Data Dashboards

Rwanda
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour between 2001 and 2014 decreased by 62%.

-62%

2001-2014

Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF Data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.498 (2015)

Mean School Years: 3.8 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 77.7% (2012)

Working Poverty Rate: 41.6% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2003
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

 

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes: 

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Rwanda, the percentage of child labourers has decreased overall from 2001 to 2014. The measures provided for 2011 and 2014 do not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2008.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Rwanda, the estimates show that 4.5 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2008. The number is higher than in 2006, and has increased from 3.5 percent in 2001. The measures provided for 2000, 2010, 2011 and 2014 do not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2008.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Rwanda, the estimates show that 23.7 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2008. The percentage is higher than in 2006, and has increased from 19 percent in 2001. The measures provided for 2011 and 2014 do not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2008.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2014 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Rwanda was 18.2 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 17.3 hours in 2011.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2008.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2014, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 33.6 hours per week. This number has increased since 2011, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 31.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2008.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week for children aged 5-14.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 14 hours per week according to the 2014 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2011, which found that children aged 5-14 in Rwanda worked an average of 15.8 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2008.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Rwanda is from 2014. By the 2014 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Other Services sector and the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Rwanda.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Rwanda.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Rwanda between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that average human development score in Rwanda is 0.498. This score indicates that human development is low.

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Rwanda over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

In 2012, the only year for which data is provided, the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment was 77.7 percent.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by age groupings and sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Rwanda.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution de la République rwandaise, 2003
Article 37: Toute personne a droit au libre choix de son travail.
A compétence et capacité égales, toute personne a droit, sans aucune discrimination, à un salaire égal pour un travail égal.

Loi n° 13/2009 du 27 mai 2009 portant réglementation du travail au Rwanda.
Article 8: Prohibition of forced works
It shall be an offence to cause, to provocate, to allow or to impose, directly or indirectly, forced works whatsoever.
However, forced labor shall not include:

1. Any kind of work executed in accordance with the law governing military service;
2. Any kind of work executed for the purpose of implementing the civic education;
3. Any kind of work or service which is part of the normal civic obligations of the citizens of Rwanda;
4. Any kind of work or service required of a person according to a decision of the court and which is executed under the responsibility and control of a public institution or authority;
5. Any work or service required in case of an emergency such as during the time of war or disaster.

Child Labour

Loi organique n° 01/2012/OL du 2 mai 2012 portant Code pénal.
Article 217: Definition of the child
For the purposes of this Organic Law, a child means every human being aged under eighteen (18) years unless otherwise provided by other laws.

Loi n° 13/2009 du 27 mai 2009 portant réglementation du travail au Rwanda.
Article 4: Child labour
It is prohibited to employ a child in any company, even as apprentice, before the age of sixteen (16).
A child aged between sixteen (16) and eighteen (18) may be employed under the provisions of articles 5, 6 and 7 of this law.
Article 5: Child’s rest
The rest between two working periods for a child shall be of a minimum duration of twelve (12) consecutive hours.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Loi n° 13/2009 du 27 mai 2009 portant réglementation du travail au Rwanda.
Article 6: Prohibited work for children
The child shall be subject to the work which is proportionate to his/her capacity. The child cannot be employed in the nocturnal, laborious, unsanitary or dangerous services for his/her health as well as his/her education and morality.
Article 72: Protection of children against worst forms of child labour
It shall be an offence to subject those children aged under eighteen (18) years to “worst forms of child labour “:
The” worst forms of child labor” includes:

1. to indulge children in slavery or similar practices;
2. children trafficking;
3. to turn them into debt bondage;
4. to have them replace grown-ups in forced labour;
5. to use them in conflicts and wars;
6. the recruitment, use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution or for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances;
7. the use, recruitment and procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities such as manufacture and marketing of drugs;
8. the work which is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of a child.

Article 73: Nature of the worst forms of child works and prevention mechanisms
An order of the Minister in charge of labour shall determine the list of worst forms of child labour, their nature, categories of institutions that are not allowed to use them and their prevention mechanisms.

Human Trafficking

Loi organique n° 01/2012/OL du 2 mai 2012 portant Code pénal.
Article 250: Definitions of terms
Under this Chapter, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

1. Human trafficking means the acts by which the individual becomes a commodity consisting in recruitment, transfer of a person to another part of the country or to another country by use of deception, threat, force or coercion, position of authority over the person, in most cases for the purpose of harming his/her life or unlawfully exploiting by indecent assault, prostitution, unlawful practices, practices similar to slavery by torturing and subjecting to cruel treatment or domestic servitude because he/she is vulnerable due to troubles with the authorities, being a single pregnant woman, ill, disabled or due to other situation which impairs a normal person to act.
Human trafficking also means the exploitation of people by involving them in forced begging, illegal adoption upon payment, taking indecent pictures, harmful sports, armed conflicts and living together with them as husband and wife for the purpose of torturing them and selling their body organs.
2. Child trafficking means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring and kidnapping of children for personal interests even if the means used are other than those provided under item one of this Paragraph.
3. Exploitation means any form of interests based on sex, forced labour, slavery and other similar practices or the removal of an organ of a human being.

Law n° 51/2018 Relating to the Prevention, Suppression and Punishment of Trafficking in Persons and Exploitation of Others
Article 3: Definition of terms
As used in this Law, the following terms have the meanings ascribed to them below:

6. trafficking in persons:

a) any act committed by a person who, for the purpose of exploitation, hires or recruits, transports, transfers, harbours, or receives another person; by means of threat or use of force, or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation;
b) any act of a person who recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives a child for the purpose of exploitation, even if this does not involve any of the means set out in item (a) of this Paragraph;

7. transnational trafficking in persons: an offence of trafficking in persons committed in:

a) more than one State;
b) one State but a substantial part of its preparation, planning, direction or control takes place in another State;
c) one State but involves an organized criminal group that engages in criminal activities in more than one State;
d) one State but has substantial effects in another State;

Exploitation of Another

Law n° 51/2018 Relating to the Prevention, Suppression and Punishment of Trafficking in Persons and Exploitation of Others
Article 3: Definition of terms
As used in this Law, the following terms have the meanings ascribed to them below:

4. exploitation of another:

a) forced or coerced labour, slavery and or any other practices similar to slavery intended to be performed in Rwanda or abroad;
b) forced or coerced begging;
c) offering adoption, fostering or guardianship of a child for the purposes of slavery, begging or other forms of exploitation;
d) offering of a child for adoption, fostering or guardianship for the purposes of gaining profit;
e) use or offering of a child for illicit activities;
f) removal of organs or body parts for the purpose of exploiting another person;
g) other forms of exploitation provided for by law;

Slavery

Law n° 51/2018 Relating to the Prevention, Suppression and Punishment of Trafficking in Persons and Exploitation of Others
Article 3: Definition of terms
As used in this Law, the following terms have the meanings ascribed to them below:

5. practices similar to slavery: debt bondage, serfdom, forced or servile marriage, forced pregnancy or forced surrogacy;
14. slavery: the status or condition of a person over whom all or any of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised by another;

International Commitments
National Strategies

5-Year Action Plan to Combat Child Labor

“Aims to prevent at-risk children from entering exploitative child labor; withdraw children engaged in exploitative labor through the provision of education; rehabilitate former child laborers through counseling, life skills training, and medical care; raise community awareness about child labor; and establish monitoring and evaluation mechanisms on child labor. The Government committed more than $4.2 million to implement the activities listed in the National Policy and the Action Plan.”

Trafficking in Persons Action Plan

“Aims to improve government efforts to combat human trafficking through awareness-raising, research, poverty reduction strategies, improved services provision, enforcement, and collaboration. Developed by the Consultative Forum on Human Trafficking, Drug Abuse, and Gender-Based Violence.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratified 2001

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratified 1962

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratified 1981

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratified 2000

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 2006

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratified 2003

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratified 1991

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: involvement of children in armed conflict, Accession 2002

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Accession 2002

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Law n° 51/2018 Relating to the Prevention, Suppression and Punishment of Trafficking in Persons and Exploitation of Others
Article 7: Non-discrimination against the victim
The protection of and assistance and support to the victim are carried out without any discrimination.
Article 8: Protection of the victim and the victim’s accompanying dependents The Ministry takes all appropriate measures to ensure that the victim and the victim’s accompanying dependents, have access to adequate protection if their safety is at risk.
Article 9: Protection of the identity of the victim during court proceedings During the court proceedings, a judge may order upon the request of the victim, or where he/she deems it necessary in the interest of justice, that:

1. the court proceedings be conducted in camera;
2. records of the court proceedings be sealed;
3. evidence of the victim be heard through a video link or the use of other adequate communications technology;
4. the victim use a pseudonym;
5. the statement of the victim made during the pre-trial phase be admitted as evidence.

Article 10: Basic assistance services to the victim
The Ministry cooperates with other public institutions, private institutions, civil society and international organizations to ensure that basic assistance services are provided to the victim, without regard to the immigration status of the victim, or the ability or willingness of the victim to participate in the investigation or prosecution of his/her alleged trafficker.
The assistance services referred to in Paragraph One of this Article are also provided to a victim who is repatriated from another State.
Article 11: Special treatment granted to the victim
The victim benefits from the following special treatment:

1. he/she is provided, in a language he/she understands, with information on the nature of protection, assistance, and support to which he/she is entitled and the possibilities of assistance and support by non-governmental organizations or victim assistance agencies, as well as updated information on any ongoing legal proceedings related to him/her;
2. he/she has the right to participate in the proceedings against the perpetrator of trafficking in persons, and is assisted to present his/her views and concerns for consideration at appropriate stages of the proceedings relating to the offence;
3. he/she is provided with the legal assistance throughout the entire proceedings;
4. he/she is exempted from payment of any filing fees required under civil procedure laws when bringing a civil suit in compensation for damages caused by the crime of trafficking in persons committed against him/her;
5. he/she receives social services, health care and security.
An Order of the Minister provides for other particular means for support to the victim and services made available to him/her.

Article 12: Special assistance to the child victim
In addition to any other protection provided for under this Law, the child victim is accorded special treatment as follows:

1. where the age of the victim is uncertain and there are reasons to believe that the victim may be a child, the victim is presumed to be a child and is treated as such, pending verification of his/her age;
2. assistance to the child victim is provided by specially trained professionals and in accordance with the children’s special needs;
3. if the victim is an unaccompanied child, he/she is provided with a legal guardian, in accordance with the provision of Law;
4. the organ in charge of child protection ensures that the child’s identity or nationality is established, and makes every effort to locate his/her family if it is in the best interest of the child to do so

Article 13: Permission for a non-Rwandan victim to remain in Rwanda
The victim is not removed from the territory of Rwanda until the identification process has been completed by the competent authority.
Without prejudice to the provisions of other laws, the victim is permitted to remain in Rwanda for a minimum of six (6) months, and until the legal proceedings are concluded.
Article 14: Repatriation of a foreign victim to his/her country
Without prejudice to other legal provisions, the Ministry, in collaboration with the authority in charge of immigration and emigration, may repatriate the victim to his/her country of origin.
Article 15: Return of the victim to Rwanda
Where the victim is a Rwandan or had the right of permanent residence in Rwanda at the time he/she was trafficked, the competent authority facilitates and accepts the return to the country of the victim without unreasonable delay and with due regard for his/her rights and safety, privacy, dignity and health.
Where the victim is a Rwandan national across the borders who does not have proper travel documents, the competent authority in Rwanda issues the necessary travel documents to enable the victim to be repatriated.
A Prime Minister’s Order determines an organ responsible for providing necessary means to cover the cost of transportation and repatriation to Rwanda of the victim and modalities for their allocation.
Article 17: Non-liability of the victim
The victim shall not be detained, charged, or prosecuted for his/her illegal entry into or residence in Rwanda, or for his/her involvement in any unlawful activity that was a direct consequence of his/her situation as a trafficked person.

Penalties
Penalties, General

Loi organique n° 01/2012/OL du 2 mai 2012 portant Code pénal.
Article 15: International crime and cross- border crime
For the purposes of this Organic Law:
An international crime means any crime characterized as such by International Conventions.
A cross- border crime means a crime for which one of its constituent elements is accomplished outside Rwanda’s borders.
Article 16: Punishment of an international crime and cross- border crime
Any person, whether Rwandan or foreigner, a Rwandan or foreign non-governmental organization or association, that commits, inside or outside the Rwandan territory, or cross-border crimes may, if apprehended on the territory of the Republic of Rwanda, be prosecuted and tried by Rwandan Courts in accordance with Rwandan laws as if any of the following crimes had been committed in Rwanda :

9. trafficking in human beings especially children;
10. slavery and torture;

Loi n° 13/2009 du 27 mai 2009 portant réglementation du travail au Rwanda.
Article 169: General penalties
Subject to the provisions of the Penal Code of Rwanda and to those of Articles 167 and 168 of this Law, any person acting contrary to the provisions of this Law shall be liable to a term of imprisonment not exceeding two (2) months and a fine ranging from fifty thousand (Rwf 50,000) to three hundred thousand (RwF 300,000) Rwandan Francs, or to one of these penalties.

Penalties, Forced Labour

Loi organique n° 01/2012/OL du 2 mai 2012 portant Code pénal.
Article 178: Forced labour
Any person who imposes forced labour on another person shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of six (6) months to two (2) years and a fine of five hundred thousand (500,000) to two million (2,000,000) Rwandan francs or one of these penalties.

Loi n° 13/2009 du 27 mai 2009 portant réglementation du travail au Rwanda.
Article 167: Penalties for forced labour
Subject to the provisions of the Penal Code of Rwanda, any person found guilty of the offence referred to in article 8 of this Law shall be liable to an imprisonment from three (3) years to five (5) years or for a fine from five hundred thousand (RwF 500,000) to two million Rwandan Francs (RwF 2,000,000) or one of these penalties.

Law n° 51/2018 Relating to the Prevention, Suppression and Punishment of Trafficking in Persons and Exploitation of Others
Article 22: Forced labor, slavery or other related services
Any person who makes use of forced labor, slavery or any other related services commits an offence. Upon conviction, he/she is liable to imprisonment for a term of not less than one (1) year and not more than three (3) years and a fine of not less than one million (1,000,000) and not more than three million (3,000,000) Rwandan francs.
When the use of forced labor is committed against the victim, the penalty is imprisonment for a term of not less than five (5) years and not more than ten (10) years and a fine of not less than five million (5,000,000) and not more than ten million (10,000,000) Rwandan francs.
Where the offence is committed against a child or any other vulnerable person such as a pregnant woman or a person with disability, the offender is imprisonment for a term of not less than ten (10) years and not more than fifteen (15) years and a fine of not less than ten million (10,000,000) and not more than fifteen million (15,000,000) Rwandan francs.

Penalties, Child Labour

Loi n° 13/2009 du 27 mai 2009 portant réglementation du travail au Rwanda.
Article 168: Penalties for worst forms of child labour
Subject to the provisions of the Penal Code of Rwanda, a person found guilty of the offence referred to in article 72 of this Law, shall be liable to a term of imprisonment ranging from six (6) months to twenty (20) years and a fine of five hundred thousand (Rwf 500,000) to five million (Rwf 5,000,000) Rwandan francs or to one of these penalties.

Arrêté ministériel n° 001/2016 du 8 janvier 2016 portant sanctions contre les parents qui n’envoient pas leurs enfants à l’école et contre des personnes qui emploient les enfants aux travaux qui les empêchent d’aller à l’école ou les incitent à quitter l’école.
Article 3: Sanctions against employers of children
Anyone who engages a child into work that prevent him/her from going to school or encourages him/her to drop out of school shall be dealt with by the authorized bodies in accordance with the law and the child will be brought back to school by the Cell authorities

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Loi organique n° 01/2012/OL du 2 mai 2012 portant Code pénal.
Article 251: Participating in trafficking persons out of the country
Any person who participates in any way, personally or through an intermediary , in trafficking a person out of Rwanda to a
foreign country by:

1. means of deception, use of force, threat or any other form of coercion;
2. taking advantage of his/her troubles with the authorities, conflict with the law , being an orphan, a destitute, lonely, limited knowledge, hard labour, living in a family with children close in age, unemployment, disease, physical or mental disability, a loophole in the law or any other situation likely to impair a normal person to act;

shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of one (1) year to three (3) years and a fine of five hundred thousand (500,000) to two million (2,000,000) Rwandan francs.
The penalties under this Article shall be doubled if the victim is a child.
Article 252: Penalty for human trafficking
Any person who abducts or causes to be abducted, arrests or causes to be arrested, detained or causes to be detained, transports or causes to be transported any person in order to make them slaves, sell them as slaves, force them into begging, illegally adopt them on payment of a consideration, take them in indecent pictures, in dangerous sports, in armed conflicts, live together as husband and wife for the purpose of torturing them or selling their organs shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of seven (7) years to ten (10) years and a fine of five million (5,000,000) to ten million (10,000,000) Rwandan francs.
If the acts under Paragraph One of this Article are committed at an international level, the offender shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of ten (10) years to fifteen (15) years and a fine of ten million (10,000,000) to twenty million (20,000, 000) Rwandan francs.
Article 254: Penalty for buying a human being
A person who buys a human being as provided under Articles 252 and 253 of this Organic Law shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of more than five (5) years to seven (7) years and a fine of one million (1,000,000) to five million (5,000,000) Rwandan francs.
Article 255: Penalties for a person engaged in trafficking in a human being for the purpose of indecent practices
Any person who:

1. recruits, induces, manipulates or holds any person in order to involve him/her in indecent practices to satisfy his/her sexual desire;
2. opens a centre intended for indecent acts;
3. sells, rents or lends a building or any other place for the purpose of indecent acts for his/her interests ;
4. pursues interests by involving another person in indecent acts;
shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of six (6) months to one (1) year and a fine of five hundred thousand (500,000) to three (3) million (3,000,000) Rwandan francs.

Article 256: Penalties for trafficking in persons as a profession
The offences of buying, selling and trafficking in human beings under Articles 252, 253 and 254 of this Organic Law shall be punishable by a term of imprisonment of seven (7) years to ten (10) years and a fine of two million (2,000,000) to ten million (2,000,000) Rwandan francs if elements of the offences are committed as a profession.
If the offences are committed as a profession within the framework of a criminal organization, they shall be punishable by a term of imprisonment of ten (10) years to twelve (12) years and a fine of five million (5,000,000) to ten million (10,000,000) Rwandan francs.

Law n° 51/2018 Relating to the Prevention, Suppression and Punishment of Trafficking in Persons and Exploitation of Others
Article 2: Scope of this Law
This Law applies to all forms of trafficking in persons and any other offence provided for herein, whether or not connected with organized crime, when the offence is committed on the territory of the Republic of Rwanda by a Rwandan national, a stateless person or a foreign citizen residing in Rwanda at the time of the commission of the offence.
This Law also applies to any offence provided for herein where the offence is committed outside the territory of the Republic of Rwanda by a Rwandan national or any other person who permanently resides in Rwanda at the time of the commission of the offence, and where the offence is committed by any person of any nationality or any stateless person against a Rwandan national.
Article 16: Consent of the victim
The consent of the victim is not relevant to the defense of the person prosecuted for trafficking in persons.
Article 18: Offence of trafficking in persons
Any person convicted of trafficking in persons is liable to imprisonment for a term of not less than ten (10) years and not more than fifteen (15) years and a fine of not less than ten million (10,000,000) and not more than fifteen million (15,000,000) Rwandan francs.
If the offence is transnational in nature, the penalty is imprisonment for a term of not less than twenty (20) years and not more than twenty five (25) years and a fine of not less than twenty million ( 20,000,000) and not more than twenty five million (25,000,000) Rwandan francs.
Article 20: Stiffening of penalties in case of aggravating circumstances
Any person who commits the offences referred to in Articles 18 and 19 of this Law is liable to life imprisonment if any of the following aggravating circumstances are present:

1. where the offence involves serious injury, disability, incurable disease, death or suicide of the victim;
2. where the offence is committed against a person who is particularly vulnerable, including a pregnant woman and a physically or mentally handicapped person;
3. where the offence involves more than 3 o one victim;
4. where the offence was committed by a 4 o person engaging in it as a profession or
within the framework of the activity of
an organized criminal association;
5. where drugs, medications or weapons 5 o were used in the commission of the
crime;
6. where the offender has been previously 6 o convicted for the same or similar offences;
7. where the offender is a spouse or the 7o conjugal partner of the victim;
8. where the offender is the leader of the 8o victim or a person who exercises authority over the victim;
9. where the offender is in a position of responsibility or trust in relation to the victim.
Where the offences referred to under this Article and Article 22 are committed against a child, the penalty is life imprisonment and a fine of not less than fifteen million (15,000,000) and not more than twenty million (20,000,000) Rwandan francs.

Article 21: Seizure and confiscation of places used for trafficking in persons, proceeds of crime and objects used for the commission of the offence
The court orders the seizure and confiscation of immovable property, proceeds of the crime and objects used for the commission of the offence of trafficking in persons.
Without prejudice to other penalties that may be imposed, the offender is ordered to pay the amount equal to the value of the proceeds, immovable property or objects associated with the offence if the proceeds, immovable property or objects associated with the offence:

1. are destroyed, diminished in value or otherwise rendered worthless by any direct or indirect act or omission of the offender;
2. have been concealed, removed, converted or transferred to prevent the same from being found or to avoid their being confiscated.

Article 28: Penalties for public or private companies, institutions, organizations and associations with legal personality
Without prejudice to the provisions of any other law, public or private companies, institutions, organizations and associations with legal personality which are convicted of the offence of trafficking in persons or exploitation of others, is liable to a fine of not less than fifty million (50,000,000) and not more than one hundred million (100,000,000) Rwandan francs.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

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