions or principles contrary to the existing political, social or economic system;
b. as method of mobilization and utilization of the working force for economic purposes;
c. as method of maintaining the work discipline;
d. as method of punishment for participation in strike;
e. as method of discrimination following criteria of social , national, religious or racial status.

4. As forced (obligatory) work shall be considered:

a. the breach of terms for the established payment or its partial payment;
b. the employer’s demand that employee fulfills his labour obligations in the absence of some collective or individual protection systems or in the event that fulfillment of the required work implies danger to the life or health of the employee or his neighbor.
c. the work imposed in the situation created by calamities or any other danger, as well as the work which is a part of the normal civil obligations established by the law.

Child Labour

Constituţia Republicii Moldova (Constitution of the Republic of Moldova), 1994
Article 2. Children and young people shall enjoy a special form of assistance in the pursuit of their rights.
Article 4. The exploitation of minors and their in­volvement in activities which might be injurious to their health, moral conduct, or which might endanger their life or proper develop­ment are forbidden.
Article 5. Public authorities shall be bound to se­cure appropriate conditions enabling young people to freely take part in the social, eco­nomic, cultural and sporting life of the coun­try.

Labour Code, 2003
Article 46 Parties of the individual labour contract

1. Parties of the individual labour contract are employee and employer.
2. Physical person acquires work capacity when he reaches the age of 16 years.
3. Physical person will be also able to conclude an individual labour contract when he is 15 years old, having the written consent of parents or legal representatives, provided that the work to be performed shall bring no damage to his health, development, training and professional grounding.
4. It is prohibited to employ persons less than 15 years of age, as well as to employ persons deprived by the court of the right to have certain jobs or carry out a certain activity related to the respective positions.
5. Any person, physical or legal, regardless of the ownership type and legal form of organization, who uses waged labour, can be employer – party of the individual labour contract.
6. Employer legal entity can conclude individual labour contracts from the moment of acquiring the status of legal entity.
7. Employer-legal entity can conclude individual labour contracts from the moment of acquiring full performance capacity.
8. It is prohibited to conclude the individual labour contract for the purpose of performing an unlawful or immoral work.
9. A party of the individual labour contract can be the citizens of the Republic of Moldova, foreign citizens and stateless persons, except the cases stipulated in the legislation in force.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Law on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings No. 241-XVI, 2005
Article 2. Main Terms
In the present law, the following main terms will be used:

1. trafficking in human beings – recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a person, by means of threat of force or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, fraud, deception, of abuse of authority or a situation of vulnerability, or by means of offering or receiving payments or benefits of any kind in order to obtain the consent of a person who has control over another person for the purpose of exploitation of the latter;
2. trafficking in children – recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation, even if these actions were not accomplished through any of the means provided in sub-paragraph 1;
4. child – any person under 18 years of age;

Labour Code, 2003
Article 103 Night work

1. Night work is the work performed between 22.00 and 6.00.
2. Duration of the night work (shift) shall be reduced by one hour.
3. Duration of the night work (shift) shall not be reduced for employees for whom the reduced duration of the working time is established, as well as for employees employed specially for the night work, unless the collective labour contract stipulates otherwise.
4. Any employer, who within a period of 6 months, performs at least 120 night working hours shall be subject to a medical investigation on the employer’s account.
5. It is not admitted to employ for the night work the employees up to 18 years of age, pregnant women, women on postnatal leave, women with children up to 3 years of age, as well as persons to whom the night work is contraindicated according to medical certificate.

Article 105 Limitation of the additional work

1. It is not admitted the carrying out of the additional work by employees under 18 years old, women on prenatal leave, women with children up to 3 years of age, as well as of the persons whose additional work is contraindicated according to the medical certificate.

Article 255 Works for which the labour utilization of persons up to 18 years of age is prohibited

1. It is prohibited to use the labour of persons up to 18 years of age at works with hard, harmful and/or dangerous working conditions, at underground works, as well as at works which can lead to damage of health or moral integrity of minors (games of chance, work in night places, production, transportation and commercialization of alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, narcotics and toxic substances). It is prohibited that minors manually raise and transport weights exceeding the maximum norms established for them.
2. The classified list of works with hard, harmful and/or dangerous working conditions for which labour utilization of persons up to 19 years of age is prohibited, as well as the maximum admissible norms regarding manual raising and transporting of weights for persons up to 18 years of age, is approved by the Government after consultation with patronages and trade unions.

Human Trafficking

Law on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings No. 241-XVI, 2005
Article 2. Main Terms
In the present law, the following main terms will be used:

1. trafficking in human beings – recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a person, by means of threat of force or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, fraud, deception, of abuse of authority or a situation of vulnerability, or by means of offering or receiving payments or benefits of any kind in order to obtain the consent of a person who has control over another person for the purpose of exploitation of the latter;

Slavery

Law on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings No. 241-XVI, 2005
Article 2. Main Terms
In the present law, the following main terms will be used:

8. slavery – state or condition of a person over whom one or all entitlements flowing from a right of ownership are exercised;
9. slavery-like practices – state of a person who is kept or forced in a situation in which another person exercises mastery over him/her or forces him/her through deception or threats of violence, violence or other means of coercion to offer certain services, including to enter into or to remain as a concubine or in a marital relationship;

International Commitments
National Strategies

The National Strategy of Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings (SNPCTFU) 2018-2023

Moldova Action Program (2016–2018)

“Promotes the rights and protection of children, including the prevention and combating of violence, neglect, and exploitation. Aims to increase the welfare, safety, and quality of life of citizens.”

Action Plan for 2015–2016

“Adopted by Government Decision No. 680. Includes actions to address child labor issues and promote children’s rights, including for vulnerable groups. The Action Plan continued to be implemented in 2016.”

National Plan for Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings (2014–2016)

“Aims to improve anti-human trafficking efforts and reduce children’s vulnerability to child labor and sexual exploitation by improving data collection, referral mechanisms, public awareness, and training for government officials. Continued to implement the plan in 2016.”

Strategy of the National Referral System to Protect and Assist Victims and Potential Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings (NRS) (2009–2016)

“Outlines a framework for the protection of victims of human trafficking. Focuses on raising awareness, improving victim identification, referral mechanisms, and training and technical assistance. Regulates the work of the MDTs and the National Coordination Unit. Launched by the MLSPF. The Government continued to implement the strategy in 2016.”

Action Plan to Support the Roma People (2016–2020)

“Aims to promote social inclusion of Roma. Includes the goals of education, social protection, and combating discrimination. Funding comes from the Government, private partnerships, and the EU.”

Child Protection Strategy (2014–2020)

“Includes the goals of preventing and combating violence, neglect, and the exploitation of children, and providing assistance to children’s upbringing and development. In July 2016, the Government further approved the strategy for 2016–2020.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratified 2000

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratified 1993

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratified 1999

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratified 2002

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2005

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Accession 1993

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2004

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2007

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Law on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings No. 241-XVI, 2005
Article 16. Social Rehabilitation of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings
Social rehabilitation of victims of trafficking in human beings shall be carried out in order to reintegrate them back into a normal way of life and shall include the provision of legal and material assistance, psychological, medical and professional rehabilitation, employment, and a dwelling space.

Article 17. Centres for Protection and Assistance of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings

1. The centres for protection and assistance of victims of trafficking in human beings (hereinafter referred to as centres) shall be specialized institutions providing civilized conditions of accommodation and personal hygiene, nutrition, emergency legal, social, psychological and medical care, security and protection, as well as assistance with contacting relatives.
2. The centres may be established by:

a. the Government, on the proposal of the National Committee;
b. local public administration authorities, on the proposal of the territorial commission mentioned in Article 9;
c. international and non-governmental organizations, with notification to the National Committee;
d. public administration authorities and non-governmental or private organizations, on the basis of an agreement on joint activities.

3. The centres shall provide accommodation to victims of trafficking in human beings upon their personal request for a period of up to thirty days.
4. The duration of accommodation specified in paragraph (3) may be prolonged:

a. upon the recommendation of the physician during the period of treatment, but not longer than 6 months;
b. upon the request of the criminal prosecution bodies or courts during the period of criminal proceedings, and when the life and health of the victim are threatened by real danger, the duration of accommodation may be prolonged even after the termination of criminal proceedings for a period deemed necessary for the protection of the victim, based upon the prosecutor’s request;
c. upon the request of the victim of trafficking in human beings, with an indication of the reasoned justification, for a maximum period of 30 days.

5. Pregnant women, who are victims of trafficking in human beings, shall be entitled to accommodation in the centre for a period of up to one year.
6. The regulation of organization and operation of the centres shall be approved by the founders, based upon the Framework Regulation approved by Government decision.
7. The costs related to the centres’ activity shall be covered from the founders’ joint budgets.
8. The organization and operation of the centres may be supported materially and financially by economic agents and entrepreneurs, according to the Law of Philanthropy and Sponsorship;
9. In order to ensure the security of the premises where victims of trafficking in human beings are accommodated, the centres may seek free of charge assistance from the police.

Article 18. Professional Integration of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings

1. Professional integration of victims of trafficking in human beings shall be carried out with the support of employment agencies under the terms of the legislation in force.
2. Employment agencies shall offer victims of trafficking in human beings priority free of charge services in the field of labour mediation, information and professional counselling, professional orientation and vocational training, as well as consultancy and assistance in starting up a business.
3. Victims of trafficking in human beings are entitled to undergo a vocational training course financed from the unemployment fund.
4. Beneficiaries of the services provided in paragraphs (2) and (3) shall be victims over the age of 16 years.

Article 19. Repatriation of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings

1. The Republic of Moldova shall contribute without undue delay to the repatriation and reception of victims of trafficking in human beings, who are its citizens, or stateless persons, who were entitled to permanent residence in the territory of the Republic of Moldova upon entry into the territory of another state, taking into account the need to ensure their security.
2. Upon request of a country of destination, the competent authorities of the Republic of Moldova shall verify, without undue delay, whether a victim of trafficking in human beings is a citizen of the Republic of Moldova or whether he/she was entitled to permanent residence in its territory upon entry into the country of destination, and shall so inform the soliciting state and simultaneously undertake measures for the victim’s repatriation.
3. For the purpose of facilitating repatriation of a victim of trafficking in human beings who is a citizen of the Republic of Moldova or who was entitled to permanent residence in the Republic of Moldova upon entry into the country of destination and who does not possess the necessary documents, the competent authorities of the Republic of Moldova, upon request of the country of destination, shall issue travel documents or any other authorization needed for the repatriation.
4. The provisions of this Article shall apply without prejudice to any right granted to the victim of trafficking in human beings by any law of the country of destination.
5. The regulation on the procedure of repatriation of victims of trafficking in human beings who are citizens of the Republic of Moldova or who were entitled to permanent residence in the Republic of Moldova upon entry into the country of destination, shall be approved by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, together with the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Information Development.

Article 20. Protection and Assistance of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings

1. Victims of trafficking in human beings shall be offered assistance in physical, psychological, and social recovery through specialized medical, psychological, legal, and social measures.
2. A person who is presumed to be a victim of trafficking in human beings shall be deemed a vulnerable person and shall benefit from the minimum package of social and medical assistance provided by the institutions of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection. Persons who are recognized as victims of trafficking must be provided free assistance in the medical institutions defined by the Ministry of Health and Social Protection.
3. The state, through its competent bodies and organizations, shall take prompt adequate measures for the identification and referral of victims of trafficking in human beings to protection and assistance services, offering them a reflection period of 30 days. During this period of time, the implementation of any expulsion order issued against this person shall be prohibited.
4. Providing protection and assistance services shall not be conditioned upon the willingness of victims to make statements and to participate in the prosecution of traffickers.
5. The competent public administration authorities shall inform victims of trafficking in human beings of their rights and about the authorities, institutions, and organizations that are competent in the field of preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting and assisting victims of trafficking.
6. Victims of trafficking in human beings shall be provided protection and assistance by the public administration authorities, the National Committee, and the territorial commissions for combating trafficking in human beings, within the scope of their competencies and in accordance with this Law and other normative acts.
7. Non-governmental organizations active in the field are entitled to grant protection and assistance to victims of trafficking in human beings, including the protection of their interests in a criminal or civil suit.
8. Each time when a competent authority or an international or non-governmental organization active in the field has reasonable grounds to believe that a person is a victim of trafficking in human beings, such person shall be offered all the protection and assistance measures provided for in the present Law.

Article 21. Confidentiality of Private Life of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings

1. The private life and identity of a victim of trafficking in human beings shall be protected. The registration, maintenance, and use of personal information regarding a victim of trafficking shall be done by taking into account the special rules of confidentiality, with the aim of administration of justice and protection of victims only during criminal proceedings.
2. Disclosure of information on the private life and identity of victims of trafficking in human beings and the conditions of these persons’ trafficking is prohibited.
3. It shall be prohibited to disclose information about state protection measures for victims of trafficking in human beings, about the persons who provide such protection, as well as about the persons who provide assistance in combating trafficking in human beings.
4. Observance of the confidentiality of the information provided in paragraphs (1) to 3. shall be the duty of all persons, including those involved in activities to prevent and combat trafficking in human beings and to protect and assist victims, law enforcement bodies, courts, centres provided for in Article 17, as well as social workers.
5. In case the life and health of a victim of trafficking in human beings are threatened by real danger, then she is offered, upon her request, based upon a court ruling, at the request of the prosecutor, of the criminal investigation body, the possibility to change his/her name, surname, date and place of birth, under the terms of the Law on Civil Status Acts and the Law on State Protection of an Injured Party, Witnesses and Other Persons Providing Assistance in Criminal Proceedings.
6. The disclosure of information about safety measures and confidential data regarding victims of trafficking in human beings, as well as disclosure of information about criminal prosecution and measures provided to ensure the safety of the participants at criminal proceedings, shall be punished in compliance with legislation on criminal and administrative offences.

Article 22. Duties of Diplomatic Missions and Consular Offices of the Republic of Moldova for Providing Assistance and Protection to Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings

1. The diplomatic missions and consular offices of the Republic of Moldova shall have the following duties:

a. to carry out activities to protect the rights and interests of citizens of the Republic of Moldova who have become victims of trafficking in human beings in the country of residence or, in countries where they have accredited missions, to contribute to their repatriation in compliance with the legislation of the Republic of Moldova and the legislation of the country of residence;
b. in case of loss or impossibility of recovery of identity documents from the traffickers in human beings, to issue free of charge and in a prompt manner, jointly with the subdivisions of the Ministry of Information Development, documents or any other acts needed for repatriation in the Republic of Moldova by citizens of the Republic of Moldova who have become victims of trafficking in human beings;
c. to distribute to those interested informative materials regarding the rights of victims of trafficking in human beings, according to the legislation of the Republic of Moldova and the legislation of the state of residence;
d. to provide to public administration authorities and judicial bodies of the state of residence or in countries where they have accredited missions information regarding the legislation of the Republic of Moldova in the field of preventing and combating trafficking in human beings, regarding the rights of victims and their protection and assistance, including addresses for the Centres for the Protection and Assistance of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings.

2. The chiefs of diplomatic missions and consular offices shall appoint a diplomat from their missions to be in charge of the application of repatriation procedures for Moldovan citizens who are victims of trafficking in human beings, for their protection and assistance during their stay in the country of transit or destination, as well as for cooperation in this field with the authorities and bodies from the Republic of Moldova.

Article 23. State Guarantees Granted to Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings

1. Courts and criminal prosecution bodies shall grant to victims of trafficking in human beings measures to safeguard their physical safety and rights, as regulated by the Criminal Procedure Code and the Law on State Protection of an Injured Party, Witnesses and Other Persons Providing Assistance in Criminal Proceedings.
2. Victims of trafficking in human beings are entitled to compensation for damages, as provided by the law.

Article 24. Protection and Assistance to Foreign Citizens and Stateless Persons who are Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings

1. The Republic of Moldova shall grant assistance to foreign citizens and stateless persons who are victims of trafficking in human beings upon their voluntary repatriation to their country of origin on an emergency basis and shall ensure their transportation in completely safe conditions to the state border of the Republic of Moldova, unless otherwise provided in international treaties. The victim of trafficking in human beings may not be repatriated or expelled to his/her country of origin or to a third state if, upon estimating the risk and safety, reasons are found to presume that his/her personal safety or the safety of his/her family will be endangered.
2. In order to guarantee protection and assistance to foreign citizens and stateless persons who are victims of trafficking in human beings, they may de referred to the centres provided for in Article 17.
3. Foreign citizens and stateless persons who are victims of trafficking in human beings, as specified in paragraphs (1) and (2), shall be informed in a language they can understand of the judicial and administrative procedures enforced in the Republic of Moldova and in the countries of residence.
4. Foreign citizens and stateless persons who are victims of trafficking in human beings mentioned in paragraph (1) are entitled to a reflection period of 30 days, to psychiatric and psychological counselling, and to medical and social assistance. These persons may also enjoy free of charge legal assistance for the exercise of their rights at all stages of the criminal proceedings and to pursue their civil claims and lawsuits against the persons who perpetrated the crimes connected to trafficking in human beings, as provided by the Criminal Code. In this period of time, the implementation of any expulsion order issued against these persons is forbidden.
5. If foreign citizens and stateless persons who are victims of trafficking in human beings have no identification documents due to their loss, theft, or destruction, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration shall grant, upon the request of the foreign state, assistance in receiving such documents or permits necessary for return to their country of residence.
6. When foreign citizens and stateless persons who are victims of trafficking in human beings, due to their status as a victim, are placed in the centres provided for in Article 17 or when they participate in criminal proceedings against the trafficker, irrespective of their placement in these centres, they shall benefit from temporary residence permits, which may be prolonged, as the case may be.

Article 26. Special Principles for Combating Trafficking in Children
Besides the basic principles enshrined in Article 4, the following special principles shall be taken into account in the activity of preventing and combating trafficking in children and protecting and assisting child victims of such trafficking:

a. strict observance of the rights of the child provided in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Law on the Rights of the Child of the Republic of Moldova;
b. undertaking special protection and assistance measures to a child victim of trafficking in human beings;
c. respecting the opinion of a child victim of trafficking in human beings over 10 years old regarding all actions affecting him/her, taking into account the age, degree of maturity, and his/her best interests;
d. informing the child victim of trafficking in human beings about his/her situation and rights, protection and assistance measures, available services, repatriation procedure, and family reunification process;
e. ensuring that both the identity, as well as any details that may allow for the identification of the child victim of trafficking in human beings, are not made public in any case.

Article 27. Presumption of Age
When the age of the victim of trafficking in human beings is not known but there are reasons to believe that the victim has not yet reached 18 years old, it shall be presumed that the victim is a child, and, until final verification of age, the victim shall be treated as a child, by granting him/her all special protection measures provided for in the present Law and other normative acts.

Article 28. Repatriation of a Child Victim of Trafficking in Human Beings

1. A child victim of trafficking in human beings shall be repatriated to his/her country of origin provided, prior to his/her return, a parent, relative, or legal guardian has given consent to receiving the child into his/her care, or a governmental agency or child protection agency from the country of origin has given consent and is able to undertake responsibility for the child and to grant him/her adequate assistance and protection.
2. Taking a statement regarding a situation of trafficking from children by the criminal prosecution body or the court shall not prevent or delay the family reunification or return of the child victim to his/her country of origin, provided this is in the best interests of the child.
3. When it is not possible to return a child to his/her country of origin or to integrate him/her into the country of destination, or when these solutions are not in the best interests of the child, the authorities of both countries shall secure the relocation of the child victim to a third country, with the approval of the latter.
4. The opinion of the child victim of trafficking in human beings over the age of 10 years shall be taken into consideration when deciding on his/her repatriation or relocation to a third country.
5. The child victim of trafficking in human beings cannot be returned to his/her country of origin or transferred to a third country, if, following the evaluation of the risks and security, there are reasons to believe that the security of the child or his/her family is in danger.
6. Children victims of trafficking in human beings who are foreign citizens or stateless persons are entitled to a temporary visa that ensures their right to legal residence in the territory of the Republic of Moldova until finding a sustainable solution regarding their return to the country of origin.

Article 29. Granting Assistance and Protection to Child Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings

1. The state shall secure the protection and assistance of children victims of trafficking in human beings from the moment when grounds arise to believe that the child is a victim of trafficking until the child’s identification, integration, and his/her complete recovery, irrespectively of their cooperation with the authorities, as provided by Article 20, paragraph (4).
2. After identification as a victim of trafficking in human beings, the child shall be urgently referred to the competent services for child protection, assistance, and rehabilitation.
3. The National Committee, public administration authorities including law enforcement bodies, territorial commissions for the combating of trafficking in human beings, centres, non- governmental organizations, and other competent organizations shall be obliged to inform the tutorship and guardianship bodies immediately if they have any information about a child victim of trafficking in human beings in order to secure the protection of the child’s rights.
4. Where the child victim of trafficking in human beings is deprived of parental care, the tutorship and guardianship bodies shall appoint, as provided by law, a legal guardian, who will ensure that all decisions are taken in the interests of the child, who will make statements on behalf of the child, and who shall participate with the child in all criminal procedure and judicial actions, until a solution is reached in accordance with the best interests of the child.
5. A child identified as victim of trafficking in human beings shall be granted a reflection period of 30 days in order for him/her to decide personally, through his legal representative or guardian, if he/she will testifies against the trafficker.
6. In case of accommodating children victims of trafficking in human beings in centres, they must be accommodated separately from adults.
7. Children victims of trafficking in human beings shall be entitled to accommodation within the centre for a period of up to 6 months or for the duration of the legal proceedings.
8. All the agencies and institutions whose activity is related to children victims of trafficking in human beings shall establish special practices and programmes for their identification, referral, protection and assistance, while at the same time observing the confidentiality of the information regarding the personal data and the victim status of the child.
9. Children victims of trafficking in human beings shall be ensured the right to attend state educational institutions under the terms of the Law on Education.
10. When children victims of trafficking in human beings are left without parental care or do not know their parents’ whereabouts, they shall be ensured the possibility of an emergency search for their family or of instituting tutorship or guardianship, as provided by law.
11. Children who have suffered from trafficking in human beings are entitled to long- term care and protection until complete recovery. Children deprived of a family environment are entitled to alternative family-type or community-type care.

Article 32. Exemption for Victim of Trafficking in Human Beings for Liability for Crimes Committed in Relation to Such Status
A victim of trafficking in human beings shall be exempt from criminal, administrative, and civil liability for actions committed by him/her in relation to his/her status as a victim, if these actions fall under the jurisdiction of the Criminal Code, Code of Administrative Contraventions, or Civil Code.

Codul Penal al Republicii Moldova (Criminal Code) 2002
Article 206. Trafficking in Children

4. A victim of trafficking in children shall be exempted from criminal liability for any crimes committed by him/her in relation to this procedural status.

Article 165. Trafficking in Human Beings

4. The victim of trafficking in human beings shall be exempted from criminal liability for any crimes committed by him/her in reltaion to this procedural status.

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Codul Penal al Republicii Moldova (Criminal Code) 2002
Article 168. Forced Labor
Forcing a person to work against his/her will, keeping a person under servitude for paying off a debt, obtaining labor or services by means of deception, coercion, violence or the threat of violence shall be punished by imprisonment for up to 3 years.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Law on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings No. 241-XVI, 2005
Article 30. Liability for Trafficking in Human Beings

1. Persons participating in the organization and commission of trafficking in human beings activities shall be brought to criminal liability as provided for by the Criminal Code.
2. Crimes of trafficking in human beings have both a national and transnational character. In the latter case, the forms and techniques of investigation and criminal prosecution provided for such crimes by international and national legislation shall be applied.
3. If any of the methods specified in sub-paragraph 1) of Article 2 have been used, the consent of the victim of trafficking in human beings to the intentional exploitation shall be irrelevant to bring the traffickers to criminal liability,
4. Foreign citizens or stateless persons involved in trafficking of human beings shall be refused entrance to the territory of the Republic of Moldova or their entry visas shall be revoked.

Article 31. Liability of Legal Entity for Trafficking in Human Beings

1. If activities of trafficking in human beings are performed through a legal entity that has a license to conduct business activities, and it is established that these business activities served as a disguise for the commission of the above-mentioned illegal actions, then the license shall be withdrawn and the legal entity shall be liquidated based upon a court judgement.
2. The legal entity bears civil liability to the victims of trafficking for the damage inflicted upon them as a result of the actions mentioned in paragraph (1).
3. Bringing a legal entity to justice shall not exclude personal liability of the natural persons who committed the crime of trafficking in human beings.

Codul Penal al Republicii Moldova (Criminal Code) 2002
Article 165. Trafficking in Human Beings

1. The recruitment, transportation, transfer, concealment or receipt of a person, with or without his/her consent, for the purpose of commercial or non-commercial sexual exploitation, for forced labor or services, for begging, for slavery or similar conditions, for use in armed conflicts or criminal activities, for the removal of human organs or tissues committed by:

a. the threat of physical or mental violence not dangerous to the person’s life and health, including kidnapping, the seizure of documents, and servitude for the purpose of paying a debt, the amount of which was not set within a reasonable limit, as well as through the threat of disclosure of confidential information of the family of the victim or of other persons, both individuals and legal entities;
b. deception;
c. the abuse of vulnerability or abuse of power, giving or receiving payments or benefits to get the consent of a person controlling another person;

shall be punished by imprisonment for 5 to 12 years with the deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or to practice certain activities for 2 to 5 years, whereas a legal entity shall be punished by a fine in the amount of 3000 to 5000 conventional units with the deprivation of the right to practice certain activities or the liquidation of the legal entity.

2. The same actions committed:

a. by a person who previously committed an act set forth in par. (1);
b. against two or more persons;
c. against a pregnant woman;
d. by two or more persons;
e. by an official or a high-ranking official;
f. with violence dangerous to the person’s life, physical or mental health;
g. with torture, inhumane or degrading treatment aimed at ensuring the person’s subordination, or with the use of rape, physical dependence, or a weapon;

shall be punished by imprisonment for 7 to 15 years with the deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or to practice certain activities for 2 to 5 years, whereas a legal entity shall be punished by a fine in the amount of 5000 to 7000 conventional units with the deprivation of the right to practice certain activities or the liquidation of the legal entity.

3. The actions set forth in par. (1) or (2):

a. committed by an organized criminal group or by a criminal organization;
b.that cause severe bodily injury or a mental disorder, or the death or his/her suicide;

shall be punished by imprisonment for 10 to 20 years with the deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or to practice certain activities for 3 to 5 years, whereas a legal entity shall be punished by a fine in the amount of 7000 to 9000 conventional units with the deprivation of the right to practice certain activities or the liquidation of the legal entity.

Article 206. Trafficking in Children

1. The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of a child, as well as giving or receiving payments or benefits to obtain the consent of the person who exerts control over the child for the purpose of:

a. commercial or non-commercial sexual exploitation in prostitution or a pornographic industry;
b. exploitation by forced labor or services;
b1. practicing begging or other base purposes;
c. exploitation in slavery or in conditions similar to slavery including illegal adoption;
d. participating in armed conflicts;
e. participating in criminal activities;
f. removing human organs or tissues;
g. abandonment abroad;
h. sale or purchase;

shall be punished by imprisonment for 8 to 12 years with the deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or to practice certain activities for 2 to 5 years, whereas a legal entity shall be punished by a fine in the amount of 3000 to 5000 conventional units with the deprivation of the right to practice certain activities or by the liquidation of the legal entity.

2. The same actions involving:

a. physical or mental violence, the use of weapons or the threat of their use;
b. sexual abuse and violence;
c. the abuse of authority or the child’s vulnerability, the threat of disclosure of
confidential information to the child’s family or to other persons;
[Letters d), e) excluded by Law No. 235-XVI dated 08.11.2007, in force as of 07.12.2007]
f. the removal of human organs or tissues;

shall be punished by imprisonment for 10 to 15 years with the deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or to practice certain activities for 2 to 5 years, whereas a legal entity shall be punished by a fine in amount of 5000 to 7000 conventional units with the deprivation of the right to practice certain activities or by the liquidation of the legal entity.

3. The actions set forth in par. (1) or (2):

a. committed by a person who has previously committed the same actions;
b. committed against two or more children;
c. committed by an official or by a high-ranking official;
d. committed by an organized criminal group or a criminal organization;
e. causing severe bodily injury or mental disorder of the child or his/her death or suicide;
f. committed against a child aged under 14,

shall be punished by imprisonment for 15 to 20 years with the deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or to practice certain activities for 3 to 5 years or with life imprisonment, whereas a legal entity shall be punished by a fine in the amount of 7000 to 9000 conventional units with the deprivation of the right to practice certain activities or by the liquidation of the legal entity.

Penalties, Slavery

Codul Penal al Republicii Moldova (Criminal Code) 2002
Article 167. Slavery and Conditions Similar to Slavery
Placing or keeping a person in conditions where another person owns him/her or forcing the person through deceit, coercion, violence or the threat of violence to enter into or remain in an extramarital or marital relationship shall be punished by imprisonment for 3 to 10 years with (or without) the deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or to practice certain activities for up to 5 years.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protections: General (at Least One)
Social Protections (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protections: Unemployed
Social Protections: Pension
Social Protections: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protections: Poor
Social Protections: Children
Social Protections: Disabled