Data Dashboards

Solomon Islands
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.557 (2018)

Mean School Years: 5.5 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 80.3% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 17.0% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2012
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Not Ratified
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 13.1% (2010)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Solomon Islands.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Solomon Islands.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Solomon Islands.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Solomon Islands between 1999 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Solomon Islands is 0.557. This score indicates that human development is medium. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Solomon Islands over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Solomon Islands showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Solomon Islands.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of the Solomon Islands, 1978

“Protection from slavery and forced labour
6.-(1) No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
(3) For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include –

(a) any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
(b) any labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
(c) any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
(d) any labour required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or
(e) any labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic obligations.”

Child Labour

Labour Act, 1995

“Employment of children under 12

46. No child under the age of twelve years shall be employed in any capacity whatsoever:
Provided that the provisions of this section shall not apply to any such child employed by and in company with his parents (or one of them) or his guardian on light work of an agricultural, domestic or other character which has been approved by the Commissioner.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Labour Act, 1995

“Employment of persons under 15
47. A person under the age of fifteen shall not be employed or work –

(a) in any industrial undertaking, or in any branch thereof, except in employment approved by the Minister; or
(b) on any ship:

Provided that nothing contained in this section shall apply to or prevent the employment of a person under the age of fifteen years upon work in a school-ship or a training-ship or a technical school or college when such work is approved and supervised by a public authority.
Employment of persons under 16
48. A person under the age of sixteen shall not be employed underground in any mine.”

“Employment of persons under 18
49. A person under the age of eighteen shall not be employed or work-

(a) underground in any mine unless, being a male person, he has attained the age of sixteen and produces a medical certificate of a medical practitioner or a person approved for that purpose by the Health Officer attesting his fitness for such work;
(b) on any ship as a trimmer or stoker except on a ship mainly propelled by means other than steam:

Provided that a male person between the ages of sixteen and eighteen may be employed as a trimmer or stoker on a ship exclusively engaged in the coastal trade if he is certified by a medical practitioner to be physically fit for such work;

(c) on any kind of work on a ship unless certified by a medical practitioner to be fit for such work:

Provided that in urgent cases the Commissioner may permit the embarkation of a male person under the age of eighteen without prior medical examination, and in such case the employer shall at his own expense have such male person medically examined by a medical practitioner at the first place of call at which there is a medical practitioner, and should such practitioner not attest such male person as fit for the work, the employer shall at his own expense return such male person as a passenger to the port or place where he was engaged, or to his home, whichever is the nearer; or

(d) during the night in any industrial undertaking:

Provided that a male person over the age of sixteen may be so employed with the permission in writing of the Commissioner.”

Child and Family Welfare Act, 2017

“5. Meaning of “”child in need of care and protection””
2. In this section:
“”hazardous or exploitative labour””, in relation to a child, includes any work that:

a. is inappropriate for the child’s age; or
b. is hazardous to the child’s physical or mental health; or
c. impairs the child’s education and moral development;

“”sexual exploitation””, of a child, includes:

b. the inducemnt or coercion of the child to engage in any unlawful sexual activiity; and
c. the invovlement of hte child in prostitution; and
d. the use of the child in pornographic performances or the production of pornographic materials. “

Human Trafficking

Immigration Act, 2012

“Part 7: Offences and Penalties
Division 2 — People Smuggling and People Trafficking Offences
70. Definitions
In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears —
“”people trafficking””: a person engages in people trafficking if the person recruits, transports, harbours, or recieves another person (the trafficked person) for ht epurposes of exploitation;”

“76 Offence of People Trafficking
1. A person commits an offence if ht person engages in people trafficking by one or more of the following means —

a. threats;
b. use of force or other coercion;
c. abduction;
d. fraud;
e. deception;
f. abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability;
g. giving or receiving payments or benefits to obtain the consent of a person who has control over another person.

2. A person who is convicted of an offence under subsection 1 is liable to a fine not exceeding 45,000 penalty units or to imprisonemnt for a term not exceeding 5 yeras or, or both. ”

Slavery

Constitution of the Solomon Islands, 1978

“Protection from slavery and forced labour
6.-(1) No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
(3) For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include –

(a) any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
(b) any labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
(c) any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
(d) any labour required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or
(e) any labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic obligations.”

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

 

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Immigration Act, 2012

“Part 7: Offences and Penalties
Division 2 — People Smuggling and People Trafficking Offences
75. Immunity from prosecution for smuggled person”

Child and Family Welfare Act, 2017

“5. Meaning of “”child in need of care and protection””
1. A “”child in need of care and protection”” is a child who:
d. has been, or is at risk of:
ii. sexual abuse or sexual exploitation; or
v. hazardous or exploitative labour”

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Immigration Act, 2012

“Part 7: Offences and Penalties
Division 2 — People Smuggling and People Trafficking Offences
81. Immunity from prosecution for trafficked persons”

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Act, 1995

“Penalty
52. Any person who acts in contravention of, or fails to comply with, any of the provisions of this Part, is guilty of an offence and upon conviction shall be liable to a fine of five hundred dollars.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Immigration Act, 2012

“Part 7: Offences and Penalties
Division 2 — People Smuggling and People Trafficking Offences
76 Offence of People Trafficking
1. A person commits an offence if ht person engages in people trafficking by one or more of the following means —

a. threats;
b. use of force or other coercion;
c. abduction;
d. fraud;
e. deception;
f. abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability;
g. giving or receiving payments or benefits to obtain the consent of a person who has control over another person.

2. A person who is convicted of an offence under subsection 1 is liable to a fine not exceeding 45,000 penalty units or to imprisonemnt for a term not exceeding 5 yeras or, or both. ”

“77. Offence of trafficking in children
78. Offence of exploitating a trafficked person”

Penalties, General

Immigration Act, 2012

“Part 7: Offences and Penalties
Division 1 — General Offences and Penalties
69. Employing a non-citizen not authorized to work
80. Offence relating to false travel or identity documnet”

Penal Code, 1996

“Kidnapping or abducting in order to subject person to grievous harm, slavery, etc.
251. Any person who kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be subjected, or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being subjected, to grievous harm, or slavery, or to the unnatural lust of any person, or knowing it to be likely that such person will be so subjected or disposed of, is guilty of a felony, and shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
Unlawful compulsory labour256. Any person who unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person is guilty of a misdemeanour.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Solomon Islands. If you are a representative of Solomon Islands and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.