Data Dashboards

Saint Kitts and Nevis
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.777 (2018)

Mean School Years: 8.5 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data available

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2004
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 44.7% (2010)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Saint Kitts and Nevis.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Saint Kitts and Nevis.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Saint Kitts and Nevis.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Saint Kitts and Nevis between 2005 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Saint Kitts and Nevis is 0.777. This score indicates that human development is high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Saint Kitts and Nevis over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

There are no visualizations for St. Kitts and Nevis as there is not a sufficient amount of data available.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Saint Kitts and Nevis.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Saint Christopher and Nevis Constitution Order, 1983

“Protection from slavery of forced labour.
6.- (1) A person shall not be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
(3) For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include-

a) any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
b) labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
c) any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a defence force, any labour that person is required by law to perform in place of such service; or
d) any labour required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any accident or natural calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that accident or natural calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation.”

Trafficking in Persons (Prevention) Act, 2008

“2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires
“forced labour” means labour or services obtained or maintained through force, threat of force, or other means of coercion or physical restraint;”

Child Labour

“Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act, 1939 [amend. 2002]
Employment of Children (Restriction) Act, 1966 [amend. 2002]”

“2. Interpretation.
In this Act, “”child”” means a person under the age of sixteen years;
“”young person”” means a person who has ceased to be a child and who is under the age of eighteen years.”

“PART III — RESTRICTIONS ON EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN
7. Restriction on employment of children.
(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act and of any regulations made under the Act, no child shall be employed

(a) so long as he or she is under twelve years: provided however that such child may be employed by his or her parents or guardian in domestic work at home or in light agricultural or horticultural work on the land or garden of the parent or guardian;
(b) before the close of school hours on any day on which he or she is required to attend school;
(c) before six o’clock in the morning or after eight o’clock in the evening on any day;
(d) for more than two hours on any day on which he or she is required to attend school;
(e) for more than two hours on any Sunday;
(f) to lift, carry or move anything so heavy as to be likely to cause injury to him or her; or
(g) in any occupation likely to be injurious to his or her life, limb, health or education, regard being had to his or her physical condition.

(2) The Minister may make regulations with respect to the employment of children, and any such regulations may distinguish between children of different ages and sexes and between different localities, trades, occupations and circumstances, and may contain provisions

(a) prohibiting absolutely the employment of children in any specified occupation; (b) prescribing

(i) the age below which children are not to be employed;
(ii) the number of hours in each day, or in each week, for which, and the times of day at which, they may be employed;
(iii) the intervals to be allowed to them for meals and rest;
(iv) the holidays or half-holidays to be allowed them;
(v) any other conditions to be observed in relation to their employment;
so, however, that no such regulations shall modify the restrictions contained in the last foregoing subsection, and any restriction contained in any such regulations shall have effect in addition to the said restrictions.

(3) Regulations made under this section may prescribe for any contravention thereof or failure to comply therewith a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars on summary conviction.
[Amended by Act 9/1986]
(4) Nothing in paragraph (c) or paragraph (d) of Subsection (1), or in any regulations made under this section, shall prevent a child from taking part without fee or reward in an entertainment the net proceeds of which are devoted to any charitable or educational purpose or to any purpose other than the private profit of the promoters.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

“Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act, 1939 [amend. 2002]
Employment of Children (Restriction) Act, 1966 [amend. 2002]”

“PART II — PROHIBITION OF EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN
4. Prohibition of employment of children.
(1) No child shall be employed or work in any public or private industrial undertaking, or in any branch thereof, other than an undertaking in which only members of the same family are employed, and any person who employs any child or permits him or her to work in contravention of this section commits an offence.
(2) The provisions of this section shall not apply to the exercise of manual labour by any child under order of detention in a reformatory or industrial school, or by any child receiving instruction in manual labour in any school, provided that such work is approved and supervised by public authority.
5. Prohibition of employment of children on ships.
No child shall be employed or work on any ship other than a ship upon which only members of the same family are employed, and any person who employs any child or permits him or her to work in contravention of the provisions of this section commits an offence.
6. Liability of parent or guardian.
Any parent or guardian of a child who, by wilful default, or by habitually neglecting to exercise due care, has conduced to the commission of the offence of taking a child into employment in contravention of this Act commits an offence.”

“PART IV — RESTRICTIONS ON EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PERSONS
11. Restrictions on employment at night of young persons.
(1) Except as hereinafter provided, no young person shall be employed or work during the night in any public or private industrial undertaking, or in any branch thereof, other than an undertaking in which only members of the same family are employed, and any person who employs any young person or permits him or her to work in contravention of the provisions of this section shall be guilty of an offence.
(2) Young persons over the age of sixteen years may be employed or work during the night in the following industrial undertakings on work which, by reason of the nature of the process, is required to be carried on continuously day and night, that is to say,

(a) manufacture of raw sugar;
(b) any other undertaking which may be declared to come under the exception created by this
subsection by order of the Minister.
(3) The provisions of subsection (1) shall not apply to the night work of young persons over the age of sixteen years in cases of emergencies which could not have been controlled or foreseen, which are not of a periodical character, and which interfere with the normal working of the industrial undertaking.”

Trafficking in Persons

Trafficking in Persons (Prevention) Act, 2008

“2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires
“child” means a person below the age of eighteen years;
“trafficking in persons” means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a person by means of the threat or use of force or other means of coercion, or by abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or a position of vulnerability, or by the giving or receiving of payment or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation;”

Slavery

Saint Christopher and Nevis Constitution Order, 1983

“Protection from slavery of forced labour.
6.- (1) A person shall not be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
(3) For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include-

a) any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
b) labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
c) any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a defence force, any labour that person is required by law to perform in place of such service; or
d) any labour required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any accident or natural calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that accident or natural calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation.”

Trafficking in Persons (Prevention) Act, 2008

“2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires
“practices similar to slavery” includes, debt bondage, serfdom, forced or servile marriages and delivery of children for exploitation;
“slavery” means the status or condition of a person over whom any or all the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised;”

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Probation and Child Welfare Board Act, 1994

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Trafficking in Persons (Prevention) Act, 2008

“Restitution
6. (1) Where a person is convicted of the offence of trafficking in persons the court may order that person to pay restitution to the victim.
(2) Restitution shall be paid to the victim having regard to the following considerations

(a) upon the conviction of the accused;
(b) as far as possible, from any property forfeited under section 7 or the proceeds thereof;
(c) the absence of the victim from the proceedings shall not prejudice the victim’s rights to receive restitution.

(3) The restitution referred to in subsection (1) shall compensate the victim, where applicable, for any of the following

(a) costs of medical and psychological treatment;
(b) costs of physical and occupational therapy and rehabilitation;
(c) costs of necessary transportation, temporary housing and child care;
(d) lost income;
(e) attorney’s fees and other legal costs;
(f) compensation for emotional distress, pain and suffering; and
(g) any other losses suffered by the victim which the court considers applicable.”

10. A victim of trafficking in persons is not criminally liable for an immigration offence that is committed by the victim as a direct result of being trafficked.

PART III – ASSISTANCE AND PROTECTION OF VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING
Protection of Victims
16. (1) In the investigation and prosecution of offences relating to trafficking in persons, the following guiding principles shall apply:

(a) all steps necessary to identify the victims of the trafficking shall be taken;
(b) measures to ensure the reasonable protection of a victim of the trafficking shall be taken to prevent recapture, secure the victim from threats, reprisals and intimidation by the traffickers and their associates;
(c) measures shall be taken to ensure the reasonable protection of the victim’s family, if it resides in Saint Christopher and Nevis, from threats, reprisals or intimidation by the traffickers or their associates; and
(d) ensuring that the victim has an opportunity to consult with a victim’s advocate or other appropriate person to develop a safety plan.

(2) The law enforcement officials including police officers, immigration officers and other investigative officers are to operate in compliance with the guidelines specified in subsection (1).”

“Protection of Victims Identity
17. (1) In a prosecution for trafficking in persons under this Act or unlawful use of documents under section 4, the identity of the victim and the victim’s family should be kept confidential by ensuring that names and identifying information of the victim and the victim’s family are not released to the press or the public, including by the defendant.
(2) A hearing under this section shall be held in camera if the court so orders.
(3) A person who commits a breach of the confidentiality enjoined by this section commits an offence and shall be liable on summary conviction to six months imprisonment or to a fine of two thousand dollars.

Assistance to Victims
18. The Minister on the advice of Cabinet, and in consultation with the relevant non-governmental organisations and other representatives of civil society shall develop a plan, for the provision of appropriate services, from governmental and non-governmental sources, for victims of trafficking and dependent children accompanying the victims.
Child Victims
19. (1) Child trafficked victims may be provided with appropriate services, which may include understanding of their rights, privacy, housing, care and age appropriate support and rights as is applicable to the particular circumstances of each case.
(2) Special programmes shall be developed to accommodate child witnesses including, where necessary and possible

(a) taking the testimony of a minor outside the traditional court setting or by video;
(b) taking the testimony of a minor in the presence of a parent, legal guardian, foster parent, psychologist or social worker;

(3) Whenever safe and practicable, reasonable measures may be taken to reunite a child with his family members in Saint Christopher and Nevis or in his country of origin.”

Penalties, Child Labour

“Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act, 1939 [amend. 2002]
Employment of Children (Restriction) Act, 1966 [amend. 2002]”

“10. Penalty.
Any person who contravenes the provisions of this Part shall be liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, recoverable by warrant of distress as provided by section 104 of the Magistrate’s Code of Procedure Act, Cap. 3.17.”

“13. False certificate or representation as to age.
Where a child or young person is taken into employment in contravention of this Act on the production, by or with the privity of the parent or guardian, of a false or forged certificate, or on the false representation of his or her parent or guardian that such child or young person is of an age at which such employment is not in contravention of this Act, that parent or guardian commits an offence.”

“20. Penalty.
Any person who is found guilty of an offence against this Act or any regulations made thereunder for which no penalty is expressly provided shall be liable, on summary conviction, to a penalty not exceeding one hundred and fifty dollars, and in the case of a second or subsequent offence to a penalty not exceeding three hundred dollars.”

Education Act, 2005

“46. (1) Subject to subsection (2), a person who employs a child of school age during the school year commits an offence and is liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars.
(2) If a body corporate contravenes subsection (1), in addition to the body corporate, every director and officer of the body corporate, who authorises, permits or acquiesces in such contravention commits an offence and is liable, on summary conviction, to the same penalty as the corporation.
(3) Notwithstanding subsection (1), a person or body corporate may employ a student

(a) during the vacation periods of the school year as specified by the Minister; or
(b) if the employment of the student is part of the school programme to prepare students for future employment.

(4) In addition to the provisions of subsection (3), the Minister may make regulations permitting the employment of children of compulsory school age after school or specifying the nature of work such children may be allowed to perform.
(5) Except with the permission of the principal or under the supervision of a teacher deputed by the principal for the purpose, no student of compulsory school age shall be admitted, on payment or otherwise, to any cinema show or other similar form of entertainment on any day and at any time which attendance at school is by this Act or regulations made hereunder, required.
(6) No student of compulsory school age shall be allowed to loiter on the licensed premises of any person or body corporate who carries on any business in connection with the sale, storage or conveyance of intoxicating liquor within the meaning of the relevant provision of the Liquor Licence Act, Chapter 252.
(7) Any person or body corporate as the case may be who contravenes any of the provisions of subsections (4) or (5), commits an offence and is liable, on summary conviction, to a fine of two thousand dollars or to imprisonment for 6 months, or both.”

Offences Against the Person Act, 1873

Criminal Law Amendment Act, 2002

Penalties
Penalties, Human Trafficking

Trafficking in Persons (Prevention) Act, 2008

“PART II – CRIMINAL OFFENCES AND RELATED PROVISIONS
3. (1) A person who engages in, conspires to engage in, attempts to engage in, assists another person to engage in, or organises or directs another person to engage in trafficking in persons commits an offence and is liable on indictment to imprisonment for a period of twenty years or to a fine of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars or to both such fine and imprisonment.
(2) The recruitment, transportation, harbouring, or receipt of a child, or giving of payment or benefits to obtain the consent of a person having control of a child, for the purpose of exploitation, constitutes trafficking in persons irrespective of whether any of the means described in the definition of “trafficking in persons” has been established.”

“4. Any person who for the purpose of trafficking in persons, and acting or purporting to act as another person’s employer, manager, contractor, supervisor, employment agent, pimp or solicitor of clients, knowingly procures, destroys, conceals, removes, confiscates, or possesses any passport, immigration document, or other government identification document, whether actual or purported, belonging to another person, commits an offence and shall be liable on indictment to imprisonment for twenty years of to a fine of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars or to both.
5. (1) Whoever knowingly transports or conspires to transport or attempts to transport or assists another person engaged in transporting any person into Saint Christopher and Nevis, within Saint Christopher and Nevis itself, or across a regional or international border for the purposes of exploiting a person for the purpose of prostitution commits an offence and shall be liable on indictment to imprisonment for a term of ten years or to a fine of one hundred thousand dollars or to both.
(2) In determining an appropriate sentence upon conviction of a person pursuant to subsection (1), the court shall have regard to the presence of any of the aggravating factors resulting from acts of the defendant as are set out in the Schedule.”

“Aggravated Circumstances
8. As appropriate, the court may take into account conditions as are set out in the Schedule for adjustments to the sentence of a person convicted on indictment of the crime of trafficking in persons.”

“11. Where an offence under this Act is committed by a body corporate and is proved to have been so committed with the consent or connivance of or to be attributable to any neglect on the part of any person, being a director, manager or secretary or other officer of the body corporate or a person who was purporting to act in such capacity, then that person, as well as the body corporate, commits an offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished in the same manner as if the person were guilty of the first-mentioned offence.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Saint Kitts and Nevis. If you are a representative of Saint Kitts and Nevis and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.