Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Child labour between 1999 and 2006 decreased by 33%.
Best 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate
The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).
- Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: Case data available
Human Development Index Score: 0.820 (2019)
Mean School Years: 8.1 years (2019)
Vulnerable Employment: 29.4% (2014)
Working Poverty Rate: 0.58% (2016)
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 1999
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2003
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): No data
Unemployed: 7.7% (2014)
Pension: 20.5% (2014)
Vulnerable: No data
Children: No data
Disabled: 5% (2016)
Poor: No data
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)
Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:
a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.
In Turkey, the percentage of child labourers has decreased overall from 1999 to 2006. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use a reduced definition.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999 and 2006.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.
In Turkey, the latest estimates show that 0.6 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2006. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use a reduced definition.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999 and 2006.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).
In Turkey, the latest estimates show that 11.1 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2006. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use a reduced definition.
The chart displays differences in percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999 and 2006.
Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.
According to the latest 2006 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Turkey was 26.8 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 32.3 hours in 1999.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999 and 2006.
Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.
In 2006, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 45.4 hours per week. This number has increased since 1999, when number of hours worked by this age group was 41.6.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999 and 2006.
Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week for children aged 5-14.
Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 5.4 hours per week according to the 2006 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 1999, which found that children aged 5-14 in Turkey worked an average of 9.8 hours per week.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999 and 2006.
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)
Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.
The latest data available on child labour by sector for Turkey is from 2006. By the 2006 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Manufacturing sector.
The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Turkey.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
Identified Victims of Human Trafficking (Source: GRETA)
According to GRETA, Turkey is a source, transit and destination country for trafficking victims. Sex trafficking is the most commonly identified form of exploitation, and to a lesser extent labour trafficking and forced begging. A majority of victims identified are female and foreign nationals from a number of different countries. Refugees (especially Syrians) and the Romani community are particularly vulnerable to trafficking and exploitation.
The graph on the right shows the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Turkey, as reported by Turkish authorities to the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA).
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Turkey between 1990 and 2019. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2019, shows that the average human development score in Turkey is 0.820. This score indicates that human development is very high.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Turkey over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 2010 and 2014, Turkey showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)
Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:
“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”
ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases the vulnerability of individuals to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts.
“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”
There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries for migrant and non-migrant workers.
Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and nonfatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Turkey.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
Act No. 2709, Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, 1982
Article 18. No one shall be forced to work. Forced labour is prohibited. Work required of an individual while serving a sentence or under detention provided that the form and conditions of such labour are prescribed by law; services required from citizens during a state of emergency; and physical or intellectual work necessitated by the needs of the country as a civic obligation shall not be considered as forced labour.
Act No. 4857, Labour Act, 2003
Article 71. Employment of children who have not completed the age of fifteen is prohibited. However, children who have completed the full age of fourteen and their primary education may be employed on light works that will not hinder their physical, mental and moral development, and for those who continue their education, in jobs that will not prevent their school attendance.
In the placement of children and young employees in jobs and in the types of work where they are employable, their security and health, physical, mental and psychological development as well as their personal suitability and capability shall be taken into consideration. The job the child performs must not bar him for attending school and from continuing his vocational training, nor impair his pursuance of class work on a regular basis.
The types of works where employment of children and young employees who have not completed the full age of eighteen is prohibited and the works where young employees who have not completed the age of eighteen may be permitted to work, as well as the light works and working conditions in which children who have completed the age of fourteen and their primary education may work shall be determined in a regulation of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security to be issued within six months.
The working time of children who have completed their basic education and yet who are no longer attending school shall not be more than seven hours daily and more than thirty-five hours weekly. However this working time may be increased up to forty hours weekly.
The working time of school attending children during the education period must fall outside their training hours and shall not be more than two hours daily and ten hours weekly. Their working time during the periods when schools are closed shall not exceed the hours foreseen in the first subsection above.
Worst Forms of Child Labour
Act No. 4857, Labour Act, 2003
Article 72. Boys under the age of eighteen and women irrespective of their age must not be employed on underground or underwater work like in mines, cable-laying and the construction of sewers and tunnels.
Article 73. Restrictions on night work: Children and young employees under the age of eighteen must not be employed on industrial work during the night.
Article 85. Young workers and children who did not complete the age of sixteen may not be caused to work in heavy and dangerous positions. It is established by a regulation to be prepared by the Ministry of Labour and Social Security based on the opinion to be delivered by the Ministry of Health, which works are to be considered heavy and dangerous, in which heavy and dangerous positions the women and young workers, who completed sixteen but not eighteen are to be employed.
Çocuk ve Genç İşçilerin Çalıştırılma Usul ve Esasları Hakkında Yönetmelik (Regulation on the principles and procedures for the employment of children and young persons), 2004 amend. Çocuk ve Genç Isçilerin Çalistirilma Usul ve Esaslari Hakkinda Yönetmelikte Degisiklik Yapilmasina Dair Yönetmelik, 2013
Ek-3 Çocuk ve Genç İşçilerin Çalıştırılamayacakları İşler
16 Yaşını Doldurmuş Fakat 18 Yaşını Bitirmemiş Genç İşçilerin Çalıştırılabilecekleri İşler
1. Toprağın pişirilmesi suretiyle imal olunan kiremit, tuğla, ateş tuğlası işleri ile boru, pota, künk ve benzeri inşaat ve mimari malzeme işleri.
2. Kurutma ve yapıştırma işleri, kontrplak, kontratabla, yonga ağaçtan mamul suni tahta ve PVC yüzey kaplamalı suni tahta imali işleri ile emprenye işleri.
3. Parafinden eşya imali işleri.
4. Kuş ve hayvan tüyü kıllarının temizlenmesi, didiklemesi, ayrılması ve bunlara benzer işler.
5. Plastik maddelerin şekillendirilmesi ve plastik eşya imali işleri. (PVC’nin imali ve PVC’den mamül eşyaların yapımı hariç)
6. Mensucattan hazır eşya imali işleri (Perde, ev tekstili, otomobil ürünleri ve benzerleri).
7. Kağıt ve odun hamuru üretimi işleri.
8. Selüloz üretimi işleri.
9. Kağıt ve kağıt ürünlerinden yapılan her türlü eşya ve malzemenin imali işleri.
10. Zahire depolarındaki işler ile un ve çeltik fabrikalarındaki işler.
11. Her türlü mürekkep ve mürekkep ihtiva eden malzeme imali işleri.
Trafficking in Persons
New Turkish Criminal Code No. 5237, 2004 amend. Act No. 5560, 2006
Human Trafficking Article 80.
1. Any person who procures, kidnaps, harbours or transports a person from one place to another or brings a person into the country or takes a person out of the country, by
1. the use of threat, pressure, force or violence,
2. employing deceit,
3. abusing his influence, or
4. obtaining a consent by exploiting control over another or the desperation of such other, for the purpose of forcing them into prostitution or to work, provide a service, harvest their organs or to subject them to slavery or any similar practice shall be sentenced to a penalty of imprisonment for a term of eight to twelve years and to a judicial fine of up to ten thousand days.
Identifies seasonal migratory agriculture, street work, and work in small and medium industrial enterprises as priority sectors for government efforts to combat child labor. Outlines a series of nationwide interventions aimed at eliminating child labor, including combating poverty, inclusive education, and increasing social awareness.
“Aims to identify and solve labor market issues, with the goal of job creation and sustained economic growth. Includes the prevention of child labor, especially hazardous work in agriculture, as a focus of the plan, and advocates for increased access to education and strengthened social services as a means of preventing child labor.”
“Identifies Turkey’s strategy and goals for economic development. Includes the priorities of alleviating child poverty and increasing equal opportunity in education. Includes provisions for the prevention of the worst forms of child labor.”
“Sets out the framework and actions for promoting services for children in fields such as health care and education. Includes a section addressing child labor issues.”
“Outlines Turkey’s strategy for the prevention of human trafficking. Identifies children as an exceptionally vulnerable group and calls for special security precautions for children at shelters for victims, as well as increased international cooperation on preventing child trafficking.”
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)
Policies for Assistance
New Turkish Criminal Code No. 5237, 2004 amend. Act 5560, 2006
Art. 227.8. Any person who has been forced into prostitution may be given treatment or psychological therapy.
Law No. 6458 of 2013 on Foreigners and International Protection, 2013
Article 48.1. A residence permit valid for thirty days shall be granted, by the governorates, to foreigners who are victims of human trafficking or where there is strong circumstantial evidence that they might be victims with a view to allow them to break from the impact of their [negative] experience and reflect on whether to cooperate with the competent authorities.
Article 48.2. Conditions attached to other types of residence permits shall not be sought while issuing these residence permits.
Article 49.1. The residence permit granted to allow for recovery and reflection may be renewed for six months periods for reasons of safety, health or special circumstances of the victim. However, the total duration shall not exceed three years under any circumstances whatsoever.
Article 49.2. The residence permit shall be cancelled in cases where it is determined that foreigners who are victims of trafficking or might be victims of human trafficking have re-connected with the perpetrators of the crime through their own volition.
Article 55.1. Removal decision shall not be issued in respect of those foreigners listed below regardless of whether they are within the scope of Article 54:
a. when there are serious indications to believe that they shall be subjected to the death penalty, torture, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in the country to which they shall be returned to;
b. who would face risk due to serious health condition, age or, pregnancy in case of travel;
c. who would not be able to receive treatment in the country to which they shall be returned while undergoing treatment for a life threatening health condition;
ç. victims of human trafficking, supported by the victim’s assistance programme;
d. victims of serious psychological, physical or sexual violence, until their treatment is completed
Article 81.1. Applicants and international protection beneficiaries may be represented by a lawyer regarding activities and actions stipulated in this Part, provided that the [attorney’s] fee is covered by them.
Article 81.2. In cases where the applicant and international protection beneficiary is unable to afford the attorney’s fee for their judicial appeals regarding actions and activities stipulated in this Part, legal assistance shall be provided pursuant to the provisions on legal assistance stipulated in the Attorneyship Law № 1136.
Article 81.3. Applicant and international protection beneficiary may make use of counselling services provided by non-governmental organisations.
Article 103.1. The Directorate General of Migration Management has been established under the Ministry of Interior in order to implement migration policies and strategies, ensure coordination among relevant agencies and organisations, and carry-out functions and actions related to the entry into, stay in and exit from of foreigners in Turkey as well as their removal, international protection, temporary protection and the protection of victims of human trafficking.
Article 108.1.c. Department of Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking shall:
1. carry-out activities and actions related to combating human trafficking and protecting victims of trafficking;
2. implement projects related to combating human trafficking and protecting victims of trafficking;
3. establish, operate or outsource the operation of hotlines for victims of human trafficking;
4. carry-out other tasks assigned by the Director General.
Article 108.1.i. Support Services Department shall:
6. establish, operate or ensure the operation of centres as well as shelters for victims of human rights trafficking;
Penalties, Child Labour
Act No. 4857, Labour Act, 2003
Article 104. An employer or his representative shall be liable to a fine of five hundred million liras if he causes employees to work beyond the hours fixed in Article 63 or in the regulation issued in pursuance of this Article, if he fails to comply with the provisions of Article 68 as to rest periods; if he causes his employees to work more than seven-and-a-half hours on night work or fails to alternate night and day shifts contrary to Article 69, if he acts contrary to the provisions of Article 71, if he employs boys under the age of eighteen years or girls or women irrespective of their age on work in which their employment is prohibited by Article 72, if he employs children and young employees on night work contrary to the provisions of Article 73 and the regulation mentioned in that Article or acts contrary to the prohibition mentioned in the first paragraph of that Article, if he causes pregnant or confined women to work in periods before and after birth or fails to grant them leave without pay contrary to the provisions of Article 76, if he fails to keep personnel files mentioned in Article 75, or if he fails to comply with the provisions of the regulation mentioned in Article 76.
The employer or his representative shall be liable to a fine of one hundred million liras for each employee concerned if he acts contrary to the provisions envisaged in Article 64 and 65.
Penalties, Human Trafficking
New Turkish Criminal Code No. 5237, 2004 amend. Act No. 5560, 2006
Human Trafficking Article 80.
1. Any person who procures, kidnaps, harbours or transports a person from one place to another or brings a person into the country or takes a person out of the country, by 1. the use of threat, pressure, force or violence, 2. employing deceit, 3. abusing his influence, or 4. obtaining a consent by exploiting control over another or the desperation of such other, for the purpose of forcing them into prostitution or to work, provide a service, harvest their organs or to subject them to slavery or any similar practice shall be sentenced to a penalty of imprisonment for a term of eight to twelve years and to a judicial fine of up to ten thousand days.
2. Where an act is undertaken for the purposes referred to in paragraph one and such act constitutes an offence, the consent of the victim shall be presumed to be invalid.
3. Where a person under eighteen years of age is procured, kidnapped, harboured or transported from one place to another for the purposes described in paragraph one, the offender shall be sentenced to a penalty described paragraph one, notwithstanding the fact that no act instrumental to the offence has been resorted to.
4. Security measures shall be imposed upon legal entities in respect of the aforementioned offences.
New Turkish Criminal Code No. 5237, 2004
Violation of the Freedom to Work and Labour Article 117.
2. Any person who employs another person, or persons, without payment or on a very low salary, which is clearly disproportionate to the service provided, or subjects such person, or persons, to conditions of work and residence which are incompatible with human dignity by exploiting his helplessness, isolation, or dependence shall be sentenced to a penalty of imprisonment for a term of six months to three years, or a judicial fine which will not be less than hundred days.
3. Where a person provides an individual, or sends or transports an individual from one place to another, with the aim of placing such person in the situation described in the above paragraph the same penalty shall be imposed.
4. A person who forces, or threatens, a worker or employer to increase or decrease earnings, or to accept an agreement with conditions that are different from those previously agreed upon, in order to cause the cessation, suspension or continuation of a suspension of work shall be sentenced to a penalty of imprisonment for a term of six months to three years.
Prostitution Article 227.
1. Any person who encourages a child to become a prostitute, facilitates a child becoming such or supplies or accommodates a child for such purpose, or acts as an intermediary for the prostitution of a child, shall be sentenced to a penalty of imprisonment for a term of four to ten years and judicial fine up to five thousand days. Preparatory acts and activities for commission of this offence shall be punished as a completed offence.
2. Any person who encourages another to become a prostitute or who facilitates or acts as an intermediary for such or who provides an environment for such purpose shall be sentenced to a penalty of imprisonment for a term of two to four years and a judicial fine up to three thousand days. Earning a living, totally or partially, from the proceeds of prostitution shall be presumed to be an encouragement to prostitution.
4. The penalty to be imposed according to the aforementioned paragraphs shall be increased by one half to two folds where a person is encouraged to engage in acts of prostitution or secures an individual to engage in prostitution through the use of threat, violence, deceit, or by taking advantage of another’s desperation.
5. The penalty to be imposed according to aforementioned paragraphs shall be increased by one half where the offence is committed by a spouse, direct-antecedents, direct antecedents-in-law, sibling, adopting parent, guardian, trainer, educator, nurse or any other person responsible for the protection and supervision of a person; or by a public officer or employee who misuses the influence derived from their positions.
6. The penalty to be imposed according to aforementioned paragraphs shall be increased by one half where the offence is committed within the framework of the activities of a criminal organisation.
Begging Article 229.
1. Any person who uses a child or person with physical or mental impairments as a means for begging shall be sentenced to a penalty of imprisonment for a term of one to three years.
2. The penalty to be imposed shall be increased by one half, where the offence is committed by blood relatives or in-laws including third degree or a spouse.
3. The penalty to be imposed shall be increased by one fold where the offence is committed within the framework of the activities of a criminal organisation.
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.