Data Dashboards

Singapore
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.935 (2018)

Mean School Years: 11.5 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 9.8% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 0.0% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2015
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Singapore.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Singapore.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Singapore.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Singapore between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Singapore is 0.935. This score indicates that human development is very high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Singapore over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Singapore showed an increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

 

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Singapore.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of the Republic of Singapore, 1965

“Slavery and forced labour prohibited
10.—1. No person shall be held in slavery.
2. All forms of forced labour are prohibited, but Parliament may by law provide for compulsory service for national purposes.
3. Work incidental to the serving of a sentence of imprisonment imposed by a court of law shall not be taken to be forced labour within the meaning of this Article.”

Child Labour

Employment Act, 1968

“Interpretation of this Part 67A. In this Part —
“child” means a person who has not completed his 15th year of age;
“young person” means a person who has completed his 15th year of age but who has not completed his 16th year of age.”

“Restriction on employment of children
68.—1. No person shall employ a child in an industrial or a non- industrial undertaking except as provided for in subsections 2. and 3..
2. A child may be employed in an industrial undertaking in which only members of the same family are employed.
3. A child who is 13 years of age or above may be employed in light work suited to his capacity in a non-industrial undertaking.
4. For the purposes of subsection 3., the certificate of a medical officer shall be conclusive upon the question of whether any work is suited to the capacity of any particular child.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Employment Act, 1968

“Restriction on employment of young persons
69. No young person shall be employed in any industrial undertaking which the Minister by notification in the Gazette declares to be an industrial undertaking in which no young person shall be employed.”

Employment Act, Chapter 91, Section 70 (Children and Young Persons Regulations), 2000

“Employment at night
5. No child or young person shall be employed as a workman during the night or any part thereof.
Hours of work
6. Subject to regulation 8, no child shall be employed as a workman for —

a. more than 3 hours without a break of 30 minutes; or
b. more than 6 hours in any one day.
Hours of work of young persons employed in industrial undertaking

7. Subject to regulation 8, no young person shall, without the written permission of the Commissioner, be employed as a workman in an industrial undertaking for —

a. more than 4 hours without a break of 30 minutes; or
b. more than 7 hours in any one day.
Maximum hours of work

8. Where a child or young person is attending school, the period of work put in by the child or young person and the period of school attendance shall not in the aggregate exceed 6 hours or 7 hours, respectively, in any one day except where the child or young person is employed upon work carried on in any Government or other technical school, or under any approved apprenticeship scheme.”

“Employment under injurious conditions
10.—1. No child or young person shall be employed in any occupation or in any place or under working conditions injurious or likely to be injurious to the health of that child or young person.
2. The certificate of a registered medical practitioner shall be conclusive upon the question of whether an occupation or any place or working conditions is or are injurious or likely to be injurious to the health of the child or young person.
Employment on vessel

11. No child, except a child employed under an approved apprenticeship scheme, shall be employed as a workman on any vessel unless the vessel is under the personal charge of the parent of the child.
Attending to machinery

12.—1. No child or young person shall be employed in any service involving management of, or attendance on machinery in motion without the written approval of the Commissioner.
2. The Commissioner shall not grant his approval unless he is satisfied that the child or young person is employed under a scheme of training approved by the Ministry of Education or the Institute of Technical Education, Singapore.
3. Any approval granted by the Commissioner may be subject to such conditions as he sees fit to impose.

Employment on electrical apparatus

13. No person shall employ or permit to be employed any child or young person in any service involving management of, or attendance on or proximity to any live electrical apparatus not effectively insulated.

Employment underground
14. No child or young person shall be employed in any underground work.”

Prevention of Human Trafficking Act, 2014

“Interpretation
2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires —
“child” means an individual below the age of 18 years;”

Human Trafficking

Prevention of Human Trafficking Act, 2014

“Interpretation
2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires —
“trafficked victim” means an individual against whom an offence under section 3 is committed, and includes an alleged victim of the offence.”

“Trafficking in persons
3.—1. Any person who recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or
receives an individual (other than a child) by means of —

a. the threat or use of force, or any other form of coercion;
b. abduction;
c. fraud or deception;
d. the abuse of power;
e. the abuse of the position of vulnerability of the individual; or
f. the giving to, or the receipt by, another person having control over that individual of any money or other benefit to secure that other person’s consent, for the purpose of the exploitation (whether in Singapore or elsewhere) of the individual shall be guilty of an offence.

2. Any person who recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives a child for the purpose of the exploitation (whether in Singapore or elsewhere) of the child shall be guilty of an offence.
3. In determining whether an offence has been committed under this section, the following shall be irrelevant:

a. in the case where the alleged victim of the offence is a child, whether the child, or the child’s parent or guardian, consented to the actual or intended exploitation;
b. in any other case, whether the alleged victim of the offence consented to the actual or intended exploitation.

4. For the purposes of subsection 1. or 2., it does not matter whether the act of trafficking in persons described in that subsection is done partly in and partly outside Singapore provided that the act, if done wholly in Singapore, would constitute an offence under that subsection.”

Slavery

Prevention of Human Trafficking Act, 2014

“Interpretation
2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires —
“debt bondage” means a status or condition arising from —

a. the pledging by a debtor of the personal services of the debtor or an individual under the debtor’s control, as security for a debt; and
b. the reasonable value of such services not being applied towards the discharge of the debt, or the length or nature of such services not being limited or defined, respectively;
“exploitation” means sexual exploitation, forced labour, slavery or any practice similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of an organ;
“practice similar to slavery” includes debt bondage, serfdom or any servile form of marriage;
“servitude”, in relation to an individual, means any condition or obligation, not authorised by any written law, to work or render services from which the individual cannot escape or which the individual is not free to change;”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Child Labour

Employment Act, 1968

“Part VIII. Power of Youth Court in respect of children or young persons requiring care or protection
75. A child or young person in respect of whom any of the offences mentioned in this Part has been committed may be brought before a Youth Court and the Court, if satisfied that the child or young person requires care or protection, may exercise with respect to that child or young person all or any of the powers conferred by section 49 of the Children and Young Persons Act (Cap. 38).”

Children and Young Persons Act, 1993

“When child or young person in need of care or protection
4. For the purposes of this Act, a child or young person is in need of
care or protection if —

i. the child or young person is found to be —
i. destitute or wandering without any settled place of abode and without visible means of subsistence;
ii. begging or receiving alms (whether or not there is any pretence of singing, playing, performing or offering anything for sale) or loitering for the purpose of so begging or receiving alms;
iii. engaged in carrying out illegal lotteries, illegal hawking, gambling or other undesirable activities; or”

“Power of protector to require security
16. If a protector has reasonable cause to believe that any child or
young person —

a. has been brought into Singapore either after having been transferred for valuable consideration or by fraud, misrepresentation or any false pretence;
b.has been transferred to the custody or control of any person for valuable consideration either within or outside Singapore;
c. is being detained against his will by some person other than his parents or lawful guardian; or
d. is a trafficked victim, as defined in section 2 of the Prevention of Human Trafficking Act 2014,
he may either —

i. order any person in whose custody or under whose control the child or young person appears to be —

a. to furnish him with copies of the photographs of the child or young person and the photographs of that person; and
b. to furnish security to his satisfaction that the child or young person will not leave Singapore without the previous consent in writing of the protector, and that the child or young person will be produced before the protector whenever he requires it; or

ii. in the first instance, or if default be made in complying with any order made under subparagraph i., order that the child or young person be taken out of the custody of the person in whose care, custody or control the child or young person is and commit the child or young person to a place of temporary care and protection or, on such security and on such conditions as the protector may require, to the custody of a relative or other fit person until the child or young person attains the age of 18 years or for any shorter period.”

“Restriction on publication of information leading to identification of child or young person who is subject of investigation, etc.
27A.—1. No person shall, without the Director’s approval, publish or broadcast any information that identifies, or is likely to lead to the identification of any child or young person as a child or young person —

a. who has been or is the subject of any investigation under this Act;
b. who has been taken into care or custody by the Director, a protector or a police officer under this Act; or
c. who is the subject of an order made by a court under this Act.”

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Prevention of Human Trafficking Act, 2014

“Protection of sexually exploited trafficked victims
18.—1. Where any person is charged with or convicted of an offence under Part 2 involving the sexual exploitation of a trafficked victim, the court hearing any matter or proceedings in relation to the charge or conviction —

a. in the case where the trafficked victim is a child, shall hear the matter or proceedings in camera; and
b. in any other case, may order that the matter or proceedings (or any part of it) be heard in camera.

2. No person shall, in connection with any matter or proceedings referred to in subsection 1. —

a. publish the name, address or photograph, or any other thing which is likely to lead to the identification, of the trafficked victim;
b. publish the name, address or photograph of any witness, or any evidence given by the witness, in the matter or proceedings, or any other thing relating to the witness, which is likely to lead to the identification of the trafficked victim; or
c. do any other act which is likely to lead to the identification of the trafficked victim.

3. The prohibition under subsection 2. applies regardless of whether the matter or proceedings is required or ordered to be heard in camera under subsection 1..
4. Any person who contravenes subsection 2. shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $5,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years or to both.
5. Nothing in this section affects a court’s powers under section 7 of the State Courts Act (Cap. 321) or section 8 of the Supreme Court of Judicature Act (Cap. 322).
6. In this section, a reference to an offence under Part 2 includes a reference to an abetment of, or a conspiracy or an attempt to commit, the offence.”

“Assistance to trafficked victims
19.—1. The Director of Social Welfare appointed under section 31. of the Children and Young Persons Act (Cap. 38) may provide to a trafficked victim such assistance as the Director considers practicable and necessary in the particular circumstances of the case, including —

a. temporary shelter; and
b. counselling services.

2. The Director of Social Welfare may —

a. appoint any public officer; or
b. with the approval of the Minister charged with the responsibility for social support services, authorise in writing any other person,
to perform the Director’s function under subsection 1., subject to such conditions and limitations as the Director may specify.

3. To avoid doubt, any appointment or authorisation under subsection 2. does not restrict or prevent the Director of Social Welfare from exercising the function under subsection 1..
4. Any Person Authorised Under Subsection2.b.isdeemedtobea public servant within the meaning of the Penal Code (Cap. 224).”

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Employment Act, 1968

“Offence
74. Any person who employs a child or young person in contravention of the provisions of this Part or any of the regulations made thereunder and any parent or guardian who knowingly or negligently suffers or permits such employment shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $5,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or to both except in the case where a child or young person suffers serious injury or death resulting from any breach of the provisions of this Part or any regulations made thereunder the offender shall be punished with a fine of $5,000 and shall also be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years.”

Children and Young Persons Act, 1993

“Trafficking in Children
Unlawful transfer of possession, custody or control of child
12.—1. Every person who takes any part in any transaction the object or one of the objects of which is to transfer or confer, wholly or partly, temporarily or permanently, the possession, custody or control of a child for any valuable consideration shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 4 years.
2. Every person who, without lawful authority or excuse, harbours or has in his possession, custody or control any child with respect to whom the temporary or permanent possession, custody or control has been transferred or conferred for valuable consideration by any other person within or outside Singapore shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $10,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years or to both.
3. It shall be a defence in any prosecution under this section to prove that the transfer took place in contemplation of or pursuant to a bona fide marriage or adoption and that at least one of the natural parents of the child or the legal guardian was a consenting party to the marriage or to the adoption by the adopting party, and had expressly consented to the marriage or adoption.
4. In this section, “legal guardian”, in relation to a child or young person, means a person lawfully appointed by deed or will or by the order of a competent court to be the guardian of that child or young person.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Prevention of Human Trafficking Act, 2014

“Punishment for trafficking in persons
4.—1. Any person who is guilty of an offence under section 3, upon conviction —

a. in the case of a first offence, shall be punished with a fine not exceeding $100,000 and with imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years, and shall be liable to caning not exceeding 6 strokes; and
b. in the case of a second or subsequent offence, shall be punished with a fine not exceeding $150,000, with imprisonment for a term not exceeding 15 years and with caning not exceeding 9 strokes.

2. In determining the appropriate sentence for an offence under section 3, the court may take into account the aggravating factors relevant to the offence including the following:

a. the offence involved serious injury to or the death (including death by suicide) of the trafficked victim or another individual;
b. the trafficked victim was particularly vulnerable due to pregnancy, illness, infirmity, disability or any other reason, and the offender was aware of the trafficked victims particular vulnerability;
c. the trafficked victim was a child;
d. the offence exposed the trafficked victim to a life-threatening illness;
e. the offence involved actual or threatened use of a weapon or drug;
f. the offender was a public servant;
g. the offender was the trafficked victim’s spouse or conjugal partner;
h. the offender was abusing a position of trust or authority in relation to the trafficked victim.”

“Abetment of trafficking in persons
5.—1. For the purposes of Chapter V of the Penal Code(Cap.224),

a person abets the commission of an offence under section 3 if —
a. the person gives instruction to another person to commit the offence;
b. the person provides or arranges any form of financing, transport, shelter, accommodation or any other facility with the intention of facilitating the commission of the offence; or
c. the person —

i. participates or assists in the recruitment, transport, transfer, harbouring or receiving of an individual;
ii. employs or assists in the employment of any of the means specified in section 31.a. to f. in respect of the individual; or
iii. does any act to promote or in furtherance of the actual or intended exploitation of the individual,
with the intention of facilitating the commission of the offence against the individual.

2. To Avoid Doubt,this section is without prejudice to the generality of the term “abetment” under the Penal Code.”

“Persons who receive payments in connection with exploitation of trafficked victims
6.—1. Any person who knowingly receives any payment in connection with the actual or intended exploitation in Singapore of a trafficked victim shall be guilty of an offence.
2. Any person who is guilty of an offence under subsection 1., upon conviction —
a. in the case of a first offence, shall be punished with a fine not exceeding $100,000 and with imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years, and shall be liable to caning not exceeding 6 strokes; and
b. in the case of a second or subsequent offence, shall be punished with a fine not exceeding $150,000, with imprisonment for a term not exceeding 15 years and with caning not exceeding 9 strokes.”

“Protection of sexually exploited trafficked victims
18.—1. Where any person is charged with or convicted of an offence under Part 2 involving the sexual exploitation of a trafficked victim, the court hearing any matter or proceedings in relation to the charge or conviction —

a. in the case where the trafficked victim is a child, shall hear the matter or proceedings in camera; and
b. in any other case, may order that the matter or proceedings (or any part of it) be heard in camera.

2. No person shall, in connection with any matter or proceedings referred to in subsection 1. —

a. publish the name, address or photograph, or any other thing which is likely to lead to the identification, of the trafficked victim;
b. publish the name, address or photograph of any witness, or any evidence given by the witness, in the matter or proceedings, or any other thing relating to the witness, which is likely to lead to the identification of the trafficked victim; or
c. do any other act which is likely to lead to the identification of the trafficked victim.

3. The prohibition under subsection 2. applies regardless of whether the matter or proceedings is required or ordered to be heard in camera under subsection 1..
4. Any person who contravenes subsection 2. shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $5,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years or to both.
5. Nothing in this section affects a court’s powers under section 7 of the State Courts Act (Cap. 321) or section 8 of the Supreme Court of Judicature Act (Cap. 322).
6. In this section, a reference to an offence under Part 2 includes a reference to an abetment of, or a conspiracy or an attempt to commit, the offence.”

Corruption, Drug Trafficking and Other Serious Crimes (Confiscation of Benefits) Act, 2000

“Confiscation orders for benefits derived from criminal conduct
5.—1. Subject to section 27, where a defendant is convicted of one or more serious offences, the court shall, on the application of the Public Prosecutor, make a confiscation order against the defendant in respect of benefits derived by him from criminal conduct if the court is satisfied that such benefits have been so derived.
2. If the court is satisfied that benefits have been derived by the defendant from criminal conduct, the court shall, at any time after sentencing or otherwise dealing with him in respect of the offence or, as the case may be, any of the offences concerned, determine in accordance with section 10 the amount to be recovered in his case by virtue of this section.
3. The court shall not take into account any application or proposed application for a confiscation order in determining the appropriate sentence or other manner of dealing with the defendant in respect of the serious offences concerned.
4. Where the court which convicted the defendant is for any reason unable to determine the amount to be recovered under subsection 2., the determination and confiscation order, if any, may be made by the Registrar.
5. Any relevant evidence admitted in the proceedings against the defendant for the serious offence concerned shall, if the court or the Registrar thinks fit, be taken into account in determining the amount to be recovered under subsection 2. or 4..
6. Without prejudice to section 28, for the purposes of this Act, a person who holds or has at any time (whether before or after 13th September 1999) held any property or any interest therein (including income accruing from such property or interest) disproportionate to his known sources of income, the holding of which cannot be explained to the satisfaction of the court, shall, until the contrary is proved, be presumed to have derived benefits from criminal conduct.
7. For the purposes of subsection 6., any expenditure by a person referred to in that subsection (whether incurred before or after 13th September 1999) shall, until the contrary is proved, be presumed to have been met out of his benefits derived from criminal conduct.
8. The presumption referred to in subsection 6. shall not be rebutted merely by adducing proof to the effect that the property or interest therein (including income accruing from such property or interest) was derived from drug dealing.”

“Substitute property confiscation order
29B.—1. Where a defendant is convicted, or is by reason of section 26 taken to be convicted, of a drug dealing offence or a serious offence, the court shall, on the application of the Public Prosecutor, make a substitute property confiscation order against the defendant, if the court is satisfied that —

a. the defendant had used or intended to use any property (referred to in this Part as an instrumentality) for the commission of the offence; and
b. the instrumentality is not available for forfeiture as mentioned in subsection 2..

2. For the purposes of subsection 1., an instrumentality is not available for forfeiture if —

a. the instrumentality is not held by the defendant;
b. the instrumentality is held by the defendant and has been seized under any written law, but has been ordered to be released, or to be disposed of in favour of any person other than the defendant; or
c. the instrumentality has been sold or otherwise disposed of, or cannot be found.

3. When a court makes a substitute property confiscation order against the defendant, the defendant is liable to pay to the Government the amount which —

a. the court assesses to be the value of the instrumentality at the time the drug dealing offence or serious offence was committed; and
b. is specified in the order.

4. For the purposes of subsection 3., the value of the instrumentality shall be its full value, even if the defendant did not expend any amount for the purpose of using it for the commission of the offence, or did not expend an amount equal to its full value for that purpose.
5. If a substitute property confiscation order is made against 2 or more defendants in respect of the same instrumentality, the defendants are jointly and severally liable to pay to the Government the amount specified in the order.”

“Assisting another to retain benefits of drug dealing
43.—1. Subject to subsection 3., a person who enters into, or is otherwise concerned in an arrangement, knowing or having reasonable grounds to believe that by the arrangement —

a. the retention or control by or on behalf of another (referred to in this section as that other person) of that other person’s benefits of drug dealing is facilitated (whether by concealment, removal from jurisdiction, transfer to nominees or otherwise); or
b. that other person’s benefits of drug dealing —

i. are used to secure funds that are placed at that other person’s disposal, directly or indirectly; or
ii. are used for that other person’s benefit to acquire property by way of investment or otherwise,
and knowing or having reasonable grounds to believe that that other person is a person who carries on or has carried on drug dealing or has benefited from drug dealing, shall be guilty of an offence.

2. In this section, references to any person’s benefits of drug dealing include a reference to any property which, in whole or in part, directly or indirectly, represented in his hands his benefits of drug dealing.
3. Where a person discloses to an authorised officer a suspicion or belief that any property, funds or investments are derived from or used in connection with drug dealing or any matter on which such a suspicion or belief is based —

a. if he does any act in contravention of subsection 1. and the disclosure relates to the arrangement concerned, he shall not be guilty of an offence under this section if the disclosure is made in accordance with this paragraph, that is —

i. it is made before he does the act concerned, being an act done with the consent of the authorised officer; or
ii. it is made after he does the act, but is made on his initiative and as soon as it is reasonable for him to make it;

b. the disclosure shall not be treated as a breach of any restriction upon the disclosure of information imposed by law, contract or rules of professional conduct; and
c. he shall not be liable in damages for any loss arising out of —

i. the disclosure; or
ii. any act done or omitted to be done in relation to the property, funds or investments in consequence of the disclosure.

4. In any proceedings against a person for an offence under this section, it is a defence to prove —

a. that he did not know and had no reasonable ground to believe that the arrangement related to any person’s proceeds of drug dealing;
b. that he did not know and had no reasonable ground to believe that, by the arrangement, the retention or control by or on behalf of the relevant person of any property was facilitated or, as the case may be, that, by the arrangement, any property was used as mentioned in subsection 1.; or
c. that —

i. he intended to disclose to an authorised officer such suspicion, belief or matter as is mentioned in subsection 3. in relation to the arrangement; and
ii. there is reasonable excuse for his failure to make disclosure in accordance with subsection 3.a.; or

d. that, in the case of a person who was in employment at the time in question and he enters or is otherwise concerned in the arrangement in the course of his employment, he disclosed the suspicion, belief or matter as is mentioned in subsection 3. to the appropriate person in accordance with the procedure established by his employer for the making of such disclosures.

5. Any person who commits an offence under this section shall be liable on conviction —

a. if the person is an individual, to a fine not exceeding $500,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years or to both; or
b. if the person is not an individual, to a fine not exceeding $1 million.”

“Assisting another to retain benefits from criminal conduct
44.—1. Subject to subsection 3., a person who enters into or is otherwise concerned in an arrangement, knowing or having reasonable grounds to believe that, by the arrangement —

a. the retention or control by or on behalf of another (referred to in this section as that other person) of that other person’s benefits of criminal conduct is facilitated (whether by concealment, removal from jurisdiction, transfer to nominees or otherwise); or
b. that other person’s benefits from criminal conduct —

i. are used to secure funds that are placed at that other person’s disposal, directly or indirectly; or
ii. are used for that other person’s benefit to acquire property by way of investment or otherwise, and knowing or having reasonable grounds to believe that that other person is a person who engages in or has engaged in criminal conduct or has benefited from criminal conduct shall be guilty of an offence.

2. In this section, references to any person’s benefits from criminal conduct include a reference to any property which, in whole or in part, directly or indirectly, represented in his hands his benefits from criminal conduct.
3. Where a person discloses to an authorised officer his knowledge or belief that any property, funds or investments are derived from or used in connection with criminal conduct or any matter on which such knowledge or belief is based —

a. if he does any act in contravention of subsection 1. and the disclosure relates to the arrangement concerned, he shall not be guilty of an offence under this section if the disclosure is made in accordance with this paragraph, that is —

i. it is made before he does the act concerned, being an act done with the consent of the authorised officer; or
ii. it is made after he does the act, but is made on his initiative and as soon as it is reasonable for him to make it;

b. the disclosure shall not be treated as a breach of any restriction upon the disclosure of information imposed by law, contract or rules of professional conduct; and
c. he shall not be liable in damages for any loss arising out of —

i. the disclosure; or
ii. any act done or omitted to be done in relation to the property, funds or investments in consequence of the disclosure.

4. In any proceedings against a person for an offence under this section, it is a defence to prove —

a. that he did not know and had no reasonable ground to believe that the arrangement related to any person’s proceeds derived from criminal conduct;
b. that he did not know and had no reasonable ground to believe that, by the arrangement, the retention or control by or on behalf of the relevant person of any property was facilitated or, as the case may be, that, by the arrangement, any property was used as mentioned in subsection 1.;
c. that —

i. he intended to disclose to an authorised officer such knowledge, belief or matter as is mentioned in subsection 3. in relation to the arrangement; and
ii. there is reasonable excuse for his failure to make disclosure in accordance with subsection 3.a.;

d. that, in the case of a person who was in employment at the time in question and he enters or is otherwise concerned in the arrangement in the course of his employment, he disclosed the knowledge, belief or matter as is mentioned in subsection 3. to the appropriate person in accordance with the procedure established by his employer for the making of such disclosures.

5. Any person who commits an offence under this section shall be liable on conviction —

a. if the person is an individual, to a fine not exceeding $500,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years or to both; or
b. if the person is not an individual, to a fine not exceeding $1 million.”

“Acquiring, possessing, using, concealing or transferring benefits of criminal conduct
47.—1. Any person who —

a. conceals or disguises any property which is, or in whole or in part, directly or indirectly, represents, his benefits from criminal conduct;
b. converts or transfers that property or removes it from the jurisdiction; or
c. acquires, possesses or uses that property,
shall be guilty of an offence.

2. Any person who, knowing or having reasonable grounds to believe that any property is, or in whole or in part, directly or indirectly, represents, another person’s benefits from criminal conduct —

a. conceals or disguises that property; or
b. converts or transfers that property or removes it from the jurisdiction, shall be guilty of an offence.

3. Any person who, knowing or having reasonable grounds to believe that any property is, or in whole or in part, directly or indirectly, represents, another person’s benefits from criminal conduct, acquires that property, or has possession of or uses such property, shall be guilty of an offence.
4. In subsections 1.a. and 2.a., references to concealing or disguising any property include references to concealing or disguising its nature, source, location, disposition, movement or ownership or any rights with respect to it.
6. Any person who commits an offence under this section shall be liable on conviction —

a. if the person is an individual, to a fine not exceeding $500,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years or to both; or
b. if the person is not an individual, to a fine not exceeding $1 million.”

Penalties, Slavery

Penal Code, 1871

“Buying or disposing of any person as a slave
370. Whoever imports, exports, removes, buys, sells or disposes of any person as a slave, or accepts, receives or detains against his will any person as a slave, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to 7 years, and shall also be liable to fine.
Habitual dealing in slaves
371. Whoever habitually imports, exports, removes, buys, sells, traffics or deals in slaves, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.”

“Importing woman for purposes of prostitution, etc.
373A. Whoever —

a. by any false pretence, false representation, or fraudulent or deceitful means, brings, or assists in bringing, into Singapore any woman with intent that such woman may be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution;
b. brings, or assists in bringing, into Singapore any woman with intent that such woman may be sold or bought for the purpose of prostitution; or
c. sells or buys any woman for the purpose of prostitution, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.”

Penalties, Other

Destitute Persons Act, 1989

“Interpretation 2.—1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires —

a. “destitute person” means — any person found begging in a public place in such a way as to cause or be likely to cause annoyance to persons frequenting the place or otherwise to create a nuisance; or
b. any idle person found in a public place, whether or not he is begging, who has no visible means of subsistence or place of residence or is unable to give a satisfactory account of himself;”

“Penalty for begging 4.—1. Any person being a habitual beggar found begging in a public place in such a way as to cause or to be likely to cause annoyance to persons frequenting the place or otherwise to create a nuisance shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $3,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years.
2. In this section, “habitual beggar” means a person who at least on two previous occasions was found begging in a public place in such a way as to cause or be likely to cause annoyance to persons frequenting the place or otherwise to create a nuisance and was in consequence thereof required on those two occasions to reside in a welfare home.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

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