Data Dashboards

Turkmenistan
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.710 (2018)

Mean School Years: 9.8 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 23.6% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 7.0% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2010
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2005
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Turkmenistan.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Turkmenistan.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Turkmenistan.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Turkmenistan between 2010 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Turkmenistan is 0.710. This score indicates that human development is high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Turkmenistan over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Turkmenistan showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Turkmenistan.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Labour Code, 2009

Article 8

Law of Turkmenistan on Counteraction to Trafficking in Human Beings, 2016

“Article 1. Key concepts used in the present Law
The following key concepts are used in the Law:
7) forced labour – any work or services required of a person under the threat of punishment or by other means of coercion if this person has not offered its services voluntarily;”

Constitution of Turkmenistan, 2016

Article 49

Child Labour

Law No. 417-V of 18 June 2016 “To Amend and Supplement the Labour Code”

Article 23

Law No. 5-III on Guarantees of the Right to Work for Youth. 2005

“””Contains 6 articles:
1. Prohibits parties from concluding employment contracts with children under the age of sixteen years. Children who have attained the age of fifteen years may be employed only if the parents(guardian, trustee) have given their written consent and the work activity will not keep them from continuing their schooling.
2. Employers are prohibited from using workers who have not yet attained the age of majority in jobs with poor working conditions or in hazardous, dangerous, and underground work.
3. Parents (or guardians) may not authorise a child to work in permanent employment, especially in jobs that lead to their exclusion from the schooling, in violation of the rights and interests of children enshrined in the legal Acts of Turkmenistan, as well as the universally recognized norms of international law.
4. Legislation related to occupational safety and health of children must be respected not only by legal entities (companies, institutions, organizations), but also private entrepreneurs, as well as others.
5. The work of children, regardless of the form in which it occurs, if it is permanent or temporary, should not create obstacles to their learning in schools.
6. Violations of the employment rights of children is punishable under the legislation of Turkmenistan.”””

Law 74-V on State Guarantees of the Rights of the Child, 2014

Article 24

Law No. 121-II of 5 July 2002 on the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Law of 18 August 2015 to Amend and Supplement the Labour Code of Turkmenistan.

Article 253

Law No. 5-III on Guarantees of the Right to Work for Youth. 2005

“””Contains 6 articles:
1. Prohibits parties from concluding employment contracts with children under the age of sixteen years. Children who have attained the age of fifteen years may be employed only if the parents(guardian, trustee) have given their written consent and the work activity will not keep them from continuing their schooling.
2. Employers are prohibited from using workers who have not yet attained the age of majority in jobs with poor working conditions or in hazardous, dangerous, and underground work.
3. Parents (or guardians) may not authorise a child to work in permanent employment, especially in jobs that lead to their exclusion from the schooling, in violation of the rights and interests of children enshrined in the legal Acts of Turkmenistan, as well as the universally recognized norms of international law.
4. Legislation related to occupational safety and health of children must be respected not only by legal entities (companies, institutions, organizations), but also private entrepreneurs, as well as others.
5. The work of children, regardless of the form in which it occurs, if it is permanent or temporary, should not create obstacles to their learning in schools.
6. Violations of the employment rights of children is punishable under the legislation of Turkmenistan.”””

Law 74-V on State Guarantees of the Rights of the Child, 2014

“Article 24
Article 38
Article 45”

Constitution of Turkmenistan, 2016

Human Trafficking

Law of Turkmenistan on Counteraction to Trafficking in Human Beings, 2016

“Article 1. Key concepts used in the present Law
The following key concepts are used in the Law:

2) trafficking in human beings – purchase and sale of a person or commission against him/her other illegal actions in which he/she is considered as a property object, as well as recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons irrespective of consent of the victim, for the purpose of its exploitation, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, the abuse of trust or a position of vulnerability, or the giving of payments to a person having control over another person. The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a minor for the purpose of exploitation shall be considered “trafficking in human beings” even if this does not involve any of the means set forth in this paragraph;
14) trafficking-related crimes – crimes stipulated by the Criminal Code of Turkmenistan, related to prostitution or involvement to prostitution, or coercion to continue prostitution using slave labour, kidnapping, illegal actions aimed at providing employment abroad, production and dissemination of pornographic materials or objects of pornographic nature with images of minors.”

“Article 7. Means of influence on victims of trafficking in human beings Exploitation of victims of trafficking in human beings may be carried out through the
following means:

1) physical coercion along with violence and/or narcotic and psychotropic substances, alcohol and other superpotent agents;
2) economic coercion in the form of debt-bondage or other financial dependence, including slavery or status (state) similar to slavery;
3) psychological coercion through blackmailing, deceiving, deluding or threatening to use violence;
4) legal dependence due to adoption, guardianship.

Article 8. Forms of exploitation against victims of trafficking in human beings
1. The nature of exploitation activities against victims of trafficking in human beings may
be in the following forms:

1) exploitation of physiological organs and tissues of humans for the purpose of transplantation or biomedical studies;
2) exploitation of a woman for reproduction purposes as a surrogate mother;
3) exploitation of human labour (forced labour) in household, production, agricultural works as well as in criminal business (production of illicit goods), other criminal and illegal activities;
4) sexual exploitation;
5) exploitation of a person in armed conflicts or military actions, or militant formations.

2. Consent of a victim of trafficking in human beings to some form of exploitation within any specific action related to trafficking in human beings shall be disregarded provided that any type of influence related to trafficking in human beings has been inflicted on a person.”

Slavery

Law of Turkmenistan on Counteraction to Trafficking in Human Beings, 2016

“Article 1. Key concepts used in the present Law
The following key concepts are used in the Law:
9) slavery – a status or the state of a person treated with some or all powers pertaining to the right of property;
10) status (state) similar to slavery – a status or the state of a person under servitude, including under debt bondage or villeinage status (state);”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Law of Turkmenistan on Counteraction to Trafficking in Human Beings, 2016

“Article 1. Key concepts used in the present Law
The following key concepts are used in the Law:
1) physical person who could suffer from trafficking in human beings or trafficking- related crimes (alleged victim) – a citizen of Turkmenistan, a foreign citizen or a stateless person regarding whom identification of victims of trafficking in human beings shall be carried out;
4) victim of trafficking in human beings – a physical person who has been subjected to and suffered from trafficking in human beings, irrespective of whether or not this person consented to his or her transportation, transfer, sale or other actions related to trafficking;”

“CHAPTER V. IDENTIFICATION OF VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS. PROCEDURE OF ACKNOWLEDGING AS A VICTIM OF TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS AND DECLARING THE STATUS OF A VICTIM OF TRAFFICKING
IN HUMAN BEINGS
Article 21. Identification of victims of trafficking in human beings
Article 22. Rights of the alleged victim
Article 23. Status of the victim of trafficking in human beings
Article 24. Procedure of granting a status of the victim of trafficking in human beings
Article 25. Rights of the victim of trafficking in human beings participating as a victim or a witness in the criminal case in the sphere of trafficking in human beings
Article 26. Indemnification to the victims of trafficking in human beings
Article 27. Confidentiality of data on the victim of trafficking in human beings”

“CHAPTER VI. SPECIALIZED INSTITUTIONS FOR SUPPORTING AND ASSISTING VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS. REPATRIATION OF PERSONS TURNED TO BE VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS
Article 28. Establishment of specialized institutions for supporting and assisting victims of trafficking in human beings
Article 29. Key functions of specialized institutions
Article 30. Repatriation of foreign citizens and stateless persons suffered from trafficking in human beings”

“CHAPTER VII. SOCIAL REHABILITATION OF VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS, THEIR PROTECTION AND ASSISTANCE TO THEM
Article 31. Social rehabilitation of victims of trafficking in human beings
Article 32. Assistance to victims of trafficking in human beings and measures to protect them
Article 33. Specifics of rendering assistance to child victims of trafficking in human beings
Article 34. Assistance by diplomatic missions and consular establishments of Turkmenistan to victims of trafficking in human beings”

Policies for Assistance, General

Law 74-V on State Guarantees of the Rights of the Child, 2014

Penal Code, 1997

Article 40

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Labour Code, 2009

Article 409

Penalties, Child Labour

Law No. 5-III on Guarantees of the Right to Work for Youth, 2005

“””Contains 6 articles:
1. Prohibits parties from concluding employment contracts with children under the age of sixteen years. Children who have attained the age of fifteen years may be employed only if the parents(guardian, trustee) have given their written consent and the work activity will not keep them from continuing their schooling.
2. Employers are prohibited from using workers who have not yet attained the age of majority in jobs with poor working conditions or in hazardous, dangerous, and underground work.
3. Parents (or guardians) may not authorise a child to work in permanent employment, especially in jobs that lead to their exclusion from the schooling, in violation of the rights and interests of children enshrined in the legal Acts of Turkmenistan, as well as the universally recognized norms of international law.
4. Legislation related to occupational safety and health of children must be respected not only by legal entities (companies, institutions, organizations), but also private entrepreneurs, as well as others.
5. The work of children, regardless of the form in which it occurs, if it is permanent or temporary, should not create obstacles to their learning in schools.
6. Violations of the employment rights of children is punishable under the legislation of Turkmenistan.”””

Law 74-V on State Guarantees of the Rights of the Child, 2014

Article 47

Penal Code, 1997

Article 151

Labour Code, 2009

Article 409

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Law of Turkmenistan on Counteraction to Trafficking in Human Beings, 2016

“Article 38. Liability for trafficking in human beings
1. The natural and legal entities involved in trafficking in human beings and trafficking- related crimes shall bear liability, pursuant to the legislation of Turkmenistan.
2. In case a court detects a fact of trafficking in human beings through a legal entity registered in Turkmenistan, which deliberately served as a cover of trafficking in human beings, such legal entity shall be subject to elimination under the resolution of the court.
3. In case a legal entity of a foreign state (its representative office or branch) is recognized by the court as an entity deliberately involved in trafficking in human beings, the court shall issue a resolution prohibiting its activities in the territory of Turkmenistan, and its representative office and branch in Turkmenistan shall be closed down.
4. All assets of a legal entity (its representative office or branch) mentioned in Parts 2 and 3 of this Article, which were acquired through illegal means, shall be seized and given to the state following a court resolution.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Turkmenistan. If you are a representative of Turkmenistan and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.