Data Dashboards

Russian Federation
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.824 (2018)

Mean School Years: 12.0 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 5.3% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 0.0% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2019
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2003
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2004
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 90.1% (2017)

Unemployed: 82.7% (2017)

Pension: 100% (2017)

Vulnerable: 54.5% (2016)

Children: 100% (2017)

Disabled: 99.8% (2017)

Poor: 99.0% (2017)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Russian Federation.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Russian Federation.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Russian Federation.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

 

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Russian Federation between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Russian Federation is 0.824. This score indicates that human development is very high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Russian Federation over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Russia showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

 

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status. 

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Russian Federation.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Labour Code, 2001

“Article 2. Main Principles of the Legal Regulation of Labour Relations and Other Relations Directly Associated with Them
Proceeding from the generally accepted principles and norms of international law and pursuant to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the main principles of the legal regulation of labour relations and other relations directly associated with them shall be:
freedom of work, including the right to work, which is chosen freely by everybody, or to which everybody agrees freely, the right to be the master of one’s own abilities to work, to choose a profession and occupation;
prohibition of forced labour and discrimination in the labour sphere;”

“Article 4. Prohibition of Forced Labour
Forced labour shall be prohibited.
Forced labour is the carrying out of work under the threat of punishment (violence), in particular: to maintain labour discipline;
as retribution for participation in a strike;
as a means of mobilization and use of work force for the needs of economic development;
as a measure of punishment for the presence or expression of political views or ideological
convictions contradicting the established political, social or economic system;
as a measure of discrimination according to racial, social, national or religious affiliation.
“”Forced labour”” also means work which an employee is made to perform under the threat of any
punishment (duress) while in accordance with the present Code or other federal laws he is entitled to refuse to perform such, in particular, in connection with the following:
a breach of the established term for paying his wage/salary or the incomplete payment thereof;
the occurrence of a direct threat to the employee’s life and health due to a breach of labour protection standards, in particular, the failure to provide him with collective or individual protection facilities in accordance with the established regulations.
For the purposes of the present Code enforced labour does not include the following:
work the performance of which is stipulated by the legislation on military duty and military service or alternative civil service in place thereof;
work the performance of which is due to the declaration of a state of emergency or martial law in the procedure established by federal constitutional laws;
work performed in extraordinary circumstances, i.e. in the case of a disaster or threat of a disaster (fire, flood, famine, earthquake, epidemic or epizootic), and in other cases endangering the life or normal living conditions of the whole population or of a part thereof;
work performed as a result of a court’s sentence that has become final under the supervision of the state bodies charged with observance of the legislation in execution of court sentences.”

Child Labour

Labour Code, 2001

“Article 20. Parties to Labour Relations
The parties to labour relations are as follows: an employee and an employer.
Employee means a natural person who has entered into labour relations with an employer.
A person may enter into labour relations as an employee if he/she has reached the age of 16, and also if he/she has not reached that age in the cases and the procedure established by the present Code.”

“Article 63. Age from Which It Is Permitted to Conclude a Labour Contract
Conclusion of a labour contract shall be permitted with persons having reached sixteen years of age.
In the case of receiving a general education or the continuation of studying under a basic general education curriculum in an education form other than daytime study or leaving the secondary educational institution in compliance with Federal law, a labour contract may be concluded by persons having reached fifteen years of age for the purpose of carrying out light work that does not harm their health.
With the consent of one of the parents or the guardianship body, a labour contract may be concluded with a student having reached fourteen years of age to carry out easy work not that does not harm his/her health or interfere in the process of study in the time free from study.
In organisations of cinematography, theatres, theatrical and concert organisations, circuses, it is permitted to conclude, with consent of one of the parents (guardian) or permission of the guardianship body, a labour contract with persons less than fourteen years of age to take part in the creation and/or performance (exhibition) of the pieces of art, if this does not damage health or moral development. In this case the labour contract shall be signed on behalf of the employee by the parent (guardian). The permission of the trusteeship and guardianship body shall include an indication of the duration of the daily working hours and the other conditions under which the work may be performed.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Government Decree No. 163 of 25 February 2000 to approve the list of arduous jobs and jobs with harmful or dangerous working conditions, forbidden to persons less than 18 years of age (Text No. 1131

Labour Code, 2001

“Article 96. Night-Time Work
Night time is the time from 22:00 through 6:00 .
The length of night-time work (shift) is reduced by one hour without the need to subsequently
work this off.
Night-time work (shift) is not reduced for employees enjoying reduced length of work, as well as
for employees hired especially for night-time work if otherwise is not envisaged in the collective contract. The length of night-time work shall be equal to the length of the day-time work in cases when it is necessary according to the conditions of work, as well as in shift work with a six-day working week arrangement with one day-off. The list of the mentioned jobs may be defined in the collective contract or
local normative act.
Night-time work is not permitted for: expectant mothers; employees under eighteen years of age except for those engaged in creation and/or performance of works of art and other categories of employees in compliance with the present Code and other federal laws.”

“Article 268. Prohibition on Dispatching Workers under the Age of Eighteen on Business Travel or Assigning Them to Work Overtime or at Night, on Weekends, or on Public Holidays
It shall be prohibited for workers under the age of eighteen to be dispatched on business travel or assigned to work overtime or at night, on weekends, or on public holidays (with the exception of creative workers in the mass information media, workers in cinematic, television and video shooting teams, theaters, theatrical and concert organisations and circuses, other persons participating in the creation and/or performance (exhibition) of creative productions, and professional athletes, in accordance with lists of works, occupations and positions of these employees approved by the Government of the Russian Federation, with consideration given to the opinion of the Russian Trilateral Commission on the Regulation of Social and Labour Relations.”

Labour Code, 2001 amend. Federal Law No. 58-FZ, 2013

“Chapter 42. Special Features in Regulating the Labour of Workers under the Age of Eighteen
Article 265. Jobs in Which the Employment of Persons under the Age of Eighteen is Prohibited
It shall be prohibited to employ persons under the age of eighteen in jobs involving harmful and/or dangerous work conditions, underground work, and jobs that could cause harm to their health and moral development (gambling businesses, cabarets and nightclubs, and the production, transportation, and sale
of alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, and narcotic and other toxic compounds).
It shall be prohibited for workers under the age of eighteen to carry or move loads in excess of
the limits established for them.
A list of jobs in which the employment of persons under the age of eighteen is prohibited, as well as maximum loads to be carried, shall be approved following procedures established by the Government of the Russian Federation, with consideration given to the opinion of the Russian Trilateral Commission on the Regulation of Social and Labour Relations.
ABOVE MAY DIFFER “”Introduces, inter alia, minor wording changes to Part I of article 265 (job restrictions for employees under 18 years old) of the Labour Code.”””

Act 124-FZ on basic guarantees of children’s right sin the russian Federation, 1998 amend. Federal Law No. 58-FZ, 2013

“””Introduces, inter alia, minor wording changes to Part I of article 265 (job restrictions for employees under 18 years old) of the Labour Code.
Amends Federal Law of 1998 on basic guarantees of children’s rights. The main amendments concern article 1 of the Law introducing clarifications and new definitions on basic concepts of the law and the addition of a new article 14.2 (Measures to Prevent Child Trafficking and Exploitation).”””

Human Trafficking

Criminal Code, 1996 as amend. to 2012

Article 127.1. Human Beings’ Trafficking 1. The purchase-and-sale of a human being, other transactions with respect to a person, as well as the recruiting, carriage, transfer, concealment or receiving performed for the purpose of his or her exploitation – shall be punishable by compulsory labour for a term of up to five years or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to six years. Federal Law No. 14-FZ of February 29, 2012 amended part 2 of Article 127.1 of this Code 2. The same deeds committed: a) in respect of two or more persons; b) in respect of a minor; c) by a person through his official position; d) moving the victim across the State Border of the Russian Federation or illegally keeping him abroad; e) using forged documents, as well as seizing, concealing or destroying the documents certifying the identity of the victim; f) with application of force or with the threat of applying it; g) for the purpose of cutting out the victim’s organs and tissues; h) with respect to a person who is, knowingly for the guilty person, in a helpless state or is materially or otherwise dependent on the guilty person; i) with respect to a woman who, knowingly for the guilty person, is in the state of pregnancy, – shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of three to ten years with deprivation of the right to hold definite offices or to engage in definite activities for a term of up to fifteen years or without such and with restriction of liberty for a term of up to two years or without such. 3. The deeds provided for by Parts One and Two of this Article: a) which have entailed the victim’s death by negligence, the infliction of major damage to the victim’s health or other grave consequences; b) committed in a way posing a danger to the life or health of many people; c) committed by an organised group – Shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of from eight to 15 years with restriction of liberty for a term of up to two years or without such. Note. 1. A person who has committed for the first time the deeds provided for by Part One or Item “a” of Part Two of this Article, has voluntarily released the victim and has contributed to solving the crime shall be released from criminal liability if there are no other formal components of a crime in his acts. 2. The exploitation of a person shall mean in this Article the use of the engagement in prostitution by other persons and other forms of sexual exploitation, slave labour (services), subjection.

Slave Labour

Criminal Code, 1996 as amend. to 2012

Article 127.2 Use of Slave Labour 1. Using the labour of a person in respect of which authority is exercised which is akin to ownership, where the person cannot refuse to carry out works (services) for reasons independent of him – shall be punishable by compulsory labour for a term of up to five years or by deprivation of liberty for the same term. Federal Law No. 14-FZ of February 29, 2012 amended part 2 of Article 127.2 of this Code 2. The same deed committed: a) in respect of two or more persons; b) in respect of a minor; c) by a person through his official position; d) with the use of blackmail, violence or with the threat of using it; e) with the seizure, concealment or destruction of the documents certifying the identity of the victim – shall be punishable by compulsory labour for a term of up to five years or by deprivation of liberty for a term of three years to ten years with deprivation of the right to hold definite offices or to engage in definite activities for a term of up to fifteen years or without such. 3. The deeds provided for by Parts One and Two of this Article which have entailed the victim’s death by negligence, infliction of major damage to the victim’s health or other grave consequences, or which have been committed by an organised group – shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of from eight to 15 years with restriction of liberty for a term of up to one year or without such.

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Federal Law on State Protection for Victims, Witnesses and Other Participants in Criminal Proceedings, 2004

Act 124-FZ on basic guarantees of children’s rights in the Russian Federation, 1998

Law No. 324-FZ of 21 November 2011 on Free of Charge Legal Assistance

Criminal Code, 1996 as amend. to 2012

“Article 61. Circumstances Mitigating Punishment
1. The following circumstances shall be deemed to be mitigating circumstances:
Federal Law No. 420-FZ of December 7, 2011 amended Item (a) of part 1 of Article 61 of this Code

a) commission of a crime of light or medium gravity in consequence of a coincidence of circumstances;
b) the guilty person being a minor;
c) pregnancy;
d) the guilty person being responsible for his infant children;
e) commission of crime in consequence of a coincidence of personal circumstance, or out of compassion;
f) commission of a crime as a result of physical or mental coercion, or by reason of material, official, or any other dependence;
g) commission of crime through a breach of the lawful conditions for necessary defence, the detention of a person who has perpetrated the crime, extreme necessity, justified risk, or the execution of orders or instructions;
h) the illegality or amorality of the victim’s behavior, which served as a pretext for the crime;
i) giving oneself up, rendering active assistance in the clearance and investigation of a crime, the exposure and criminal prosecution of other accomplices in the crime, the search for property received through crime;
j) rendering of medical or other aid to the victim after the commission of the crime, voluntary compensation for material loss and mental injury caused as a result of the crime, and other actions of effecting restitution of damage caused to the victim.

2. In imposing punishment, the court of law may take into consideration other mitigating circumstances not provided for by the first part of this Article.
3. If a mitigating circumstance is provided for by the corresponding Article of the Special Part of this Code as an element of another crime, then in itself it may not be considered for that second crime.”

Penalties
Penalties, General

Administrative Offences Code, 2001

“Article 18.15. Unlawful Engagement of a Foreign Citizen or Stateless Person in Labour Activities in the Russian Federation
1. The engagement in labour activities in the Russian Federation of a foreign citizen or stateless person, if this foreign citizen or stateless person does not hold a labour permit or licence and if such permit or licence are required under federal law, –
shall entail the imposition of an administrative fine upon citizens in the amount of two thousand to five thousand roubles, upon officials in the amount of twenty five thousand to fifty thousand roubles and upon legal entities in the amount of two hundred and fifty thousand to eight hundred thousand roubles, or an administrative suspension of activities for a term up to 90 days.
2. The engagement in labour activities in the Russian Federation of a foreign citizen or a stateless person without receiving in the established procedure a permit to engage and use foreign workers, if such permit is required in compliance with the federal laws –
shall entail the imposition of an administrative fine upon citizens in the amount of two thousand to five thousand roubles, upon officials in the amount of twenty five thousand to fifty thousand roubles and upon legal entities in the amount of two hundred and fifty thousand to eight hundred thousand roubles or an administrative suspension of activities for a term up to 90 days.
3. Failure to notify a territorial agency of the federal executive body authorized to exercise the functions of control and supervision in the area of migration, or the executive body which is in charge of the population’s employment in the appropriate constituent entity of the
Russian Federation or a tax authority of engaging a foreign citizen or a stateless person in labour activities in the Russian Federation, if such notification is required in compliance with the federal laws –
shall entail the imposition of an administrative fine upon citizens in the amount of two thousand to five thousand roubles, upon officials in the amount of thirty five thousand to fifty thousand roubles and upon legal entities in the amount of four hundred thousand to eight hundred thousand roubles or an administrative suspension of activities for a term of up to 90 days.

Notes:
1. For the purposes of this Article, engagement in labour activities in the Russian Federation of a foreign citizen or a stateless person shall mean admittance in any form to carrying out work or rendering services, or other use of the foreign citizen’s or the stateless person’s labour.
2. In the event of unlawful engagement in labour activities in the Russian Federation of two and more foreign citizens and (or) stateless persons, each foreign person or stateless person shall be held administratively liable on an individual basis under this Article for violating the rules for engagement of foreign citizens and stateless persons (including foreign workers) in labour activities in the Russian Federation.”

Criminal Code, 1996 as amend. to 2012

Article 136. Violation of the Equality of Human and Civil Rights and Freedoms Discrimination, that is, violation of the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of man and citizen based on gender, race, nationality, language, origin, property or official status, place or residence, attitude to religion, convictions, or affiliation with public associations or any social groups, made by a person through the use of the official position thereof – shall be punishable with a fine in the amount of 100 thousand to 300 thousand roubles, or in the amount of a wage/salary or any other income of the convicted person for a period of one year to two years, or by deprivation of the right to hold specified offices or engage in specified activities for a term of up to five years, or by obligatory labour for a term of up to four hundred and eighty hours, or by corrective labour for a term of up to two years, or by deprivation of liberty for the same term

Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Code, 2001

“Chapter 62. Liability for Violations of Labour Law and Other Acts Containing Labour Law Norms Article 419. Types of Liability for Violations of Labour Law and Other Acts Containing Labour Law Norms
Persons guilty of violating labour law and other acts containing labour law norms shall be held to disciplinarily and materially liable, following the procedures established by the Code and other federal laws, and shall also be held civilly, administratively, and criminally liable following procedures established by federal laws.”

Criminal Code, 1996 as amend. to 2012

Article 143. Violation of Labour Protection Rules 1. Violation of safety rules or any other labour protection rules, committed by a person who has the duty of observing these rules, if this entailed by negligence the infliction of grave injury to the victim, shall be punishable with a fine in an amount of 100 thousand roubles to 300 thousand roubles or in the amount of a wage/salary or other income of the convicted person for a term of one year to two years, or by compulsory labour for a term of up to four years, or by deprivation of freedom for the same term. 2. The same act entailing, by negligence, the death of a person, shall be punishable with a fine in an amount of up to 200 thousand roubles, or in the amount of a wage/salary, or any other income of the convicted person for a period of up to eighteen months, or by obligatory labour for a term of up to four hundred and eighty hours, or by corrective labour for a term of up to two years, or by compulsory works for a term of up to one year, or by deprivation of liberty for the same term.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Criminal Code, 1996 as amend. to 2012

“Article 127.1. Human Beings’ Trafficking
1. The purchase-and-sale of a human being, other transactions with respect to a person, as well as the recruiting, carriage, transfer, concealment or receiving performed for the purpose of his or her exploitation –
shall be punishable by compulsory labour for a term of up to five years or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to six years.
Federal Law No. 14-FZ of February 29, 2012 amended part 2 of Article 127.1 of this Code
2. The same deeds committed:

a) in respect of two or more persons;
b) in respect of a minor;
c) by a person through his official position;
d) moving the victim across the State Border of the Russian Federation or illegally
keeping him abroad;
e) using forged documents, as well as seizing, concealing or destroying the documents certifying the identity of the victim;
f) with application of force or with the threat of applying it;
g) for the purpose of cutting out the victim’s organs and tissues;
h) with respect to a person who is, knowingly for the guilty person, in a helpless state or is materially or otherwise dependent on the guilty person;
i) with respect to a woman who, knowingly for the guilty person, is in the state of pregnancy, –
shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of three to ten years with deprivation of the right to hold definite offices or to engage in definite activities for a term of up to fifteen years or without such and with restriction of liberty for a term of up to two years or without such.

3. The deeds provided for by Parts One and Two of this Article:

a) which have entailed the victim’s death by negligence, the infliction of major damage to
the victim’s health or other grave consequences;
b) committed in a way posing a danger to the life or health of many people;
c) committed by an organised group –

Shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of from eight to 15 years with
restriction of liberty for a term of up to two years or without such.
Note. 1. A person who has committed for the first time the deeds provided for by Part One or Item (a) of Part Two of this Article, has voluntarily released the victim and has contributed to solving the crime shall be released from criminal liability if there are no other formal components of a crime in his acts.
2. The exploitation of a person shall mean in this Article the use of the engagement in prostitution by other persons and other forms of sexual exploitation, slave labour (services), subjection.”

Penalties, Slavery

Criminal Code, 1996 as amend. to 2012

Article 127.2 Use of Slave Labour 1. Using the labour of a person in respect of which authority is exercised which is akin to ownership, where the person cannot refuse to carry out works (services) for reasons independent of him – shall be punishable by compulsory labour for a term of up to five years or by deprivation of liberty for the same term. Federal Law No. 14-FZ of February 29, 2012 amended part 2 of Article 127.2 of this Code 2. The same deed committed: a) in respect of two or more persons; b) in respect of a minor; c) by a person through his official position; d) with the use of blackmail, violence or with the threat of using it; e) with the seizure, concealment or destruction of the documents certifying the identity of the victim – shall be punishable by compulsory labour for a term of up to five years or by deprivation of liberty for a term of three years to ten years with deprivation of the right to hold definite offices or to engage in definite activities for a term of up to fifteen years or without such. 3. The deeds provided for by Parts One and Two of this Article which have entailed the victim’s death by negligence, infliction of major damage to the victim’s health or other grave consequences, or which have been committed by an organised group – shall be punishable by deprivation of liberty for a term of from eight to 15 years with restriction of liberty for a term of up to one year or without such.

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from the Russian Federation. If you are a representative of the Russian Federation and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.