Painéis de dados

Slovakia
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative child labour data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Human Trafficking

The data visualization displays the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Slovakia. Detailed information is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Human trafficking: Case data available
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.857 (2018)

Mean School Years: 12.6 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 12.0% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2004
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 92.1% (2016)

Unemployed: 9.9% (2014)

Pension: 100% (2014)

Vulnerable: 70.0% (2016)

Children: 100% (2016)

Disabled: 100% (2016)

Poor: 100% (2016)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Youth employment in Slovakia is permitted only to those ages 15 and up, and is regulated by Section 11 of the Labour Code. There is no data available on child labour in Slovakia, most likely due to relatively low incidence.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

Identified Victims of Human Trafficking (Source: GRETA)

According to the European Commission, Slovakia may be considered predominantly a country of origin, or a source country for victims of human trafficking. Recently, Slovakia has become also a destination country for victims of trafficking, especially Slovak nationals. The most prevalent purpose of human trafficking remains sexual exploitation, which primarily affects females—although there have been cases of identified male victims of sex trafficking. Identified male victims are predominantly subject to labour trafficking and forced begging.

The graph on the right shows the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Slovakia, as reported by Slovak authorities to the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA).

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Slovakia between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Slovakia is 0.857. This score indicates that human development is very high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Slovakia over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Slovakia showed an increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

 

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Slovakia.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of the Slovak Republic of 1992 (460/1992 Coll.)

Article 18 1. No one may be subjected to forced labour or services. 2. Section (1) of this Article shall not apply to: a. prisoners or persons sentenced to alternatives of imprisonment, b. military service or other services performed in lieu of compulsory service in the armed forces, c. services lawfully required in cases of natural disasters, calamities and other events threatening the lives, health or valuable property of citizens, d. activities lawfully required for the protection of life, health and rights of other people, e. minor municipality services on the basis of a law.

Child Labour

Constitution of the Slovak Republic of 1992 (460/1992 Coll.)

Article 38 1. Women, minors, and disabled persons shall enjoy more extensive health protection and special working conditions. 2. Minors and disabled persons shall enjoy special protection in employment relations and special assistance in training. 3. Further details of the rights defined in sections (1) and (2) of this Article shall be specified by law.

Act No. 341/2011, consolidated version of the Act No. 311/2001, Labour Code.

§ 11 (1) An employee shall be a natural person who in labour-law relations and, if stipulated by special regulation also in similar labour relations, performs dependent work for the employer. 15 (2) Capacity of a natural person to have rights and obligations in labour-law relations as an employee and capacity to acquire such rights and take on such obligations by his/her own legal actions arises, unless otherwise stipulated hereinafter, on the day the natural person reaches 15 years of age; however, an employer may not agree on date of taking up the employment by a natural person prior to the day of completion of compulsory fulltime schooling. (3) An employee may conclude an agreement of material accountability at the earliest upon the day he/she reaches 18 years of age. (4) Natural persons aged under 15 years or natural persons aged over 15 years who have not yet completed compulsory schooling are forbidden to work. These persons may carry out light work whose character and scope is not such as to result in a danger to their health, safety, further development or school attendance only for the purposes of a) taking part in a cultural performance and artistic performance, b) sports events, c) advertising activities. (5) Permission for the performance of light work as stated in Paragraph 4 shall be given by the relevant labour inspectorate in response to the employer’s request and on agreement with a relevant state administration body in the area of public health (hereinafter referred to as a “public health body”).The permit shall contain determination of the number of hours and conditions for performance of light work. In case of failure to observe the permit conditions the relevant labour inspectorate shall revoke the permit.

§ 85 Working time (7) The maximum weekly working time of an adolescent employee under 16 years of age shall be 30 hours per week, even when working for several employers. Maximum weekly working time of an adolescent employee over 16 years of age shall be 37 and ½ hours even when working for several employers. The working time of an adolescent employee may not exceed 8 hours in the course of 24 hours.

§ 91 Breaks at work (1) An employer shall be obliged to provide an employee whose work shift is longer than six hours with a break for rest and eating for duration of 30 minutes. An employer shall be obliged to provide an adolescent employee whose work shift is longer than 4.5 hours with a break for rest and eating for duration of 30 minutes.

§ 92 Continuous daily rest (1) An employer shall be obliged to arrange working time in such a way that, between the end of one shift and beginning of another shift, an employee has the minimum rest of duration of 12 consecutive hours within 24 hours, and an adolescent employee, at least 14 consecutive hours within 24 hours.

§ 171 (1) An employer shall be obliged to create favourable conditions for the overall development of the physical and mental aptitudes of adolescent employees as well as specific arrangement of their working conditions. Upon resolving significant matters pursuant to adolescents, an employer shall closely co-operate with the legal representatives of the adolescents. (2) An employer shall be obliged to keep records of adolescent employees whom he/she employs in an employment relationship. Records shall also include the dates of birth of adolescent employees.

§ 172 Information on the notice given to adolescent employees and immediate notice of an adolescent employee from an employment relationship from the side of the employer must also be submitted to his/her legal representatives. If the employment relationship is terminated by notice from an adolescent employee, by immediate termination of the employment relationship, in the probation period or if the working relationship is to be terminated by agreement, the employer shall be obliged to request the opinion of the legal representative.

§ 173 An employer may only employ adolescent employees for such works that are appropriate to their physical and mental development, which do not jeopardise their morality and shall provide them with increased care at work. This shall also apply commensurately to schools or citizens’ associations pursuant to special regulation if within the scope of their participation in the education of young people, they organise work of adolescents.

§ 223
§ 224

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Act No. 341/2011, consolidated version of the Act No. 311/2001, Labour Code.

§69 (2) An adolescent employee may also immediately terminate an employment relationship if he/she is incapable to perform work without jeopardising his/her morals.

§ 173 An employer may only employ adolescent employees for such works that are appropriate to their physical and mental development, which do not jeopardise their morality and shall provide them with increased care at work. This shall also apply commensurately to schools or citizens’ associations pursuant to special regulation if within the scope of their participation in the education of young people, they organise work of adolescents.

§ 174 Prohibition of overtime work, night work and work stand-by (1) An employer may not employ adolescent employees for overtime work or night work, and work stand-by may not be ordered on them or agreed upon with them. Exceptionally, adolescent employees older than 16 years of age may perform night work not in excess of one hour, if such is necessary for their vocational training. Night work by an adolescent employee must be directly linked to his/her work during the day according to the timetable of work shifts. (2) An employer may not use such a method of remuneration for work that would lead, through increases in work performance, to endangering the safety and health of adolescent employees. (3) If an employer may not employ an adolescent employee for work for which he/she received a vocational education because its performance is prohibited to the adolescent employee, or because according to medical opinion such work threatens his/her health, the employer shall be obliged, for the period until the adolescent employee is able to perform such work, to provide him/her with other appropriate work corresponding where possible to his/her qualification.

§ 175 Work prohibited to adolescent employees (1) An adolescent employee may not be employed for work underground in the extraction of minerals or drilling of tunnels and passages. (2) An adolescent employee may not be employed for work which, taking into account the anatomic, physiological and mental individualities at this age, is inappropriate, or dangerous for him/her or damaging to his/her health. (3) Lists of work and workplaces that are prohibited to an adolescent employee shall be established by a Government regulation. (4) An employer may employ adolescent employees neither for work at which they are exposed to an increased risk of accident nor the performance of which could seriously endanger the safety and health of co-employees or other persons.

Ordinance No 309/2010 amending the Ordinance No. 286/2004 establishing the list of tasks and workplaces that are forbidden to young workers and determining some obligations of employers that employ minors.

Human Trafficking

Act No. 300/2005 Criminal Code

Section 179 Trafficking in Human Beings (1) Any person who, by using fraudulent practices, a trick, restriction of personal freedom, violence, threatened violence, threat of grievous bodily harm or other forms of coercion, by accepting or offering monetary payment or other benefits in order to get approval of a person on whom another person depends, or by misusing his powers, or abusing of defencelessness or other vulnerable position, entices, transports, harbours, hands over or takes over another person, even upon his consent, for the purposes of his prostitution or another form of sexual exploitation, including pornography, forced labour or domestic slavery, slavery or practices similar to slavery, bondage, taking of organs, tissues or cells or other forms of exploitation, shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of four to ten years.

Act No. 204 dated 25 June 2013 amending the Act No. 300/2005 Coll. the Criminal Code

The amendment of the definition of the criminal offence of human trafficking stipulated in Article 179 of the Criminal Code introduced abduction as a new instrument and forced begging as a form of forced labour, and forced marriage as well as exploitation of criminal activities as new purposes.

Regulation of the Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic on the Program of Support and Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking (No. 180/2013)

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratified 1993

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratified 1997

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratified 1997 (Minimum age specified: 16)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratified 1999

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Not signed

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Succession 1993

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratified 2004

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Succession 1993

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratified 2006

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratified 2004

National Action Plans, National Strategies

Implementation of Anti-Trafficking Policy. National Program (National Strategy/National Action Plan), 2011-2014

On 16 February 2011, the Slovak Government approved its third National Program to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings for the years 2011 – 2014. The National Program is divided into two parts. The first is National Strategy and the second is the National Action Plan of the fight against Human Trafficking for the years 2011 – 2014.

National Programme of Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings for 2019 – 2023

National Programme for combating human trafficking for years 2015 – 2018

National Program on the Fight Against Human Trafficking for the Years 2011 – 2014

Summary of the Strategy of prevention of criminal and other antisocial activities in the Slovak Republic for years 2016 – 2020

 

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Act No. 301/2005 Penal Procedure Code.

“Section 134 (5) Where a person who is a particularly vulnerable victim under a special Act is being
interrogated as a witness in criminal proceedings conducted for a criminal offence against
human dignity, a criminal offence of human trafficking or a criminal offence of maltreatment
of a close person and entrusted person, the interrogation in the preliminary hearing shall be
usually conducted by a person of the same sex as the interrogated person, unless it is
prevented by serious reasons which shall be stated by the law enforcement authority in the
transcript.”

Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic Decree No. 180/2013 on Ensuring the Programme of Support and Protection for Victims of Human Trafficking.

The programme for victims includesisolation from the criminal environment, information about reflection period in the territory of the Slovak Republic and if needed also information about the possibility to provide international protection in case the victims is a third-county national, assistance to a national of the Slovak Republic with voluntary return to the Slovak Republic, social assistance, psychological and social counselling, psychotherapeutic services, translation and interpretation services, legal counselling, healthcare, requalification courses, possibility of being included in the Witness Protection Program under special law, possibility for financial compensation under special law, assistance to a national of a member state of the European Union and a third-country national with assisted voluntary return to the country of origin and mediation of assistance by organization active in the country of origin as well as possibility of safe accommodation.

Policies for Assistance, General

On Residence of Foreigners and Amendment and Summplementation of Certain Acts (Act No. 404/2011 Coll.), 2011

Social and Legal Protection of Children and on Social Guardianship Act (Act No. 305/2005 Coll. as amended)

Social Services Act (Act No. 448/2008 Coll. as amended)

Prevention of Criminality and Other Anti-social Activities Act (Act No. 583/2008 Coll. and on supplements to certain acts)

Act No. 274/2017 Coll. on Victims of Crimes

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Act No. 300/2005 Criminal Code

Ҥ 181 (1) Any person who, in exchange for money, places a child under the control of another for the purpose of exploiting the child for child labour, or for any other purpose, shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of four to ten years.
2) The offender shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of seven to twelve years if he commits the offence referred to in paragraph 1,

a) and obtains larger benefit for himself or
another through its commission, or
b) acting in a more serious manner.

(3) The offender shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of twelve to twenty years if he commits the offence referred to in paragraph 1,

a) and causes grievous bodily harm or death, or other particularly serious consequence through its commission, or
b) and obtains substantial benefit for himself or another through its commission.

(4) The offender shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of twenty to twenty-five years or to life imprisonment if he commits the offence referred to in paragraph 1,

a) and obtains large-scale benefit for himself or another through its commission,
b) and causes death to several persons through its commission, or
c) as a member of a dangerous grouping.”

Penalties, General

Act No. 300/2005 Criminal Code.

Ҥ 179 (1) Any person who, by using fraudulent practices, a trick, restriction of personal freedom, violence, threatened violence, threat of grievous bodily harm or other forms of coercion, by accepting or offering monetary payment or other benefits in order to get approval of a person on whom another person depends, or by misusing his powers, or abusing of defencelessness or other vulnerable position, entices, transports, harbours, hands over or takes over another person, even upon his consent, for the purposes of his prostitution or another form of sexual exploitation, including pornography, forced labour or domestic slavery, slavery or practices similar to slavery, bondage, taking of organs, tissues or cells or other forms of exploitation, shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of four to ten years. (2) The same sentence as referred to in paragraph 1 shall be imposed on any person who entices, transports, harbours, hands over or takes over a person under eighteen years of age, even upon his consent, for the purposes of his prostitution or other form of sexual exploitation, including pornography, forced labour or domestic slavery, slavery or practices similar to slavery, bondage, taking of organs, tissues or cells or other forms of exploitation. 3) The offender shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of seven to twelve years if he commits the offence referred to in paragraphs 1 or 2, a) and obtains larger benefit for himself or another through its commission, b) against a protected person, c) by reason of specific motivation, or d) acting in a more serious manner. (4) The offender shall be liable to term of imprisonment of twelve to twenty years if he commits the offence referred to in paragraphs 1 or 2, a) and obtains substantial benefit for himself or another through its commission, b) and causes grievous bodily harm or death, or
other particularly serious consequence through
its commission, or c) as a member of a dangerous grouping.
(5) The offender shall be liable to a term of
imprisonment of twenty to twenty-five years or to life imprisonment if he commits the offence referred to in paragpahps 1 or 2,

a) and obtains large-scale benefit for himself or another through its commission, or
b) and causes grievous bodily harm or death to several persons through its commission.”

Prosecution Information

Act No. 300/2005 Criminal Code

§179 Obchodovanie s ľuďmi (Trafficking in Human Beings)

Act No. 301/2005 Code of Criminal Procedure

Section 134 (5) Where a person who is a particularly vulnerable victim under a special Act is being interrogated as a witness in criminal proceedings conducted for a criminal offence against human dignity, a criminal offence of human trafficking or a criminal offence of maltreatment of a close person and entrusted person, the interrogation in the preliminary hearing shall be usually conducted by a person of the same sex as the interrogated person, unless it is prevented by serious reasons which shall be stated by the law enforcement authority in the transcript.

“Section 215
Termination of Criminal Prosecution (1) The prosecutor shall terminate the criminal prosecution if d) it is conducted for an act that is a minor offence and was committed by a person coerced to do so in direct connection with the fact that a criminal offence of human trafficking, a criminal offence of sexual abuse or a criminal offence of production of child pornography was committed against them.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Slovakia. If you are a representative of Slovakia and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.