Data Dashboards

Sudan
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same/a reduced definition. Therefore, due to lack of nationally representative data that includes the full statistical definition of child labour, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.508 (2018)

Mean School Years: 3.7 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 40.0% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 5.5% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2003
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2014
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 11.0% (2017)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: 0.1% (2017)

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same, reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2008 and 2014.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same, reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2014. 

 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same, reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2008 and 2014. 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2014 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Sudan was 9.4 hours. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2014. 

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2014, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 11.3 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2014.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 6.3 hours per week according to the 2014 estimate. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2014. 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Sudan is from 2008. By the 2008 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Other Services sector, the Construction, Mining and Other Industrial Sectors, the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Manufacturing sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Sudan.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Sudan.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Sudan between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Sudan is 0.508. This score indicates that human development is low. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Sudan over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Sudan showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Sudan.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Penal Code, 2003

“Section 311
“Unlawful Compulsory Labour”: Whoever unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person, commits an offence and shall on conviction, be punished with imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or with fine or with both.”

Constitution, 2005

“30. Sanctity from Slavery and Forced Labour
(1) Slavery and slave trade in every form is prohibited. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour except as a penalty upon conviction by a competent court of law.”

Child Labour

Constitution, 2005

“32. Rights of Women and Children
(1) The State shall guarantee equal right of men and
women to the enjoyment of all civil, political, social, cultural and economic rights, including the right to equal pay for equal work and other related benefits.
(2) The State shall promote woman rights through affirmative action.
(3) The State shall combat harmful customs and traditions which undermine the dignity and the status of women.
(4) The State shall provide maternity and child care and medical care for pregnant women.
(5) The State shall protect the rights of the child as provided in the international and regional conventions ratified by the Sudan.”

Children’s Act, 2010

“4. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, :
“”child”” means every person, who is not above the age of eighteen years;
“”working child”” means the Child, who practises work, and his age is between fourteen and eighteen years”

“5.(1) In application of the provisions of this Act, and interpretation of the words and phrases, set out therein, guidance shall be resorted to the principles and provisions, set out in the Interim Constitution, 2005, the ratified international agreements, the policies, decisions and directives, laid down by the Council .
(2) Without affecting the generality of the provisions of sub- section (1), the following general principles shall be the fundamental rules for application of the provisions of this Act :-
(a) the State shall be assigned with care and protection of Children, and strive to prepare the appropriate circumstances for the proper upbringing thereof, from all sides, in the framework of freedom, human dignity and spiritual and social values, and in a healthy environment;
(k) this Act ensures the protection of a male, or female Child, against all types and forms of violence, injury, inhuman treatment, or bodily, ethical or sexual abuse, or neglect or exploitation;”

“Chapter VII Child Labour
Employment of Children organized
36.(1) There shall be prohibited work of Children, who are under the age of fourteen years. Notwithstanding the provisions of sub- section (1), the Minister may exclude work of Children in agricultural works, which are not dangerous, or harmful to health.
(2)A Child may join apprenticeship at industrial schools, and vocational education, and training institutes and centres, which are subject to the supervision of the State, where he attains fourteen years of his age.
(3)In cases not expressly provided therefor in this Act, the provisions of the Labour Act, and the regulations made thereunder shall apply.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Labour Code, 1997

“Chapter IV Employment of Women and Young Persons. Conditions of employment of young persons
21. (1) It shall be forbidden to employ young persons in any of the following jobs:

(a) carrying heavy loads;
(b) work involving the use of metal presses;
(c) work related to iron and steel smelting;
(d) work performed under ground or under water, and mining and quarrying work;
(e) work involving the use of lead or lead compounds;
(f) jobs in which workers are exposed to organic or inorganic poisonous or harmful material such as lead, mercury, calcium, benzine and its derivatives;
(g) jobs involving x-rays and other harmful radiation;
(h) jobs involving the maintenance of machinery and conveyer belts.

(2) Without any prejudice to the provisions of sub-paragraph (1) it shall be forbidden, as a rule, to employ a young person in hazardous or unhealthy industries and jobs or in jobs requiring large physical effort or in jobs or occupations which are harmful to their morals. Such jobs and industries shall be specified by order of the Minister or his delegate.
(3) It shall be forbidden to employ a young person between 8.p.m. and 6.a.m. The competent authority may, however, exclude any category of young persons from this provision in cases of young persons between the age of 15 and 16 years.
(4) It shall be forbidden to employ young persons under the age of 12 years, except in:

(a) the State’s training schools;
(b) non-profitable training workshops;
(c) jobs supervised by his family members in establishments which do not employ other persons;
(e) jobs performed under apprenticeship contracts.”

“Young persons’ hours of work
23. The normal hours of work for young persons shall be seven hours a day broken by a period of rest of one paid hour. It shall be forbidden to make a young person work for more than four consecutive hours.”

“4. For the purposes of the provisions of this Code, the following terms and expressions shall, unless the context requires otherwise, have the meanings assigned to them below:
“”young person””: any person who is under the age of 16 years;”

Children’s Act, 2010

“4. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, :
“”vagrant child”” means the Child, who is exposed to delinquency, by reason of his un-natural presence in the street, to the extent of endangering his moral, psychological, physical or instructional safety;”

“37. Works unhealthy to Child prohibited
There shall be prohibited works by its nature or for the circumstances around may damage child health, safety or moral conduct and the Minister of Labour or any person authorized by him shall specify these business or industries.”

“Employment of Children in forced labour prohibited
46. (1) There shall be committed an offence whoever employ Children in traffic in slavery, of all the forms thereof; and no Child shall be enslaved, or subjected to forced labour, or compelling him to perform work by force.
(2) Whoever smuggle or assist in smuggling any child or children across borders for the purpose of forced labour, in traffic, compelling use, or use any form of violence .”

Human Trafficking

The Combating of Human Trafficking Act, 2014

“2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires:
“”Human Trafficking”” means any of the acts, which constitute an offence under the provisions of section 7, hereof”

“””7. The Offence of Human Trafficking
1. There shall be deemed to have committed the offence of in human trafficking, whoever kidnaps, transfers, abducts, transports, harbors, receives, detains or equips a natural person with intent to exploit or use the same in unlawful business, or any acts, as may by nature degrade his dignity, or achieve unlawful aims in consideration of any of the following:
a. material return, or promise therewith;
b. moral gain, or promise therewith;
c. granting any type of advantages.
2. The acts mentioned in sub-section (1), shall be deemed human trafficking, where they have been accomplished by the use of force, or threat of use of force, or by any of the forms of coercion, abudction, fraud, deception, or abuse of power and influence or exploitation of a state of weakness or need, or by granting payments or advantages, or promise therewith, in order to obtain the consent of a person to traffic in another person upon whom he has control.”””

Slavery

Constitution, 2005

“30. Sanctity from Slavery and Forced Labour
(1) Slavery and slave trade in every form is prohibited.Noperson shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour except as a penalty upon conviction by a competent court of law.”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance

The Combating of Human Trafficking Act, 2014

“2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires:
“”Victim”” means any natural person, who is subjected to a corporeal or moral injury as a consequence of the commission of one of the offences provided for in this Act.”

25. Victim and witnesses protected

26. Secrecy of information

27. Alient victims. The competent authorities in the State, in co-ordination with the authorities concerned in other States, shall strive to facilitate repatriation of alien victims to their homelands; together with taking such measures as may be necessary for their safety.

28. The victims shall be exempted from judicial fees pertaining to action for compensation for such injury, as may be sustained, as a result of their being subjected to any of the offences, provided for in this Act

Penal Code, 2003

Section 53. “Act to Which a Person is Compelled by Threats”: Except murder and offences against the State punishable with death, no act is an offence which is done by a person who is compelled to do it by threats which at the time of doing it reasonably cause the apprehension that instant death to that person will otherwise be the consequence; provided that the person doing the act did not, of his own accord or from a reasonable apprehension of harm to himself in the situation by which he became subject to such constraint.

“Section 77A. “Compensation”: (1) A Court which convicts any accused person whether or not it passes any sentence of punishment may order the offender to make compensation to any person injured by his offence if such compensation is in the opinion of the Court recoverably by civil suit.
(2) An order under this section may be sent to a Civil Court for execution in accordance with the rules governing executions of its judgments.
Note – Not only money but other property as well may be ordered as Compensation under this section. See section 311 of Criminal Procedure Acts, 2003. Under that section, the Court first decides whether a fine is the proper punishment and if it so decides, it may order the whole or part of the fine to be paid as compensation. The fact that it has made such an order does not prevent the Court from ordering further compensation under this section.”

Children’s Act, 2010

“Vagrancy
23. Vagrancy of Children shall not be deemed an offence punishable by law.”

“Children re-accommodation and rehabilitation
47.(1)The Ministry shall take appropriate measures to achieve the physical and psychological rehabilitation, and social re- accommodation of the Child, who is the victim of any of the forms of neglect, exploitation, abuse , torture, or any of the forms of harsh treatment, or severe, inhuman, or degrading punishment, or armed conflicts.
(2) Such rehabilitation and re-accommodation shall be conducted in such environment, as may strengthen the Child health, and self and dignity respect.”

76. Procedure in case of a victim Child

83. Victim children rights

Penalties

The Combating of Human Trafficking Act, 2014

“Provisions of the Criminal Act applied
The provisions of PArt III, of hte Criminal Act, 1991, with respect to attempt, joint acts and abetment, shall apply to commission of the offence of human trafficking.”

“””7. The Offence of Human Trafficking
1. There shall be deemed to have committed the offence of in human trafficking, whoever kidnaps, transfers, abducts, transports, harbors, receives, detains or equips a natural person with intent to exploit or use the same in unlawful business, or any acts, as may by nature degrade his dignity, or achieve unlawful aims in consideration of any of the following:

a. material return, or promise therewith;
b. moral gain, or promise therewith;
c. granting any type of advantages.

2. The acts mentioned in sub-section (1), shall be deemed human trafficking, where they have been accomplished by the use of force, or threat of use of force, or by any of the forms of coercion, abudction, fraud, deception, or abuse of power and influence or exploitation of a state of weakness or need, or by granting payments or advantages, or promise therewith, in order to obtain the consent of a person to traffic in another person upon whom he has control.”””

8. Transnational offence of Traffic in Human Beings

9. Penalties

Cybercrime Act, 2007

“Trafficking in human beings

20. Any person who creates or publishes a site on an information network, computer hardware or similar for the purposes of trafficking in human beings or facilitating such a transaction shall be liable to a prison sentence not exceeding ten years or a fine or both penalties.”

Penal Code, 2003

Section 310 – “Buying or Selling or other Disposal of Persons”: Whoever buys, sells, hires, lets to hire or otherwise obtains possession or disposes of any person with the intent that such person shall be employed or used for any unlawful or immoral purpose or knowing it to be likely that such person will be employed or used for any such purpose, commits an offence and shall on conviction, be punished with imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years and may also be liable to fine and forfeiture of properties.

“Section 311
“Unlawful Compulsory Labour”: Whoever unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person, commits an offence and shall on conviction, be punished with imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or with fine or with both.”

Section 312 “Kidnapping or Abducting in Order to Subject to Unlawful Compulsory Labour”: Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person with intent that such person may be unlawfully compelled to labour against his will commits an offence and shall on conviction, be punished with imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years and may also be liable to fine.

Section 313 “Transferring Control of Person with Intent to Subject him to Unlawful Confinement or Unlawful Compulsory Labour”: Whoever for money or money’s worth, transfers or purports to transfer the possession or control of any person to another with intent to enable such other person to confine such person unlawfully or to compel him unlawfully to labour against his will, commits an offence and shall on conviction, be punished with imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years and may also be liable to fine.

Section 314 “Possession or Control of Person in the New Sudan after obtaining such Possession or Control Outside the New Sudan”: Whoever is in possession or control of any person within the New Sudan having obtained such possession or control outside the New Sudan by acts which would have constituted an offence if done within the New Sudan, commits an offence and shall on conviction, be punished i

Section 315 – “Transferring outside the New Sudan the Possession of Person obtained within the New Sudan”: Whoever being in possession or control of any person within the New Sudan, conveys such person outside the New Sudan and thereby transfers or purports to transfer the possession or control of such person in any manner which would constitute an offence if such transfer or purported transfer took place within the New Sudan, commits an offence and shall on conviction, be punished in the same manner as if such transfer or purported transfer had taken place within the New Sudan.

Section 315(A) – “Trafficking in Persons for Immoral Purposes to be Carried Outside the New Sudan”: Whoever procures, entices or leads away, even with his consent, any person for immoral purposes to be carried outside the New Sudan, commits an offence and shall on conviction, be punished with imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years and may also be liable to fine.

Labour Code, 1997

“Penalties
126. (1) Without any prejudice to any more severe punishment provided for under any other Act, anyone who:

(a) causes or commits acts consisting of adding in the worker’s file of employment false information with the intention of fraud, or who authorizes, in spite of his knowledge of this false information, the delay of payment of a worker’s entitlements on the basis of the false information added in the file;
(b) anyone who submits or allows the submission to the competent authority of false information or documents and who is aware of the fact that such information and documents are not true,
shall be punished with imprisonment for a period not exceeding six months or a fine or with both penalties.

(2) The violation or refusal of application of any provision of this Act or the provisions of any orders, regulations or rules issued thereunder shall be considered as a crime punishable with imprisonment for a period not exceeding six months or a fine or with both penalties, if this Act or any other Act does not provide for a particular punishment for such violation or non-observance. In the case of repetition of a violation, the fine may be doubled.
(3) The competent court may allocate part of the fine for the injured person.”

Children’s Act, 2010

“Chapter IX
Exploitation of Children in Prostitution,
Pornographic Materials and Forced Labour
Use of Children in prostitution and
pornographic materials prohibited
45. There shall be deemed committed an offence whoever:-

(a) kidnapping of , traffic in and transfer any organ or organs
of any child;
(b) rape of Children.
(c) sexual harassment or sexual abuse of Children .
(d) the production, circulation, publication, import, export, exhibition, sale or possession of pornographic materials, relating to the Child..
(e) employment of Children, for the purpose of sexual activities, for remuneration, or any of the forms of consideration.
(f) Photograph by any means any child exercises actually or by imitation express sexual activities, or photo genetals of a child for gratifying sexual lust.”

“Penalties
86.(1) There shall be punished whoever contravenes the provisions of :-(d)sections 34, 35, and 36, and 37 with imprisonment, for a term, not less than one month, or with fine, or with both.

(e)sections 45(a), with death penalty or for the term not exceeding twenty years and with fine;
(f)section 45(b) with death penalty or with imprisonment for a term of twenty years and with fine;
(g) section 45(c)(d)(e)(f)and section 46(1) with imprisonment for a term not exceeding fifteen years and with fine;
(h) section 46(2) with imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years and with fine;
(i)section 45 and 46 in addition to the imprisonment and the fine, ceasure and confiscation of property such as the materials used in the commission of the offence facilitates there in, and closing the premises used in the commission of the crime, and the court may allocate part of the fine to compensate the aggrieved persons”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Sudan. If you are a representative of Sudan and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.