Measuring the Change
Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Human Trafficking
The data visualization displays the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Slovenia. Detailed information is provided in the Measurement tab (above).
- Child labour: No nationally representative data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: Case data available
Human Development Index Score: 0.902 (2018)
Mean School Years: 12.1 years
Vulnerable Employment: 15.1%
Working Poverty Rate: no data
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratification 2001
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratification 2004
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): 100% (2016)
Unemployed: 26.2% (2016)
Pension: 83.1% (2016)
Vulnerable: 100% (2016)
Children: 79.4% (2016)
Disabled: 100% (2016)
Poor: 100% (2016)
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Youth employment in Slovenia is permitted only to those ages 15 and up, and is regulated by Article 214 of the Labour Code. There is no data available on child labour in Slovenia, most likely due to relatively low incidence.
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Slovenia.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
Identified Victims of Human Trafficking (Source: GRETA)
According to GRETA, Slovenia is primarily a destination and transit country for trafficking victims. Sex trafficking is the most commonly identified form of exploitation, and a majority of victims are women and foreign nationals. Asylum seekers, foreign workers and the Romani community are particularly vulnerable to trafficking and exploitation.
The graph on the right shows the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Slovenia, as reported by Slovenian authorities to the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA).
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Slovenia between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Slovenia is 0.902. This score indicates that human development is very high.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Slovenia over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between the years 1995-2015 there was an increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases the vulnerability of individuals to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts.
“The recommended data sources for occupational injuries statistics are national systems for the notification of occupational injuries (such as, labour inspection records and annual reports; insurance and compensation records, death registers), supplemented by household surveys (especially in order to cover informal sector enterprises and the self-employed) and/or establishment surveys.”
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Slovenia.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
(Freedom of Work) Freedom of work shall be guaranteed.
Everyone shall choose his employment freely.
Everyone shall have access under equal conditions to any position of employment. Forced labour shall be prohibited.
(Capacity to Conclude the Employment Contract)
(1) An employment contract may be concluded by persons who have reached the age of 15.
(2) An employment contract concluded with a person who has not reached the age of 15 is null and void.
(Work of Children under the Age of 15, Apprentices, Secondary-school and University Students)
(1) Work of children under the age of 15 is prohibited.
(2) A child under the age of 15 may exceptionally participate against remuneration in shooting of films, in preparation and performance of artistic, scene and other works in the area of cultural, artistic, sporting and advertising activities.
(3) A child, who has reached the age of 13, may carry out light works also in other activities, however, not longer than 30 days during school holidays in an individual calendar year, in the manner, to the extent and under the condition that the works, he will carry out, are not harmful to his safety, health, morals, education and development. The types of light works shall be defined by an executive regulation.
(4) A child may carry out the work according to Paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article following the prior authorisation from a labour inspector issued on the basis of a request filed by a statutory representative. The procedure and the conditions for issuing the authorisation of the labour inspector shall be determined in more detail by an executive regulation.
(5) The executive regulation referred to in the previous two paragraphs shall be issued by the minister responsible for labour in agreement with the minister responsible for health.
(6) Apprentices, secondary-school and university students, who have reached 14 years of age, may perform practical education within the framework of educational programmes with the employer.
(7) In cases referred to in Paragraphs 2, 3 and 6 of this Article, in cases of occasional or temporary work of secondary-school and university students and voluntary traineeship, the provisions of this Act on the working time, breaks and rests, special protection of workers under the age of 18 and liability for damages shall apply.
Worst Forms of Child Labour
3. PROTECTION OF WORKERS UNDER THE AGE OF 18
Workers under the age of 18 shall enjoy special protection in their employment relationship.
(Prohibition of Carrying Out of Works)
(1) A worker under the age of 18 may not be ordered to carry out:
underground or underwater work,
work which is objectively beyond his physical and psychological capacity,
work involving harmful exposure to agents which are toxic and carcinogenic and cause heritable genetic damage, or harm to the unborn child or which in any other way chronically affect human health,
work involving harmful exposure to radiation,
work involving risk of accidents which a young person is not able to recognise or avoid owing his insufficient attention to safety or lack of experience or training,
work involving risk to health from extreme cold, heat, noise or vibrations,
and which shall be determined in more detail by an executive regulation.
(2) A worker under the age of 18 may also not be imposed to undertake work, involving exposure to risk factors and procedures, and work, which shall be set forth in more detail in an executive regulation, if the risk assessment shows that such work involves risk to the worker’s safety, health and development.
(3) The executive regulation shall also lay down the conditions under which a worker under the age of 18 can as an exception undertake work prohibited under the previous two paragraphs, i.e. in cases of practical education in the framework of education programmes, provided that the work is performed under the supervision of a competent worker.
(4) The executive regulation referred to in the previous two paragraphs shall be issued by the minister responsible for labour in agreement with the minister responsible for health.
(Rights of Children)
Children shall enjoy special protection and care. Children shall enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms consistent with their age and maturity.
Children shall be guaranteed special protection from economic, social, physical, mental or other exploitation and abuse. Such protection shall be regulated by law.
Children and minors who are not cared for by their parents, who have no parents or who are without proper family care shall enjoy the special protection of the state. Their position shall be regulated by law.
ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1992
ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1997
ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 1992 (minimum age specified: 15 years)
ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2001
Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Accession 1955 (via acceptance by Yugoslavia)
UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Succession 1992
UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2004
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Succession 1992
UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2004
UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2004
National Action Plans, National Strategies
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking
Act Ratifying the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings
Act on Foreigners, 2017
Act of 16 June 2015 on employment, self-employment and work of foreigners (Text No. 1930).
Penalties, Child Labour
IX. PENAL PROVISIONS
(1) A fine of not less than SIT 1,000,000 shall be imposed on the employer – legal person if:
he has put the job seeker or the worker in an unequal position (Article 6);
he has concluded an employment contract with a person under the age of 15 (Article 19);
he has allowed the work of children under the age of 15, apprentices, secondary-school and university students contrary to Articles 214, 215 and 217 of this Act.
(2) A fine of not less than SIT 500,000 shall be imposed on the employer – natural person who has committed the offence referred to in the previous paragraph.
(3) A fine of not less than SIT 80,000 shall be imposed on the responsible person of the employer – legal person and on the responsible person in the state body, state organisation or local community, who has committed the offence referred to in Paragraph 1 of this Article.
(1) A fine of SIT 500,000 to SIT 1,000,000 shall be imposed on the employer – legal person if:
he has not ensured the rights to special protection of workers under the age of 18 (Articles 196, 197 and 198).
(2) A fine of SIT 100,000 to 500,000 shall be imposed on the employer – natural person, who has committed the offence referred to in the previous paragraph.
(3) A fine of SIT 50,000 to 200,000 shall be imposed on the responsible person of the employer – legal person and on the responsible person in the state body, state organisation or local community, who has committed the offence referred to in Paragraph 1 of this Article.
(1) A fine of SIT 300,000 may be imposed on the employer – legal person on the spot if:
he has ordered a worker under the age of 18 to do work contrary to the Act and a special regulation issued on the basis of the Act (Article 195);
(2) A fine of SIT 200,000 may be imposed on the spot on the employer – natural person, who has committed the offence referred to in the previous paragraph.
(3) A fine of SIT 100,000 to 200,000 may be imposed on the spot on the responsible person of the employer – legal person and on the responsible person in the state body, state organisation or local community, who has committed the offence referred to in Paragraph 1 of this Article.
Penalties, Human Trafficking
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.