Data Dashboards

Tajikistan
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data is provided for 1999 and does cover the full statistical definition. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.656 (2018)

Mean School Years: 10.7 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 45.2% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 3.6% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2020
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2005
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2002
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: 17.3% (2016)

Pension: 92.8% (2016)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: 6.4% (2016)

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Tajikistan, data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 1999. The measure provided for 1999 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but uses a reduced definition. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999

 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Tajikistan, the latest estimates show that 0.2 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2005. The number is lower than in 1999, and has decreased from 0.9 percent in 1999. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same, reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999 and 2005. 

 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)). 

In Tajikistan, the latest estimates show that 5.5 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 1999. The measure provided for 1999 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work but uses a reduced definition. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999. 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2005 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Tajikistan was 13.6 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 26.7 hours in 1999.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999 and 2005.

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2005, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 17.9 hours per week. This number has decreased since 1999, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 34.6. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999 and 2005. 

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 12.4 hours per week according to the 2005 estimate. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005. 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Tajikistan is from 1999. By the 1999 estimate, the Other Services sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Agriculture sector and the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region. 

 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Tajikistan.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Tajikistan.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Tajikistan between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Tajikistan is 0.656. This score indicates that human development is medium. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Tajikistan over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

 

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Tajikistan showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Tajikistan.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, 1994

Article 35: Each person has the right to employment, to choose a profession and job, to have their job protected, and to social protection against unemployment. Salaries should not be lower than the minimum working wage. Any kind of limitation in employment relations is forbidden. Equal work is equally compensated. No one may be subjected to forced labor, except in cases anticipated by law. The use of the labor of women and minors in heavy or underground work, as well as for work in dangerous work conditions, is forbidden.

Labour Code, 2016

“Article 4
Article 8”

Law No. 1096 of 26 July 2014 “On Combating Human Trafficking and Providing Support to Victims of Human Trafficking”

Child Labour

Labour Code, 2016

“Section 21(2) and 21(3)
Section 56
Section 68
Section 74
Section 209
Section 211
Section 212
Section 244”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, 1994

Article 35: Each person has the right to employment, to choose a profession and job, to have their job protected, and to social protection against unemployment. Salaries should not be lower than the minimum working wage. Any kind of limitation in employment relations is forbidden. Equal work is equally compensated. No one may be subjected to forced labor, except in cases anticipated by law. The use of the labor of women and minors in heavy or underground work, as well as for work in dangerous work conditions, is forbidden.

Labour Code, 2016

“Section 4
Section 8
Section 208
Section 213
Section 229
Section 234”

Law on the Protection of the Rights of the Child, 2015

Section 18

Human Trafficking

Criminal Code, 1999

Article 130(1)

Law No. 1096 of 26 July 2014 “On Combating Human Trafficking and Providing Support to Victims of Human Trafficking”

“Article 5. Classification of types human trafficking depending on the form of exploitation
1. Depending on the form of coercion of victims of human trafficking the exploitation may be as following:

a) forcible physical coercion and (or )with the use of strong drug, alcohol, medicines;
b) economical coercion in the form of debt bondage or other material dependence including slavery or conditions similar to slavery;
c) psychological coercion by blackmailing, fraud, deceiving or threat of violation;
d) legal dependence in connection with adoption or guardianship or in connection to marriage without the purpose of establishing a family.

2. Depending on the activities of the victims of human trafficking the exploitation may be as following:

a) exploitation of human physiological organs, namely for transplantation of organs and tissues as well as the use of woman as surrogate mother;
b) exploitation of labor in family life (domestic and communal services), manufacturing, agricultural work as well as criminal business (participation in armed units, manufacturing of illegal produce);
c) sexual exploitation;
d) exploitation of person for use in armed conflicts or military activities.

3. Consent of victim of human trafficking in regard to the forms of exploitation in attribution of the concrete activity to human trafficking should not be considered if any means of influence was used against this person aimed at human trafficking.”

Slavery

Law No. 1096 of 26 July 2014 “On Combating Human Trafficking and Providing Support to Victims of Human Trafficking”

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, 1994

Article 21: The law protects the rights of victims. The government guarantees the victim judicial protection and compensation for harms suffered by him or her.

Criminal Code, 1999

Articles 42 and 43

Law on the Protection of the Rights of the Child, 2015

Government Decree No. 690 of 31 October 2014 “On the National Programme of Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour for the years 2015-2020”

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Law No. 1096 of 26 July 2014 “On Combating Human Trafficking and Providing Support to Victims of Human Trafficking”

Penalties
Penalties, General

Criminal Code, 1999

Article 131
Article 130

Penalties, Forced Labour

Criminal Code, 1999

Article 153

Penalties, Child Labour

Criminal Code, 1999

Article 153
Article 154
“Article 165
Article 166
Article 167”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Criminal Code, 1999

Article 130(1)

Law No. 1096 of 26 July 2014 “On Combating Human Trafficking and Providing Support to Victims of Human Trafficking”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Tajikistan. If you are a representative of Tajikistan and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.