Data Dashboards

South Sudan
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.413 (2018)

Mean School Years: 4.8 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 87.3% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2012
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Not Ratified
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In South Sudan, the latest estimates show that 0.4 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2008. The measure provided for 2008 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but uses a reduced definition. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2008.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)). 

In South Sudan, the latest estimates show that 0.4 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2008. The measure provided for 2008 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but uses a reduced definition. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2008. 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for South Sudan is from 2008. By the 2008 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Other Services sector, the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector, the Construction, Mining and Other Industrial Sectors, and the manufacturing sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in South Sudan.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in South Sudan.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in South Sudan between 2010 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in South Sudan is 0.413. This score indicates that human development is low. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in South Sudan over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, South Sudan showed an increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

 

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in South Sudan.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

 

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011

“13. Freedom from Slavery, Servitude and Forced Labour
(1) Slavery and slave trade in all form are prohibited. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour except as a penalty upon conviction by a competent court of law.”

Penal Code, 2008

“277. Unlawful Compulsory Labour.
Whoever, unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person, commits an offence, and upon conviction, shall be sentenced to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or with a fine or with both.”

Labour Act, 2017

“5. Interpretations
In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires:
“”forced labour”” means any work or service which is:

(a) Exacted from any person under the threat of a penalty, including the threat of loss of rights or privileges; and
(b) Not being offered voluntarily by such Person.”

“10. Prohibition of Forced Labour
(1) No person shall engage in the recruitment or use of forced labour or assist any other person to engage in such activities.
(2) For the purpose of this sub-section, the following shall not constitute forced labour:

(a) any work or service exacted by virtue of compulsory military service laws or for work of a purely military character, provided that the recruitment of children for use in armed conflict shall be deemed to be forced labour;
(b) any work or service which forms part of the normal civic obligations of citizens in South Sudan;
(c) any work or service exacted from any person as a consequence of a conviction in a court of law, provided that the work or service is carried out under the control and supervision of a public authority and that the person is not hired out to or placed at the disposal of any private person, company or association;
(d) any work or service exacted in case of emergency, such as in the event of war, natural disaster or threat of natural disaster or calamity, or any other circumstance that may endanger the existence or the wellbeing of the population or part of it; or
(e) Minor community service performed by any member of a community in the direct interest of the community, provided that the members or the representatives of such community are consulted.

(3) Without prejudice to sub-section (1) above, it is forbidden to make use of any form of forced labour as a means of:

(a) political coercion;
(b) economic development;
(c) labour discipline;
(d) punishment for participation in Strikes; and
(e) Discrimination based on any ground listed in Section 6 of this Act.”

Child Labour

Child Act, 2008

“Rights of the Child with Respect to Labour
25. Right to Protection from Child Labour.
(1) Every child has the right to be protected from exposure to economic exploitation and child labour.
(2) For the purposes of this section, “child labour” includes—

(a) work and activities related to mining and quarrying;
(b) portage of heavy loads and storage;
(c) heavy agricultural labour;
(d) construction work;
(e) work in industrial undertakings;
(f) work in places where heavy machines are used;
(g) work in places such as bars, hotels and places of entertainment, where a person may be exposed to immoral behaviour;
(h) work in electricity, gas, sanitary and water works;
(i) service with the police, prison or military forces;
(j) night work which constitutes work between the hours of six o’clock in the evening to six o’clock in the morning;
(k) driving or touting in vehicles;
(l) herding which jeopardizes the interest of the child; (m) any type of sexual work; and
(n) tobacco production and trafficking.

(3) Subject to the provisions of section 25 (2), the minimum age for the admission of a child to a paid employment shall be fourteen years.
(4) The minimum age for the engagement of a child in light work shall be twelve years which constitutes work that is not likely to be harmful to the health or development of the child and does not affect the child’s attendance at school or the capacity of the child to benefit from school.
(5) A child engaged in a paid employment, has the right to be paid fairly, work reasonable hours in accordance with their age and capabilities, have at least 24 hours weekly mandatory leave, annual leave and to take regular recreational breaks.
(6) No employer shall engage a child in employment without satisfactory proof of the child’s age.
(7) The Government shall undertake to provide for an appropriate regulation of hours and conditions of employment for a child and penalties or other sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of this section.
(8) The Government shall undertake to ensure that employers of a child strictly adhere to the following requirements—

(a) maintain registers containing the names of children employed, ages, salaries, commencement dates of employment, assigned duties, working hours, duration of breaks and annual leave;
(b) display in a highly visible place, the terms and conditions of the employment;

(9) Any person or organization which has a reasonable suspicion that a child is engaged in an industrial undertaking, shall report such an activity to the Ministry of Labour, Public Service and Human Resource Development.
(10) The Ministry of Labour, Public Service and Human Resource Development shall investigate cases of a child engaged in industrial undertakings and take appropriate action.
(11) The Ministry of Labour, Public Service and Human Resource Development shall in the course of investigation of cases under subsection (9), above, request medical officers, Social Workers and other professionals to provide any expert information necessary.”

Labour Act, 2017

“12. Minimum Working Age
(1) This section shall apply to all forms of work performed by children, whether or not the child is an employee.
(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (3) this section, no person shall engage or permit the engagement of a child under the age of 14 years to perform works defined under section 13 as worst forms of work in this Act.
(3) The prohibition established under sub-section (2) above shall not apply to children’s work in school or in other training institution for educational or vocational purposes, if such work is carried out in accordance with conditions prescribed by the Minister, after consultation with the Council, and is an integral part of:

(a) a course of education or training for which a school or training institution is primarily responsible;
(b) a programme of training approved by the Minister; or
(c) a programme of orientation designed to facilitate the choice of an occupation or of a line of training.

(4) Without prejudice to the provisions of section 25 of the Child Act, 2008, and in line with this section, a child who has attained the age of twelve years may be engaged to perform light work, provided that such work:

(a) is not harmful to the child’s health or safety, or the child’s moral or material welfare or development; and
(b) does not interfere with the child’s attendance at school, participation in vocational orientation or training programmes approved by the Minister or the child’s capacity to benefit from instruction received.

(5) Following consultation with registered trade unions and Employers Association and on advice from the Council, the Minister shall determine the activities in which employment or work may be permitted under sub-section (4) and shall prescribe the number of hours and the conditions of such work.
(6) No person shall engage or permit the engagement of a child under the age of eighteen years to perform hazardous work.
(7) Following consultation with registered trade unions and Employers Association and on advice from the Council, the Minister may issue regulations authorizing the engagement of children who have attained the age of sixteen years to perform specified categories of Hazardous Work, provided that:

(a) special measures are taken to ensure that the child safety and health, and the child moral and material welfare and development, are protected;
(b) the child receives adequate specific instructions or vocational training for the work to be performed;
(c) the number of hours and conditions of such hazardous work shall be as prescribed by regulations.

(8) Following consultation with registered trade unions and employers Association and on advice from the Council, the Minister may establish a system by which a person might obtain a permit to engage a child under the age of fourteen years for such purposes as participation in artistic performances.
(9) The permits provided for in sub-section (8) shall be granted on an individual basis and shall prescribe the conditions and limited number of hours under which the employment is to be allowed.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011

“17. Rights of the Child
(1) Every child has the right:

(a) to life, survival and development;
(b) to a name and nationality;
(c) to know and be cared for by his or her parents or legal guardian;
(d) not to be subjected to exploitative practices or abuse, nor to be required to serve in the army nor permitted to perform work which may be hazardous or harmful to his or her education, health or well-being;
(e) to be free from any form of discrimination;
(f) To be free from corporal punishment and cruel and inhuman treatment by any person including parents, school administrations and other institutions;
(g) Not to be subjected to negative and harmful cultural practices which affect his or her health, welfare or dignity; and
(h) To be protected from abduction and trafficking.
(b) Enact laws to combat harmful customs and traditions which undermine the dignity and status of women; and
(c) Provide maternity and child care and medical care for pregnant and lactating women.

(5) Women shall have the right to own property and share in the estates of their deceased husbands together with any surviving legal heir of the deceased.
(2) In all actions concerning children undertaken by public and private welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the paramount consideration shall be the best interest of the child.
(3) All levels of government shall accord special protection to orphans and other vulnerable children; child adoption shall be regulated by law.
(4) For the purposes of this Constitution, a child is any person under the age of eighteen years.”

Labour Act, 2017

“5. Interpretations
In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires:
“”worst forms of child labour”” means a dangerous and hazardous work, which exposes children to physical, psychological or sexual abuse, and
unhealthy environment.”

“13. Worst Forms of Child Labour
(1) No person shall engage or permit the engagement of a child under the age of eighteen years in any hazardous work, which constitutes the worst forms of child labour.
(2) The worst forms of child labour shall include:

(a) all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom, forced or compulsory labour, and forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict;
(b) the use, procurement or offer of a child for prostitution, for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances;
(c) the use, procurement or offer of a child for illicit activities, in particular for the production and trafficking of drugs as defined in international treaties as ratified by the government;
(d) Work, which by its nature or circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of the child.

(3) Following consultation with registered trade unions and Employers’ Association and on advice from the Council, the Minister shall issue regulations establishing a complete list of types of the worst forms of child labour.
(4) The Government shall design and implement programmes to eliminate the worst forms of child labour, prevent the engagement of children in such labour and:

(a) provide the necessary and appropriate direct assistance for the removal of children from the worst forms of child labour and for their rehabilitation and social integration;
(b) ensure access to free basic education, and wherever possible and appropriate, vocational training, for all children removed from the worst forms of child labour;
(c) identify and reach out to children at risk; and
(d) take account of the special situation of girls.

(5) Complaints of alleged contraventions of this section may be made to the Labour Inspectorate or the police.”

Trafficking in Persons

Penal Code, 2008

“282. Trafficking in Persons.
Whoever procures, entices or leads away, even with his or her consent, any person for sale or immoral purposes to be carried outside Southern Sudan, commits an offence, and upon conviction, shall be sentenced to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years or with a fine or with both.”

Slavery

Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011

“13. Freedom from Slavery, Servitude and Forced Labour
(1) Slavery and slave trade in all form are prohibited. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour except as a penalty upon conviction by a competent court of law.”

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 2012

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 2012

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2012 (minimum age specified: 14 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2012

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Not signed

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Not signed

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Not signed

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Accession 2015

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Accession 2018

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Accession 2018

National Action Plans, National Strategies

Joint Action Plan with the United Nations to Combat the Use of Child Soldiers

Requires the SPLA to release all children associated with government security forces. Provides services for their family reunification and reintegration, and investigates grave violations against children. Both the SPLA and the SPLA-In Opposition signed or recommitted to joint action plans as of December 2015, but they have yet to implement the plans and continued to recruit child soldiers, at times by force.

Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan

Establishes the structure of a Transitional government of National Unity and outlines actions to be taken by signatories. Article 1.7.3 prohibits the recruitment and use of child soldiers by armed forces or militias. Article 1.10 requires warring parties to immediately and unconditionally release all child soldiers under their command or influence. (64) Although the release of some child soldiers occurred in 2015, evidence suggests that the signatories have continued to recruit or re-recruit children.

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Child Act, 2008

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Penal Code, 2008

“277. Unlawful Compulsory Labour.
Whoever, unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person, commits an offence, and upon conviction, shall be sentenced to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or with a fine or with both.

278. Kidnapping or Abducting in Order to Subject to Unlawful Compulsory Labour.
Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person with intent that such person may be unlawfully compelled to labour against his or her will commits an offence, and upon conviction, shall be sentenced to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years or with a fine or with both.

279. Transferring Control of Person with Intent to Subject him or her to Unlawful Confinement or Unlawful Compulsory Labour.
Whoever for money or value, transfers or purports to transfer the possession or control of any person to another with the intent to enable such other person to confine such person unlawfully or to compel him or her unlawfully to labour against his or her will, commits an offence, and upon conviction, shall be sentenced to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years or with a fine or with both.”

“280. Possession or Control of Person in Southern Sudan after obtaining control such Posession or Control Outside of South Sudan
Whoever, is in possession or control of any person within Southern Sudan having obtained such possession or control outside Southern Sudan by acts which would have constituted an offence if done within Southern Sudan, commits an offence, and upon conviction, shall be sentenced in the same manner as if such acts had been done within Southern Sudan.

281. Transferring outside Southern Sudan the Possession of Person Obtained within Southern Sudan.
Whoever, being in possession or control of any person within Southern Sudan, conveys such person outside Southern Sudan and thereby transfers or purports to transfer the possession or control of such person in any manner which would constitute an offence if such transfer or purported transfer took place within Southern Sudan, commits an offence, and upon conviction, shall be sentenced in the same manner as if such transfer”

Labour Act, 2017

“PENALTIES AND REGULATIONS
126. In case of any contravention of this Act, the offender shall be punished by one or more
of the following:

(1) Imprisonment for a prison term of up to five years;
(2) A fine commensurate with the offence;
(3) Both of the above;
(4) Confiscation of any instrument used in such contravention;
(5) Cancellation of a license; or
(6) Closure of the premises for a period of up to 2 years.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Child Act, 2008

“30. Penalties of Infringing any of the Rights of a Child.
Notwithstanding penalties contained in any other law, anyone who willfully or as a result of culpable negligence infringes any right of a child commits an offence and shall, on conviction, be sentenced to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years or with a fine or with both, and may be liable to pay such compensation to the child as the Court deems fit and just.”

Labour Act, 2017

“PENALTIES AND REGULATIONS
126. In case of any contravention of this Act, the offender shall be punished by one or more
of the following:

(1) Imprisonment for a prison term of up to five years;
(2) A fine commensurate with the offence;
(3) Both of the above;
(4) Confiscation of any instrument used in such contravention;
(5) Cancellation of a license; or
(6) Closure of the premises for a period of up to 2 years.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Penal Code, 2008

“282. Trafficking in Persons.
Whoever procures, entices or leads away, even with his or her consent, any person for sale or immoral purposes to be carried outside Southern Sudan, commits an offence, and upon conviction, shall be sentenced to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years or with a fine or with both.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

 

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from South Sudan. If you are a representative of South Sudan and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.