Data Dashboards

Samoa
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.707 (2018)

Mean School Years: 10.6 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 31.0% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2008
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Not Ratified
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 49.5% (2011)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Samoa.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Samoa.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Samoa.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Samoa between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Samoa is 0.707. This score indicates that human development is high.  

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Samoa over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Samoa showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Samoa.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of the Independent State of Western Samoa, 1962

“8. Freedom from forced labour–
1. No person shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.
2. For the purposes of this Article, the term “forced or compulsory labour” shall not include:

a. any work required to be done in consequence of a sentence of a Court; or
b. any service of a military character or, in the case of conscientious objectors, service exacted instead of compulsory military service; or
c. any service exacted in case of an emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community; or
d. any work or service which is required by Samoan custom or which forms part of normal civic obligations.”

Sootaga Va Lelei o Leipa ma Galuega (Labour and Employment Relations Act) 2013

“2. Interpretation – In this Act, unless the context provides otherwise:
“forced labour” means all involuntary work or service undertaken by an employee or person seeking employment under the threat of a penalty or punishment, but does not include the following:

a. a work or service undertaken in accordance with compulsory military service for work of a purely military character;
b. a work or service which forms part of the normal service of a person towards his or her family, church or village;
c. a work or service undertaken from a person as a consequence of a conviction in a court of law, provided that the work or service is carried out under the supervision and control of a public authority and that the person is not hired or placed at the disposal of private individuals, companies or associations;
d. a work or service undertaken in cases of emergency, such as war, or a calamity or threatened calamity such as fire, flood, famine, earthquake, violent epidemic or epizootic diseases, invasion by animal, insect or vegetable pests, and in general a circumstance that would endanger the existence or well-being of the whole or part of the population of Samoa;”

18. Forced labour – A person must not exact, procure, or employ forced labour.

“20. Fundamental rights and principles –
1. An employer must not require an employee or applicant for employment to perform forced labour.”

Child Labour

Sootaga Va Lelei o Leipa ma Galuega (Labour and Employment Relations Act) 2013

“51. Employment of children –
1. A person must not employ a child under the age of 15 years of age in a place of employment except in safe and light work suited to his or her capacity, and subject to such conditions as may be determined by the CEO.
2. A person must not employ a child under the age of 18 years on dangerous machinery or in any occupation or in any place under working conditions injurious or likely to be injurious to the physical or moral health of such child.
3. A person must not employ a child under the age of 15 years as an employee upon a vessel unless such vessel is under the personal charge of the parent or guardian of the child.”

Worst Forms of Child Labor

Sootaga Va Lelei o Leipa ma Galuega (Labour and Employment Relations Act) 2013

“51. Employment of children –
1. A person must not employ a child under the age of 15 years of age in a place of employment except in safe and light work suited to his or her capacity, and subject to such conditions as may be determined by the CEO.
2. A person must not employ a child under the age of 18 years on dangerous machinery or in any occupation or in any place under working conditions injurious or likely to be injurious to the physical or moral health of such child.
3. A person must not employ a child under the age of 15 years as an employee upon a vessel unless such vessel is under the personal charge of the parent or guardian of the child.”

Human Trafficking

Solitulafono (Crimes Act), 2013

“153. Interpretation – In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires:
“act of coercion against the person” includes:

a. abducting the person;
b. using force in respect of the person;
c. harming the person; or
d. threatening the person (expressly or by implication) with the use of force in respect of, or the harming of, the person or some other person;”

“155. Trafficking in people by means of coercion or deception–
1. A person is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who:

a. arranges the entry of a person into Samoa or any other country by one 1. or more acts of coercion against the person, one 1. or more acts of deception of the person, or both; or
b. arranges, organises, or procures the reception, concealment, or harbouring in Samoa or any other country of a person, knowing that the person’s entry into Samoa or that other country was arranged by one 1. or more acts of coercion against the person, one 1. or more acts of deception of the person, or both.

2. Proceedings may be brought under this section even if the person coerced or deceived:

a. did not in fact enter the state concerned; or (as the case may be);
b. was not in fact received, concealed, or harboured in the state concerned.

3. Proceedings may be brought under this section even if parts of the process by which the person coerced or deceived was brought or came to or towards the state concerned were accomplished without an act of coercion or deception.”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Criminal Procedure Act, 2016

“56. Court may prohibit publication-1. If a Court makes an order, pursuant to Article 91. of the Constitution, to exclude the public and representatives of news services from all or any part of any trial, the Court may, in addition to making the order or instead of the order:

a. make an order to prohibit the publication of any report or account of the whole or any part of the trial; or
b. make an order to prohibit the publication, in any report relating to the trial, of the name of the defendant or of any other person connected with the trial.

2. A person must not publish the name of the victim or the alleged victim of a sexual offence in a report or account of the whole or any part of the trial unless the Court is of the opinion that the interest of justice requires publication.
3. If the publication of a person’s name is prohibited under this section, a person must not publish that person’s name, or any name or particulars likely to lead to the identification of that person.”

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Sootaga Va Lelei o Leipa ma Galuega (Labour and Employment Relations Act) 2013

“78. Offences and penalties – 1. An employer who enters into a contract of service contrary to this Act commits an offence, and on conviction is liable to a fine not exceeding 50 penalty units.
2. A person who assaults or wilfully hinders or obstructs or provides false or misleading information to the Minister or the CEO, or any Labour Inspector or officer or employee of the Ministry in the exercise of his or her lawful functions under this Act commits an offence, and on conviction is liable to a fine not exceeding 50 penalty units or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months, or both.
3. A person who fails to comply with any of the other provisions of this Act for which no specific
penalty is provided commits an offence and on conviction is liable to a fine not exceeding 20 penalty units, and in addition to the fine the Court may order that an employee be paid an amount equal to the amount to which the employee is entitled to under this Act.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Sootaga Va Lelei o Leipa ma Galuega (Labour and Employment Relations Act) 2013

“78. Offences and penalties – 1. An employer who enters into a contract of service contrary to this Act commits an offence, and on conviction is liable to a fine not exceeding 50 penalty units.
2. A person who assaults or wilfully hinders or obstructs or provides false or misleading information to the Minister or the CEO, or any Labour Inspector or officer or employee of the Ministry in the exercise of his or her lawful functions under this Act commits an offence, and on conviction is liable to a fine not exceeding 50 penalty units or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months, or both.
3. A person who fails to comply with any of the other provisions of this Act for which no specific
penalty is provided commits an offence and on conviction is liable to a fine not exceeding 20 penalty units, and in addition to the fine the Court may order that an employee be paid an amount equal to the amount to which the employee is entitled to under this Act.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Solitulafono (Crimes Act), 2013

“155. Trafficking in people by means of coercion or deception–
1. A person is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who:

a. arranges the entry of a person into Samoa or any other country by one 1. or more acts of coercion against the person, one 1. or more acts of deception of the person, or both; or
b. arranges, organises, or procures the reception, concealment, or harbouring in Samoa or any other country of a person, knowing that the person’s entry into Samoa or that other country was arranged by one 1. or more acts of coercion against the person, one 1. or more acts of deception of the person, or both.

2. Proceedings may be brought under this section even if the person coerced or deceived:

a. did not in fact enter the state concerned; or (as the case may be);
b. was not in fact received, concealed, or harboured in the state concerned.

3. Proceedings may be brought under this section even if parts of the process by which the person coerced or deceived was brought or came to or towards the state concerned were accomplished without an act of coercion or deception.”

“156. Aggravating factors–
1. When determining the sentence to be imposed on, or other way of dealing with, a person convicted of an offence against section 154 or 155, a court must take into account:

a. whether bodily harm or death (whether to or of a person in respect of whom the offence was committed or to or of any other person) occurred during the commission of the offence; or
b. whether the offence was committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, an organised criminal group (within the meaning of section 146); or
c. whether a person in respect of whom the offence was committed was subjected to inhuman or degrading treatment as a result of the commission of the offence; or
d. if during the proceedings concerned the person was convicted of the same offence in respect of two 2. or more people, the number of people in respect of whom the offence was committed.

2. When determining the sentence to be imposed on, or other way of dealing with, a person convicted of an offence against section 155, a court must also take into account:

a. whether a person in respect of whom the offence was committed was subjected to exploitation (for example, sexual exploitation, a requirement to undertake forced labour, or the removal of organs) as a result of the commission of the offence;
b. the age of the person in respect of whom the offence was committed and, in particular, whether the person was under the age of 18 years;
c. whether the person convicted committed the offence, or took actions that were part of it, for a material benefit.

3. The examples in paragraph a. of subsection 2. do not limit the generality of that paragraph.
4. This section does not limit the matters that a court may take into account when determining the sentence to be imposed on, or other way of dealing with, a person convicted of an offence against section 154 or section 155.”

“157. Dealing in people under 18 for sexual exploitation, removal of body parts, or engagement in forced labour–
1. A person is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years who:

a. sells, buys, transfers, barters, rents, hires, or in any other way enters into a dealing involving a person under the age of 18 years for the purpose of –

i. the sexual exploitation of the person; or
ii. the removal of body parts from the person; or
iii. the engagement of the person in forced labour; or

b. engages a person under the age of 18 years in forced labour; or
c. permits a person under the age of 18 years to be engaged in forced labour; or
d. detains, confines, imprisons, or carries away a person under the age of 18 years for the purpose of –

i. the sexual exploitation of the person; or
ii. the removal of body parts from the person; or
iii. the engagement of the person in forced labour; or

e. removes, receives, transports, imports, or brings into any place a person under the age of 18 years for the purpose of –

i. the sexual exploitation of the person; or
ii. the removal of body parts from the person for a material benefit; or
iii. the engagement of the person in forced labour; or

f. induces a person under the age of 18 years to sell, rent, or give himself or herself for the purpose of –

i. the sexual exploitation of the person; or
ii. the removal of body parts from the person for a material benefit; or
iii. the engagement of the person in forced labour; or

g. induces a person to sell, rent, or give another person (being a person who is under the age of 18 years and who is dependent on him or her or in his or her charge) for the purpose of –

i. the sexual exploitation of the other person; or
ii. the removal of body parts from the other person; or
iii. the engagement of the other person in forced labour; or

h. builds, fits out, sells, buys, transfers, rents, hires, uses, provides with personnel, navigates, or serves on board a ship, aircraft, or other vehicle for the purpose of doing an act stated in any of paragraphs a. to g.; or

i. agrees or offers to do an act stated in any of paragraphs a. to h..”

“2. It is a defence to a charge under this section if the person charged proves that he or she believed on reasonable grounds that the person under the age of 18 years concerned was of or over the age of 18 years.
3. For the purposes of subsection 1., sexual exploitation, in relation to a person, includes the following acts:

a. the taking by any means, or transmission by any means, of still or moving images of the person engaged in explicit sexual activities (whether real or simulated);
b. the taking by any means or transmission by any means, for a material benefit, of still or moving images of the person’s genitalia, anus, or breasts (not being an act described in subsection 4. or subsection 5.);
c. the person’s participation in a performance or display (not being an act described in subsection 4.) that –

i. is undertaken for a material benefit; and
ii. involves the exposure of the person’s genitalia, anus, or breasts;

d. the person’s undertaking of an activity (such as, employment in a restaurant) that –

i. is undertaken for a material benefit; and
ii. involves the exposure of the person’s genitalia, anus, or breasts.

4. For the purposes of paragraphs b. and c. of subsection 3., sexual exploitation, in relation to a person, does not include the recording or transmission of an artistic or cultural performance or display honestly undertaken primarily for purposes other than the exposure of body parts for the sexual gratification of viewers.

5. For the purposes of subsection 3.b., “sexual exploitation”, in relation to a person, does not include the taking or transmission of images of the person’s genitalia, anus, or breasts for the purpose of depicting a medical condition, or a surgical or medical technique, for the instruction or information of health professionals.

6. For the purposes of subsection 3.b., “sexual exploitation”, in relation to a person, does not include the taking or transmission of images of the person’s genitalia, anus, or breasts if the images are honestly intended:

a. to provide medical or health education; or
b. to provide information relating to medical or health matters; or
c. to advertise a product, instrument, or service intended to be used for medical or health purposes.

7. The person under the age of 18 years in respect of whom an offence against this section was committed cannot be charged as a party to the offence.
8. This section does not limit or affect the generality of section 154 and 155.”

“158. Attorney General’s consent to prosecutions required–
1. Proceedings for an offence against this Part of the Act cannot be brought in a court in Samoa without the Attorney-General’s consent.
2. A person alleged to have committed an offence against section 154, 155 or section 157 may be arrested, or a warrant for the person’s arrest may be issued and executed, and the person be remanded in custody or on bail, even though the Attorney-General’s consent to the bringing of proceedings against the person has not been obtained.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Samoa. If you are a representative of Samoa and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.