Data Dashboards

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.728 (2018)

Mean School Years: 8.6 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 17.9% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2010
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 76.6% (2012)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines between 2000 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is 0.728. This score indicates that human development is high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

 

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2011

“2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires –
“”forced labour”” means labour or services obtained or maintained through force, threat of force, or other means of coercion or physical restraint”

The Constitution of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 1979

“Protection from slavery and forced labor.
4.1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
4.2. No person shall be required to perform forced labor.
4.3. For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labor”” does not include–

a. any labor required in consequence of the sentence or order or a court;
b. labor required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
c. any labor required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labor that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
d. any labor required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labor is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation.”

Child Labour

Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children, 1935

“2. Interpretation
In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires–
“”child”” means a person under the age of fourteen;”

“8. Prohibition of employment of a child–
1. Subject to subsection 2., a child shall not be employed. 2. Nothing in subsection 1 applies—

a. to work done by any child in accordance with the provisions of Part I;
b. to the service rendered by any child to his parent or guardian in light agricultural or horticultural work on the family land or garden outside of school hours;
c. to the participation of a child, without fee or reward, in an entertainment the net proceeds of which are devoted to any charitable or educational purpose or to any purpose other than the private profit of the promoters.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2011

“2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires –
“”child”” means a person below the age of eighteen years;”

Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children, 1935

“2. Interpretation
In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires–
“”child”” means a person under the age of fourteen;
“”industrial undertaking”” has, with respect to the employment of women, young persons and children, the
meaning respectively assigned thereto in the Conventions set out in Parts I, II and III of the Schedule and includes, notwithstanding the provisions of Part I Article I d., the carrying of coal by hand to or from ships;
“”young person”” means a person who has ceased to be a child and who is under the age of eighteen.”

“3. Restriction on employment of women, young persons and children in industrial undertakings and on ships
1. No child shall be employed in any industrial undertaking:
Provided that in the application to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines of the Convention set out in Part I of the
Schedule, Article 2 shall not apply to work done by children in recognised schools provided such work is approved and supervised by public authority.
2. No young person or woman shall be employed at night in any industrial undertaking except to the extent to which, and in the circumstances in which, such employment is permitted under the Convention set out in Part II and Part III respectively of the Schedule.
3. When young persons are employed in any industrial undertaking, a register of the young persons so employed, showing their dates of birth and the dates on which they enter and leave the service of their employer, shall be kept and shall, at all reasonable times, be open to inspection.”

“4. Restriction on the employment of children in ships
1. No child shall be employed in any ship except to the extent and in the circumstances in which such employment is permitted under the Convention set out in Part IV of the Schedule.
2. The master of a ship shall keep a register of young persons who are employed therein, and such register shall contain particulars of the dates of their births and the dates on which they become or cease to be members of the crew, and the register so kept shall, at all reasonable times, be open to inspection.”

Human Trafficking

Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2011

“2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires –
“”trafficking in persons”” means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of person by means of the threat or use of force or other means of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of decption, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or of giving or receiving of payment or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation;”

Slavery

Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2011

“2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires –
“”debt bondage”” means the status or condition of a debtor arising from a pldge by the debtor of his personal services or those of the person under his control as a security for debt, if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined;
“”practices similar to slavery”” includes–

a. debt bondage;
b. serfdom;
c. forced or servile marriages; and
d. delivery or receipt of children for exploitation

“”servitude”” means a condition of dependency in which the labour or services of a person are provided or obtained by threats of serious harm to that person or another person, or through any shceme, plan or pattern intended to cause the person to believe that, if the person did not perform such labour or services, that person or another person will suffer serious harm;
“”slavery”” means the status or condition of a person over whom any or all the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised;”

The Constitution of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 1979

“Protection from slavery and forced labor.
4. 1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
2. No person shall be required to perform forced labor.
3. For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labor”” does not include–

a. any labor required in consequence of the sentence or order or a court;
b. labor required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
c. any labor required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labor that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
d. any labor required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labor is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation.”

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1998

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1998

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2006 (Minimum age specified: 14 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2001

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Ratification 1981

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 1981

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2010

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratification 1993

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Accession 2011

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Accession 2005

National Action Plans, National Strategies

National Plan of Action Against Trafficking in Persons (2016–2020)

“Establishes procedures to eradicate human trafficking. Administered by the National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons, which is chaired by the Prime Minister. In 2017, the government revised the national plan and extended it to 2020. ”

National Child Protection Policy Framework (2015–2020)

“Strengthens national child protection strategies and programs. Charged with adopting policies, goals, and reporting standards for child protection. Allocated $498,786 in 2017 for Child Protection Services and ensured the protection of 2,000 students.”

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Countering Human Trafficking in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

“Outlines the responsibilities of each signatory agency in combating human trafficking and the worst forms of child labor. Assigns tasks and responsibilities among nine government stakeholders regarding trafficking in persons. Includes the Department of Labor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Commerce, ATIPU, and others.”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2011

11. A victim is not criminally liable for any immigration-related offence, or any other criminal offence that is a direct result of being trafficked.
16. Restitution
20. Protection for the safety of victims, including identification of victims
21. Witness protection
22. Protection of the privacy of victims, including proceedings held in camera
23. Information for victims
24. Opportunity for the presentation of the victim’s views and concerns
25. Assistance to victims
26. Immigration status of victims
27. Assistance for citizen or permanent resident victims abroad
29. Return of victims to country of citizenship or lawful residence

Penalties, Child Labour

Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children, 1935

“5. Offences and penalties
1. Any person who employs a child or young person in any industrial undertaking in contravention of this Part is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of one hundred dollars and, in the case of a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of two hundred and fifty dollars.
2. Where the offence of taking a child into employment in contravention of this Part is in fact committed by an agent or workman of the employer, such agent or workman is liable to a penalty as if he were the employer.
3. Where an employer is charged with any offence under this Part, he shall be entitled, upon information duly laid by him, to have any other person whom he charges as the actual offender brought before the court at the time appointed for hearing the charge. It after the commission of the offence has been proved, the court is satisfied that the employer had used due diligence to comply with the provisions of this Part and that the other person had committed the offence in question without the employer’s knowledge, consent or connivance, the other person shall be convicted of the offence and the employer shall be exempt from any fine.
4. When it is made to appear to the satisfaction of the Labour Commissioner at the time of discovering the offence—

a. that the employer had used all due diligence to enforce compliance with this Part;
b. by what person the offence had been committed; and
c. that the offence had been committed without the knowledge, consent or connivance of the employer and in
contravention of his order,
then the Labour Commissioner shall proceed against the person whom he believes to be the actual offender in the first instance without first proceeding against the employer.”

“5. If it appears to a magistrate or justice of the peace, on the complaint of a police officer, that there is reasonable cause to believe that a child is employed in contravention of this Part in any place, whether a building or not, such magistrate or justice may, by order under his hand, empower any police officer to enter such place at any reasonable time, within fortyeight hours from the date of the order, and examine such place and any person therein touching the employment of any child therein.
6. Any person who refuses admission to a police officer authorised by an order under subsection 5., or who obstructs him in the discharge of his duty, is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of one thousand dollars.
7. Any person, being the employer of a young person, who fails to keep such a register so required to be kept by him, or who neglects to produce it, when required to produce it for inspection by the Labour Commissioner, is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of one thousand dollars.
(9) If any child is employed in any ship in contravention of this Part, the master of the ship is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of one hundred dollars and, in the case of a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of two hundred and fifty dollars.
(10) Any master of a ship who fails to keep a register so required to be kept by him, or who refuses or neglects to produce it when required to produce it for inspection by the harbour master or a customs officer, is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of one thousand dollars.
(11) Any parent of, or any person who is liable to maintain or has the actual custody of, a child or young person who, by wilful default or by habitually neglecting to exercise due care, has conduced to the commission of the offence of taking a child into employment in contravention of this Part, is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of one hundred dollars and, in the case of a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of two hundred and fifty dollars.
(12) Where a child is taken into employment in any industrial undertaking, or in any ship, in contravention of this
Part on the production, by or with the privity of the parent, of a false or forged certificate, or on the false representation of his parent that the child is of an age at which such employment is not in contravention of this Part, that parent is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of one hundred dollars.”

“9. Offences and penalties
1. Any person who employs a child in contravention of section 8 is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of five hundred dollars.
2. Any parent or guardian of a child who has conduced to the commission of an offence under subsection 1. by wilful default or by habitually neglecting to exercise due care, is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of five hundred dollars.
3. Where the offence of taking a child into employment is committed by an agent or workman of the employer, such agent or workman is, in addition to the liability of the employer, guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of five hundred dollars.
4. Where a child is taken into employment on the production, by or with the privity of the parent or guardian, of a false or forged certificate, or on the false representation of his parent or guardian that the child is of an age at which the employment is not an offence, the parent or guardian is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of five hundred dollars. 10. Proof of age
On the hearing of any prosecution for an offence against this Part, the court may, if it thinks fit, determine the age of the child by his physical appearance alone without requiring any evidence as to his age.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2011

“5.1. A person who engages in, conspires to engage in, attempts to engage in, assists anotehr person to engage in, or organises or directs another person to engage in trafficking inpersons commits an offence and is liable on conviction on indictment to a fine of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars or to imprisonment for fifteen years or both.
5.2. The recruitment, transportation, harbouring, or receipt of a child, or giving of payment or benefits to obtain the consent of a person having control of a child, for the purpose of exploitation, constitutes trafficking in persons irrespective of whether any of the means described in the definition of ‘trafficking in persons’ have been established.”

6. Offence of unlawful withholding of identification papers
7. Offence of transporting a person for the purpose of explotiation such a person’s prostitution
8. Aggravated circumstances
12. Forefeiture
13. Receiving financial or other benefit knowing that it is as a result of trafficking in persons
14. Offences of bodies corporate

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Penalties
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

 

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. If you are a representative of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.