Data Dashboards

Republic of North Macedonia
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data is only available for 2011. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.748 (2015)

Mean School Years: 9.4 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 22.8% (2014)

Working Poverty Rate: 0.7% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2002
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2005
Social Protections Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 52.2% (2011)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2011. The measure provided for 2011 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2011.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2011 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in FYROM was 2.3 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 6.9 hours in 2005.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005 and 2011.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2011, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 2.8 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2005, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 6.4.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005 and 2011.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 3.4 hours per week according to the 2011 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2011, which found that children aged 5-14 in FYROM worked an average of 3.5 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005 and 2011.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in FYROM.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in FYROM.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data through their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC):The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in FYROM between 2005 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in FYROM is 0.748. This score indicates that human development is high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in FYROM over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2000 and 2014, FYROM showed an increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases the vulnerability of individuals to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

There is no visualization for FYROM as there is not a sufficient amount of data available.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia, 1991
Article 11
The human right to physical and moral dignity is irrevocable. Any form of torture, or inhuman or humiliating conduct or punishment, is prohibited. Forced labour is prohibited.

Child Labour

Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia, 1991
Article 42
The Republic particularly protects mothers, children and minors. A person under 15 years of age cannot be employed. Minors and mothers have the right to particular protection at work. Minors may not be employed in work which is detrimental to their health or morality.

Labour Relations Law, 2005

Chapter XIII: Protection of workers aged less than 18 years
Chapter XXIII: Work of children aged less than 15, pupils and students

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia, 1991
Article 42
The Republic particularly protects mothers, children and minors. A person under 15 years of age cannot be employed. Minors and mothers have the right to particular protection at work. Minors may not be employed in work which is detrimental to their health or morality.

Regulation on Minimum Occupational Safety and Health Requirements for Work of Young Persons, 2012

“Made under Article 47 of the Law on Safety and Health at Work (Official Gazette No. 92/07 and 136/11). Sets out the occupational safety and health procedures and measures that need to be put into place for young workers under the age of 18 years.”

Human Trafficking

Criminal Code, 1996
Trafficking in Human Beings
Article 418-a.1. A person who by force, serious threat misleads or uses other forms of coercion, kidnapping, deceit and abuse of his/her own position or a position of pregnancy, weakness, physical or mental incapability of another person, or by giving or receiving money or other benefits in order to obtain agreement of a person that has control over other person or in any other manner, recruits, transports, transfers, buys, sells, harbors or accepts persons because of exploitation through prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, pornography, forced labor or servitude, slavery, forced marriages, forced fertilization, unlawful adoption, or similar relationship or illicit transplantation of human body parts, shall be punished with imprisonment of at least four years”.
Article 418-a.2. A person who destroys or takes a way an ID, passport or other documents for identification with aim to commit the crimes set out in paragraph 1 of this article shall be punished with at least 4 years of imprisonment.
Article 418-a.3. A person who uses or enables another person to use sexual services or another type of exploitation from persons for whom he knew or was obliged to know that they were victims of human trafficking shall be punished with imprisonment of 6 months up to 5 years.
Article 418-a.4. If the crime referred to in paragraphs (1), (2) and (3) of this article is committed by an official person while performing his/her duties, he/she shall be sentenced to imprisonment of at least eight years.
Article 418-a.5. The consent of the human trafficking victim in relation to the intent for exploitation, as referred to in paragraph (1), shall not bear any importance regarding the existence of the criminal offence as referred to in paragraph (1).
Article 418-a.6. If the action in this article is committed by a legal entity it shall be fined.
Article 418-a.7. The real estate, the items and means of transport used for committing the crime shall be confiscated.

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Action Plan against Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migration (2013–2016)

“Focuses on preventing human trafficking by reducing the vulnerability of at-risk populations, reducing the demand for the purchase of sexual services, improving victim identification, and increasing efforts to combat human trafficking for the purposes of forced begging and other forms of labor exploitation. It was reported that the level of implementation was positive for the National Action Plan during the 2013–2016 period.”

National Strategy for the Fight Against Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010–2020)

“Addresses social protection, social inclusion, health, education, and employment of children. Aims to increase birth registration for Roma and other minorities, expand patrol services to identify and support street children, and improve the provision of social services for children involved in street work and begging. Implemented by the MLSP.”

National Action Plan for Education (2016–2020)

“Aims to increase inclusive education and improve education for the Roma community by increasing the number of students in preschool and elementary schools and decreasing the number of Roma students in primary schools for children with special needs.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1991

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 2003

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 1991 

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2002

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Succession 1994

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2005

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Succession 1993

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2004

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2003

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Child Labour

Règlement de 2008 sur le format, le contenu et la tenue du registre appliquant les mesures d’aide et de protection des enfants et des mineurs en situation de risque.

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Law on Criminal Procedure, 2010
Article 232
Examination of extremely vulnerable victims and witnesses
1. If the entity conducting the procedure establishes that the injured party or the witness, having in mind his or her age, healthcare condition, the nature and the consequences of the criminal offense, i.e. due to other circumstances of that case, are extremely vulnerable, such as juvenile persons that are victims of human trafficking, violence or sexual abuse, and that the examination at the facilities of the entity conducting the procedure would have harmful consequences for their mental or physical health, they shall be examined in a manner as prescribed in this Article.
2. If the entity conducting the procedure believes it necessary for the purpose of helping the injured party or the witness as referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, it shall assign a legal representative to him or her.
3. Any questions to the injured party and the witness referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article may be asked only through the entity conducting the procedure, which shall treat such a person with special care in order to avoid any harmful consequences of the criminal procedure on his or her personality, mental and physical health.
4. The examination of the injured party and the witness referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article may be conducted with the assistance of a psychologist, social worker or another competent person, and the entity that conducts the procedure may decide for the person to be examined with the use of technical devices for transfer of picture and sound, without the presence of the parties and other participants in the procedure in the same room together with the injured party or the witness, whereas the parties, defense counsel and other persons that have the right, shall ask questions through the entity conducting the procedure, a psychologist, pedagogue, social worker or another competent person.
5. The court may exclude the public during the examination of the injured party or the witness referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.
6. The injured party or the witness referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall not be confronted with the defendant, and they may be confronted with other witnesses only upon their own request.

Law on Foreigners, 2006
II. 2. Temporary Residence Permit for Different Purposes
k. Temporary residence permit for humanitarian reasons
Article 80
Temporary residence permit for humanitarian reasons can be issued as an exception to a foreigner who does not fulfill the requirements for issue of a temporary residence permit determined by this Law in the following cases: – if there are grounds for suspicion that he/she is a victim of the criminal act “human trafficking” determined in the Criminal Code, – if the foreigner is under 18 years of age, and is left unaccompanied by a parent or guardian, – if he/she is a person with no citizenship, or – other well-founded reasons of humanitarian nature. The permit referred to in paragraph 1 lines 2, 3 and 4 of this Article shall be issued for a period of up to one year and can be extended provided that the humanitarian reasons still exist.

I.1. Temporary Residence Permit of Victims of Human Trafficking
Period of making a decision
Article 81
In case of suspicion that a foreigner is a victim of the criminal act “human trafficking” determined in the Criminal Code, the period of making a decision shall last up to two months so as to provide him/her protection and assistance in the recovery and to avoid the influence of the perpetrators of the criminal act “human trafficking”. Within this period of making a decision, the foreigner who is a victim of the human trafficking is to decide on either to cooperate with the competent bodies in detection of crimes and perpetrators or to return to the country whose citizen or legal resident he/she is.
The foreigner referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article during the period of making a decision shall be accommodated in a separate room in the Reception Center for Foreigners of the Ministry of the Interior.
In the case when minors under age of 18 are victims of human trafficking, in view of the best interest of the minors, the period referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article can be extended.
The victims of human trafficking referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article during the period of making a decision shall be accommodated in a separate room in the Reception Center for Foreigners of the Ministry of the Interior.
During the period referred to in paragraphs 1 and 3 of this Article, the foreigner cannot be expelled from the Republic of Macedonia. The period referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article can be interrupted, if:
the foreigner voluntarily, actively or on his/her initiative renews his/her contacts with the suspects involved in committing the criminal act “human trafficking” or
the reasons for protection of the public order and national security of the Republic of Macedonia require so.
The Ministry of the Interior shall bring a decision on interruption of the period for making a decision against which the foreigner has a right to lodge a complaint to the State Commission for Decision Making in Administrative Procedure and Labor Relations Procedure in Second Instance within eight days as of the day of the receipt of the decision.
The decision of the State Commission for Decision-making in Administrative Procedure and Labor Relations Procedure in Second Instance shall be brought within 30 days as of the day of lodging the complaint.
An administrative dispute can be initiated with a competent court, in accordance with the Law on Administrative Disputes, against the decision of the State Commission for Decision-making in Administrative Procedure and Labor Relations Procedure in Second Instance.

Costs incurred in the period of making a decision
Article 81-a
The costs incurred in accommodating the foreigner who is a victim of human trafficking in the Reception Center of the Ministry of the Interior in the period of making a decision shall be charged against the Budget of the Republic of Macedonia.
Requirements for issue of a temporary residence permit and duration
Article 82
After the expiry of the period of making a decision referred to in Article 81 of this Law or earlier if the competent bodies estimate that the foreigner shows a clear intention to cooperate, the foreigner who is a victim of human trafficking can be issued a temporary residence permit, provided that:
his/her stay in the Republic of Macedonia is necessary for conducting the court proceedings,
he/she shows a clear intention to cooperate with the competent state bodies in detection of the crimes and the perpetrators, and
he/she has ceased his/her relations with the suspects involved in conducting the criminal act “human trafficking”.
The permit referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall be issued for a period of up to six months and it shall be extended provided that the requirements determined in paragraph 1 of this Article are met.

Deprivation of the right to temporary residence
Article 83
The victims of human trafficking can be deprived of the right to temporary residence if the requirements for temporary residence determined in Article 82 of this Law are no longer met, and especially if:
the foreigner referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article actively, voluntarily or on his/her initiative renews his/her contacts with the suspects involved in the criminal act of human trafficking or it is established that the foreigner’s co-operation with the state bodies is false or fraudulent,
the reasons for protection of public order and nationality security of the Republic of Macedonia require so,
the foreigner referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article stops cooperating with the state bodies in detection of the crimes and perpetrators, or
the competent state bodies decide to stop the procedure.

VI. Illegal Stay
Article 100
A foreigner is deemed to illegally stay in the Republic of Macedonia, if:
he/she enters the country with no authorization;
he/she does not possess a valid and recognized travel document supplied with a visa or residence permit,
his/her visa is annulled, revoked, or its validity is reduced,
upon expiry of the visa validity,
he/she is deprived of the right to residence,
he/she stays longer than three months in any half-year period as of the day of first entry into the Republic of Macedonia and is not subjected to visa requirement, or – in the procedure upon his/her application for recognition of the right to asylum is finally rejected and does not leave the territory of the Republic of Macedonia within the specified period.
The provision referred to in paragraph 1 line 1 of this Article shall not apply to a foreigner for whom there is a grounded suspicion to be a victim of a criminal act “human trafficking” in case the unauthorized entry is a consequence of the criminal act “human trafficking”.
The provision referred to in paragraph 1 line 1 of this Article shall not apply to a foreigner who has applied for recognition of the right to asylum in accordance with the Law on Asylum and Temporary Protection.

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Relations Law, 2005

Chapter XXVI: Penal provisions

Loi du 24 octobre 2013 sur la justice des enfants.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Criminal Code, 1996
Trafficking in Human Beings
Article 418-a.1. A person who by force, serious threat misleads or uses other forms of coercion, kidnapping, deceit and abuse of his/her own position or a position of pregnancy, weakness, physical or mental incapability of another person, or by giving or receiving money or other benefits in order to obtain agreement of a person that has control over other person or in any other manner, recruits, transports, transfers, buys, sells, harbors or accepts persons because of exploitation through prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, pornography, forced labor or servitude, slavery, forced marriages, forced fertilization, unlawful adoption, or similar relationship or illicit transplantation of human body parts, shall be punished with imprisonment of at least four years”.
Article 418-a.2. A person who destroys or takes a way an ID, passport or other documents for identification with aim to commit the crimes set out in paragraph 1 of this article shall be punished with at least 4 years of imprisonment.
Article 418-a.3. A person who uses or enables another person to use sexual services or another type of exploitation from persons for whom he knew or was obliged to know that they were victims of human trafficking shall be punished with imprisonment of 6 months up to 5 years.
Article 418-a.4. If the crime referred to in paragraphs (1), (2) and (3) of this article is committed by an official person while performing his/her duties, he/she shall be sentenced to imprisonment of at least eight years.
Article 418-a.5. The consent of the human trafficking victim in relation to the intent for exploitation, as referred to in paragraph (1), shall not bear any importance regarding the existence of the criminal offence as referred to in paragraph (1).
Article 418-a.6. If the action in this article is committed by a legal entity it shall be fined.
Article 418-a.7. The real estate, the items and means of transport used for committing the crime shall be confiscated.

Organization of a group and urging for commitment of the crimes human trafficking, trafficking of juveniles and smuggling of migrants
Article 418-c.1. One who will organize a group, gang or other association with intention to commit crimes stipulated in the articles 418-a, 418-b and 418-d, shall be sentenced with imprisonment of at least eight years.
Article 418-c.2. One who will become a member of a group, gang or other association stipulated in paragraph 1 or in other way helps the group, gang or association, shall be sentenced with imprisonment of at least one year.
Article 418-c.3. The member of the group stipulated in the paragraph 1 who will disclose the group before he/she commits a crime as its member or on its behalf, shall be pardoned.
Article 418-c.4. One that calls, urges or supports commitment of the crimes stipulated in the articles 418-a, 418-b and 418-d shall be sentenced with imprisonment of one to ten years.

Trafficking in juveniles
Article 418-d.1. Any person who recruits, transports, transfers, buys, sells, harbours or accepts a juvenile for the purpose of exploitation by prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, pornography, forced labour or servitude, slavery, forced marriage, forced fertilization, illegal adoption or similar relationship, or illegal transplantation of human organs, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of at least eight years.
Article 418-d.2. Any person who commits the crime as referred to in paragraph (1) by using force, serious threats, delusion, or other form of coercion, abduction, deception, or abuses his or hers position or conditions of pregnancy, disability or physical or mental incapability of another person, or by giving or taking money or other benefits in order to get consent from a person who has control over another person, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of at least ten years.
Article 418-d.3. Any person who uses or enables another person to use sexual services or other type of exploitation of a juvenile person, for whom he or she knew or was obliged to know that the person is a victim of human trafficking, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of at least eight years.
Article 418-d.4. Any person who takes away or destroys a personal identification card, passport or other identification document that belongs to another person, for the purpose of committing the crime as referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2), shall be sentenced to imprisonment of at least four years.
Article 418-d.5. If the crime referred to in paragraphs (1), (2), (3) and (4) of this article is committed by an official person while performing his/her duties, he/she shall be sentenced to imprisonment of at least ten years.
Article 418-d.6. The consent of the juvenile person in relation to the activities as referred to in paragraph (1), shall bear no importance regarding the existence of the criminal offence as referred to in paragraph (1).
Article 418-d.7. If the crime referred to in this article has been committed by a legal entity, it shall be punished with a monetary fine.
Article 418-d.8. Any real estate and the items or transport vehicles used to commit the crime shall be seized.

Penalties, Slavery

Criminal Code, 1996
Founding a slave relationship and transportation of persons in slavery
Article 418.1. A person who by violating the rules of international law places another in slavery or in some similar relationship, or keeps him under such relationship, buys him, sells him, hands him over to another, or mediates in the buying, selling or handing over of such a person, or instigates another to sell his freedom or the freedom of a person he is keeping or caring for, shall be punished with imprisonment of one to ten years.
Article 418.2. A person, who transports persons under a slavery or similar relationship from one country to another, shall be punished with imprisonment of six months to five years.
Article 418.3. A person, who commits the crime from items 1 and 2 against a juvenile, shall be punished with imprisonment of at least five years.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protections: General (at Least One)
Social Protections (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protections: Unemployed
Social Protections: Pension
Social Protections: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protections: Poor
Social Protections: Children
Social Protections: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Macedonia. If you are a representative of Macedonia and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us at info@delta87.org.