Data Dashboards

Sierra Leone Dashboard
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data is only available for 2007. There is no change to report.

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Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.420 (2015)

Mean School Years: 3.3 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data

Working Poverty Rate: 46.8% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2011
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2014
Social Protections Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

 

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes: 

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Sierra Leone, data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2007. The measure provided for 2007 does not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Sierra Leone, the latest estimates show that 1 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2013. The number is higher than in 2010, and has increased from 0.7 percent in 2000. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour, but use a reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2007 and 2008.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Sierra Leone, the latest estimates show that 0.7 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2007. The measure provided for 2007 does not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007.

 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2013 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Sierra Leone was 8.8 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 6.7 hours in 2010.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2005, 2008, 2010 and 2013.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2013, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 9.9 hours per week. This number has increased since 2010, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 8.2.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2005, 2008, 2010 and 2013.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week for children aged 5-14.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 5.1 hours per week according to the 2013 estimate. This estimate represents an increase in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2010, which found that children aged 5-14 in Sierra Leone worked an average of 7.3 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2005, 2008, 2010 and 2013.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Sierra Leone is from 2007. By the 2007 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Other services sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Sierra Leone.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Sierra Leone.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Sierra Leone between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that average human development score in Sierra Leone is 0.420. This score indicates that human development is low.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Sierra Leone over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by age groupings and sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Sierra Leone.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1991
Article 19 Protection from slavery and forced labour
1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude or be required to perform forced labour or traffic or deal in human beings.
2. For the purposes of this section the expression “forced labour” does not include—

a. any labour required in consequence of a sentence or order of a court, or
b. labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained, which though not required in
consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interest of
hygiene or for the maintenance of the place in which he is detained; or
c. any labour required of a member of a defence force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the
case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as such a member, any labour
which that person is required by law to perform in place of such service; or
d. any labour required during a period of public emergency or calamity which threatens the life of
well-being of the community; or
e. communal labour or labour which forms part of other civic obligation.

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2005
1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires–

“forced labour” means labour or services obtained or maintained through force, threat of force or other means of coercion or physical restraint;

Child Labour

Child Rights Act, 2007
125. The age of fifteen shall be the age at which the compulsory primary education of a child shall end, and also the minimum age for the engagement of a child in full-time employment.
127.1. The minimum age for the engagement of a child in light work shall be thirteen years.
127.2. Light work constitutes work which is not likely to be harmful to the health or development of the child and does not affect the child’s attendance at school or the capacity of the child to benefit from school work.

Employers and Employed Act, 1966
51. Children who appear to be under the age of twelve years shall not be employed in any capacity whatsoever:

Provided that the provisions of this section shall not apply to any child employed on light work of an agricultural, horticultural or domestic character by a member of the family of such child an which has been approved by the competent Government authority:
Provided further that no such child shall be employed before six o’clock in the morning or after eight o’clock in the evening on any day or for more than two hours on any day and provided also that such child shall not be required to lift, carry or move anything so heavy as to be likely to cause injury to him.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Child Rights Act, 2007
32.1. No person shall subject a child to exploitative labour
as defined in subsection 2.
32.2. Labour is exploitative of a child, if it deprives the child of its health, education or development.
126.1. No person shall employ a child in night work.
126.2. Night work constitutes work between the hours of eight o’clock in the evening and six o’clock in the morning.
128.1. The minimum age for the engagement of a person in hazardous work is eighteen years.
128.2. Work is hazardous when it poses a danger to the health, safety or morals of a person.
128.3. Hazardous work includes–

a. going to sea;
b. mining and quarrying;
c. porterage of heavy loads;
d. manufacturing industries where chemicals are produced or used;
e. work in places where machines are used; and
f. work in places such as bars, hotels and places of entertainment where a person may be exposed to immoral behaviour.

129. For the avoidance of doubt, this Part shall apply to employment in the formal and informal sectors.

Employers and Employed Act, 1966
47.1. No girl or woman of any age, shall be employed in or allowed to be for the purpose of employment in any mine below ground.
47.2. For the purpose of this section the term “mine” includes any undertaking whether public or private for the extraction of any substance from under the surface of the earth.
48. No girl or woman of any age or boy who appears to be under eighteen years of age shall be employed during the night in any public or private industrial undertaking or in any branch thereof, other than an undertaking in which only members of the same family are employed.
51. Children who appear to be under the age of twelve years shall not be employed in any capacity whatsoever:

Provided that the provisions of this section shall not apply to any child employed on light work of an agricultural, horticultural or domestic character by a member of the family of such child an which has been approved by the competent Government authority:

Provided further that no such child shall be employed before six o’clock in the morning or after eight o’clock in the evening on any day or for more than two hours on any day and provided also that such child shall not be required to lift, carry or move anything so heavy as to be likely to cause injury to him.

Human Trafficking

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2005
2. 1. It is an offence for any person to engage in the trafficking in persons.
2.2. A person engages in the trafficking in persons if he undertakes the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation.
2.3. For the purposes of subsection 2, “exploitation” includes, at a minimum–

a. keeping a person in a state of slavery;
b. subjecting a person to practices similar to slavery;
c. compelling or causing a person to provide forced labour or services;
d. keeping a person in a state of servitude, including sexual servitude;
e. exploitation of the prostitution of another;
f. engaging in any other form of commercial sexual exploitation, including but not limited to pimping, pandering, procuring, profiting from prostitution, maintaining a brothel, child pornography;
g. illicit removal of human organs;
h. exploitation during armed conflicts.

Slavery

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2005
1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires–

“practices similar to slavery” includes debt bondage, serfdom, forced or servile marriages and delivery of children for exploitation;
“slavery” means the status or condition of a person over whom any or all the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised;

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2005
16. A victim of trafficking is not liable for any criminal offence
that was a direct result from being trafficked.
23.1. Where a defendant is convicted of trafficking in persons under section 2, the court shall order the defendant to pay restitution to the victim.
23.2. Restitution shall compensate the victim for-

a. costs of medical and psychological treatment;
b. costs of physical and occupational therapy and rehabilitation;
c. costs of necessary transportation, temporary housing and child care;
d. lost income;
e. legal practitioner’s fees and other legal costs;
f. the greater of the gross income or value to the defendant of the victim’s services or labour;
g. compensation for emotional distress, pain, and suffering; and
h. any other losses suffered by the victim.

23.3. Restitution shall, upon the conviction of the defendant, be paid to the victim promptly with the proceeds from any property forfeited under section 24 applied first to the payment of restitution and the return of the victim to his home country or normal place of abode but the absence of the victim from the jurisdiction shall not prejudice the victim’s right to receive restitution

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Child Rights Act, 2007
131.1. Any person who contravenes the provisions of this
Part commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding Le10 million or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to both such fine and imprisonment.
131.2. Notwithstanding subsection 1, any person who contravenes subsection 1 of section 130 commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding Le500,000.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2005
18. An attempt or conspiracy to commit trafficking or aiding, abetting, counselling, commanding or procuring the commission of trafficking shall be punishable as if the offence had been completed.
19. Where an offence under this Act is committed by a body of persons –

a. if the body of persons is a body corporate, every director or officer of that body shall be deemed to have committed that offence;
b. if the body of persons is a firm, every partner of that firm shall be deemed to have committed that offence:

Provided that no such person referred to in paragraph a. or b. shall be deemed to have committed an offence under this Act if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of the offence.
20. Any person who, acting or purporting to act as another person’s employer, manager, supervisor, contractor, employment agent, or solicitor of clients (such as a pimp), knowingly procures, destroys, conceals, removes, confiscates, or possesses any passport, immigration document or other government identification document, whether actual or purported, belonging to another person, for any unlawful purpose, commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding thirty million leones or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years or to both such fine and imprisonment.
21.1. Any person who knowingly transports any person across an international border for the purpose of exploiting that person’s prostitution commits an offence.
21.2. Persons convicted of an offence under subsection 1 shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years but the presence of any one of the following aggravating factors can permit a longer sentence up to a maximum of 10 years:

a. transporting two or more persons at the same time;
b. permanent or life-threatening bodily injury to a person transported;
c. transportation of one or more children; or
d. transporting as part of the activity of an organized criminal group.

22. A person convicted of the offence of trafficking shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty million leones or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years or to both such fine and imprisonment.
24.1. All property, including but not limited to money, Forfeiture. valuables, real property and vehicles, of any person convicted of the crime of trafficking in persons under section 2 that was used or intended to be used, or was obtained in the course of the offence, or benefits gained from the proceeds of the offence, shall be forfeited to the State.
24.2. Any overseas assets of persons convicted of trafficking in persons shall also be subject to forfeiture to the extent they can be retrieved by Government

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protections: General (at Least One)
Social Protections (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protections: Pension
Social Protections: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protections: Children
Social Protections: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Sierra Leone. If you are a representative of Sierra Leone and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us at info@delta87.org.