Data Dashboards

Seychelles
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.801 (2018)

Mean School Years: 9.7 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data available

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 1999
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2004
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: 18.0% (2005)

Pension: 100% (2011)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Seychelles.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Seychelles.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Seychelles.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Seychelles between 2000 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Seychelles is 0.801. This score indicates that human development is very high.

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Seychelles over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

 

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Seychelles.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of the Republic of Seychelles, 1993

“17.1. Every person has a right not to be held in slavery or bondage.
2. Every person has a right not to be compelled to perform forced or compulsory labour.
3. Labour forced or compelled to be performed pursuant to a law necessary in a democratic society does not infringe clause (2)”

Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2014

Penal Code, 1955

“Forced labour
251. Any person who unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person is guilty of a misdemeanour and is liable to imprisonment for three years.”

Child Labour

Employment Act, 1995

“20. Notwithstanding any written law, a contract of employment entered into by a minor and whereby the minor is, or is to be, employed is binding upon the minor if attested by the competent officer.”

Conditions of Employment Regulations, 1991

“21.1. A person shall not have in that person’s employ another of less than 15 years of age.
(2) Notwithstanding sub regulation (1), work schemes may be organised for school children on vacation or holidays and, where such schemes have the approval of the Competent Officer, children aged 12 to 14 years may participate in them provided the work is of a light nature and subject to such conditions as the Competent Officer may impose upon giving his approval.
(4) Notwithstanding sub regulation (1), children aged 12 to 14 years may, outside school hours, run occasional errands and do odd jobs provided the duties are light and not recurrent.”

Constitution of the Republic of Seychelles, 1993

“31. The State recognises the right of children and young persons to special protection in view of their immaturity and vulnerability and to ensure effective exercise of this right the State undertakes–

a. to provide that the minimum age of admission to employment shall be fifteen years, subject to exceptions for children who are employed part- time in light work prescribed by law without harm to their health, morals or education;
b. to provide for a higher minimum age of admission to employment with respect to occupations prescribed by law which the State regards as dangerous, unhealthy or likely to impair the normal development of a child or young person;
c. to ensure special protection against social and economic exploitation and physical and moral dangers to which children and young persons are exposed;”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Constitution of the Republic of Seychelles, 1993

“31. The State recognises the right of children and young persons to special protection in view of their immaturity and vulnerability and to ensure effective exercise of this right the State undertakes–

a. to provide that the minimum age of admission to employment shall be fifteen years, subject to exceptions for children who are employed part- time in light work prescribed by law without harm to their health, morals or education;
b. to provide for a higher minimum age of admission to employment with respect to occupations prescribed by law which the State regards as dangerous, unhealthy or likely to impair the normal development of a child or young person;
c. to ensure special protection against social and economic exploitation and physical and moral dangers to which children and young persons are exposed;”

Conditions of Employment Regulations, 1991

“22.1. A person shall not employ another under the age of 18 years in a hotel, guest-house, boarding house, any place where tourists are accommodated, restaurant, shop, bar, nightclub, dance hall, discotheque or similar places of entertainment or on a ship or aircraft.
Provided that the foregoing prohibition shall not apply to any employment under a training scheme approved by the Minister in writing.
(2) A person shall not employ another under the age of 18 years between the hours of 10 p.m and 5 a.m.
(3) A person shall not employ another under the age of 21 years in a gaming house or casino.
(4) Notwithstanding sub regulations (1) and (2) the competent officer may, exceptionally, grant special written permission for the employment of any person aged 15 to 17 years in a place listed in sub regulation (1) or between the hours of 10 p.m and 5 a.m.”

Children’s Act (Cap. 28), 1982

“Interpretation 2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires –
“”child””, except where used to express a relationship and except in sections 9 to 14, means a person under 18 years of age and includes a young person;
“”young person”” means a person of 14 years of age or older but under 18 years of age.”

Human Trafficking

Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2014

“PART II. 3.1. A person who recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives another person by any of the following means–

a. threat;
b. use of force or other forms of coercion;
c. abduction;
d. fraud;
e. deception; including any misrepresentation by words or conduct as to financial incentive or promise of reward or gain and other conditions of work;
f. abuse of power or of another person’s position of vulnerability; or
g. giving or receiving of payments or benefits, knowingly or intentionally, to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person,
for the purposes of exploitation, commits the offence of trafficking in persons and shall on conviction be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years, or such imprisonment and a fine not exceeding SCR500,000.

3.2. Where it is proved to the satisfaction of the Court that any of the means referred to in subsection 1 a to g has been used in committing the offence of trafficking, it shall not be a defence that the trafficked person consented to such an act.”

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1978

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1978

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2000 (minimum age specified: 15 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 1999

Slavery Convention, Not signed

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 1992

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2004

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Accession 1990

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2010

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2012

National Action Plans, National Strategies

“Strategic Framework and National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons”

“Aimed to raise awareness, prosecute perpetrators, improve victims’ access to protection and assistance services, build capacity of stakeholders, and strengthen cooperation among relevant stakeholders to prevent and combat trafficking in persons. In 2016, conducted trainings on human trafficking for government immigration officers.”

National Social Renaissance Plan of Action (2012–2016)

“Included provisions to decrease violations of children’s rights, bolster child protection, and enhance services to victims of commercial sexual exploitation. Implemented by various ministries, including the MLHRD.”

National Action Plan on Early Childhood Care and Education (2013-2014)

“Includes the Education Sector Strategic Plan (2013–2017) and the Inclusive Education Policy, both of which aim to improve the quality of, and access to, primary and secondary education. Overseen by the Ministry of Education.”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance

Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2014

“Part III – Services to Presumed Victim of Trafficking and Victim of Trafficking
10. Reporting and Referral
12. Witness protection
13. Protection of privacy of a presumed victim of trafficking
14. Vulnerable witness”

15. Deportation of presumed victims of trafficking
16. Issuance of permit to a presumed victims of trafficking
17. Non-liability of victims of trafficking
18. Compensation
19. Return of trafficked citizens and permanent residents of Seychelles
Part V – Trafficking in Persons Fund

Children’s Act (Cap. 28), 1982

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Penal Code, 1955

“Forced labour
251. Any person who unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person is guilty of a misdemeanour and is liable to imprisonment for three years.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Conditions of Employment Regulations, 1991

“25. An employer who contravenes 21, 22 (1) (2) or (3) or 23(1) is guilty of an offence.
50. A person guilty of an offence under these Regulations is liable, where no other penalty is provided, to a fine of not less than R1000 and not more than R10,000, and in the case of a continuing offence to an additional penalty of R200 in respect of each day that the regulation is contravened.”

Children’s Act (Cap. 28), 1982

Children 71.(1) No person shall – not to be used for (a) cause or procure a child; or begging Act 4/1998 (b) if he has the custody, charge or care of a child, allow him, to be in any place for the purpose of – (i) begging; or (ii) winning sympathy for a person who is begging; or (iii) inducing gifts of money or other things, even if there is a pretence of singing, playing, performing or offering anything for sale. (2) Where a person is charged with contravening subsection (1) (b) and it is proved that the child was in a place for a purpose sepcified in sub-section (1), and that the person allowed the child to be in that place, he is presumed to have allowed him to be in that place for that purpose unless the contrary is proved. (3) If a person singing, playing, performing or offering anything for sale in a street or public place has with him a child who has been lent or hire out to him, that child is for the purpose of this section deemed to be in that street or place for the purpose of sub-section (1) (iii). (4) A person who contravenes sub-section (1) is guilty of an offence and is liable to imprisonment for 2 years and to a fine of R.2000.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2014

“3.1. A person who recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives another person by any of the following means–

a. threat;
b. use of force or other forms of coercion;
c. abduction;
d. fraud;
e. deception; including any misrepresentation by words or conduct as to financial incentive or promise of reward or gain and other conditions of work;
f. abuse of power or of another person’s position of vulnerability; or
g. giving or receiving of payments or benefits, knowingly or intentionally, to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person,
for the purposes of exploitation, commits the offence of trafficking in persons and shall on conviction be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years, or such imprisonment and a fine not exceeding SCR500,000.

3.2. Where it is proved to the satisfaction of the Court that any of the means referred to in subsection 1 a to g has been used in committing the offence of trafficking, it shall not be a defence that the trafficked person consented to such an act.”

4. Child trafficking
5. Aggravating circumstances
6. Benefiting from exploitation of trafficking in persons
7. Aiding, abetting, or attempting in commission of offence of trafficking in persons
8. Promotion of trafficking in persons

Penalties, Slavery

Penal Code, 1955

“Buying or disposing of a person as slave
249. Any person who imports, exports, removes, buys, sells or disposes of any person as a slave, or accepts, receives or detains against his will any person as a slave, is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for ten years.
Slave dealing
250. Any person who habitually imports, exports, removes, buys, sells, traffics or deals in slaves is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Seychelles. If you are a representative of Seychelles and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.