Data Dashboards

Somalia
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: No data available

Mean School Years: No data available

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 77.7% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 71.4% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2014
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Not Ratified
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Somalia, the latest estimates show that 7.8 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2006. The measure provided for 2006 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but uses the a reduced definition. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006. 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2006 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Somalia was 28.6 hours.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006. 

 

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2006, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 31.5 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006. 

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 23.5 hours per week according to the 2006 estimate. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006. 

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Somalia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Somalia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

There is not sufficient data available for human development indicators for Somalia.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

 

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Somalia showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Somalia.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

The Federal Republic of Somalia Provisional Constitution, 2012

“Article 14. Slavery, Servitude and Forced Labour
A person may not be subjected to slavery, servitude, trafficking, or forced labour for any purpose.”

Labour Code, 1972

“6. Freedom of Labour. Forced or compulsory labour is forbidden in any form:
Provided that the term “”forced or compulsory laobur”” shall not apply to —

a. any work or service required by law in respect of service including th eorganisation for national defence or in case of national calamity;
b. any work or service required of a prisoner in pursuance of a sentence passed by a competent court. “

Penal Code, 1963

Art. 464 Compulsory Labour

Child Labour

Private Sector Employment Law, 2004 (Somaliland)

Article 38 Minors – Non-employment

Labour Code, 1972

“Chapter III. Work of Women, Children and Young Persons
90. Prohibited Work.
1. The secretary may, by decree, prescribe the types of work prohibited for women, expectant and nursing mothers, children and young persons.
2. For the purpose of this Chapter, the term “”children”” means person of either sex who have not attained the age of 15 years and the term “”young persons”” means those who have attained the age of 15 years but have not attained the age of 18 years.
3. Where the age is uncertain, medical opinion shall be obtained.
4. The Secretary may, by decree, prescribe the types of work that are dangerous or unhealthy or tha demand considerable strength or concentration, thus necessitating changes in teh minimum age fixed for children and yougn persons in this chapter. The maximum wieghts to be carried, pulled or pushed by children, young persons and women shall be prescribed in the same manner. ”

“93. Unlawful to employ children.
1. It shall be unlwaful to employ children under the age of 15 years;
Provided that this restriction as to age shall not apply to —

a. pupils attending public and state-supervised trade shcools or non-profit making training workshops;
b. members of the employer’s family and his relatives if they are living with him and are supported by him and are employed on work under his order in an undertaking in which not other persons are employed.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraph, teh Secretary may authorise the employment of children of not less than 12 years of age, on condition taht hte work is compatible with the proper protection, health and moral welfare of such children and in cases where it is necessitated by special business or local conditions and by the special technical requirements of the work, oor is essential to the learning of hte trade. ”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Private Sector Employment Law, 2004 (Somaliland)

Article 38 Minors – Non-employment

The Federal Republic of Somalia Provisional Constitution, 2012

“Article 29. Children
(3) No child may perform work or provide services that are not suitable for the child’s age or create a risk to the child’s health or development in any way.
(8) In this Article, the word “child” means a person under 18 years of age.”

Labour Code, 1972

94. Minimum age for certain types of work

Human Trafficking

The Federal Republic of Somalia Provisional Constitution, 2012

“Article 14. Slavery, Servitude and Forced Labour
A person may not be subjected to slavery, servitude, trafficking, or forced labour for any purpose.”

Slavery

The Federal Republic of Somalia Provisional Constitution, 2012

“Article 14. Slavery, Servitude and Forced Labour
A person may not be subjected to slavery, servitude, trafficking, or forced labour for any purpose.”

Penal Code, 1963

“Art. 455 Reduction to Slavery
Art. 456 Dealing and Trading in Slaves
Art. 457 Sale and Purchase of Slaves”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

The Federal Republic of Somalia Provisional Constitution, 2012

“Article 29. Children
(5) Every child shall have the right to legal aid paid for by the State if the child might otherwise suffer injustice.
(8) In this Article, the word “child” means a person under 18 years of age.”

Penal Code, 1963

“Art 158. Restitution and Compensation for Damages
Art. 159 Joint and Several Liabiltiy Regarding Obligation ex Delicto
Art. 160 Effects of the Extinction of the Offence or the Punishment on Civil Obligations”

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Penal Code, 1963

Art. 464 Compulsory Labour

Penalties, Child Labour

Private Sector Employment Law, 2004 (Somaliland)

Disciplinary acts Article 51

Labour Code, 1972

“Part X. Penalties
Article 144. Other Contraventions
Article 145. Repetition of offences. ”

Penalties, Slavery

Penal Code, 1963

“Art. 455 Reduction to Slavery
Art. 456 Dealing and Trading in Slaves
Art. 457 Sale and Purchase of Slaves
Art, 458 Enforced Subjection”

Penalties, General

Penal Code, 1963

“Art. 407
Art. 408”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Somalia. If you are a representative of Somalia and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.