Data Dashboards

Tuvalu
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: No data available

Mean School Years: No data available

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data available

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2019
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Not Ratified
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 15.0% (2000)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Tuvalu.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Tuvalu.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Tuvalu.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

There is not sufficient data available for human development indicators for Tuvalu.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

There are no visualizations for Tuvalu as there is not sufficient data available.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

There is not sufficient data available pertaining to vulnerable groups in Tuvalu.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Employment Ordinance, 1966

“Part VII-Forced Labour
74 Interpretation
In this Part —
“forced or compulsory labour” means all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily, but does not mean —

(a) any work or service exacted from any person as a consequence of a conviction in a court of law:
Provided that the said work or service is carried out under the supervision and control of a public authority and that the said person is not hired or placed at the disposal of private individuals, companies, or associations;
(b) any work or service exacted in case of emergency, that is to say, in the event of war, or of a calamity or threatened calamity such as fire, flood, famine, earthquake, violent epidemic or epizootic diseases, invasion by animal, insect or vegetable pests, and in general any circumstances that would endanger the existence or the well-being of the whole or part of the population;
(c) unpaid labour on minor communal works lawfully required by a local government council.”

Constitution, 1986

“18 Slavery and Forced Labour
(1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, and in particular to —

(a) the succeeding provisions of this section; and
(b) section 32 (foreign disciplined forces); and
(c) section 33 (hostile disciplined forces); and
(d) section 36 (restrictions on certain rights and freedoms during public emergencies),
no-one shall —
(e) be held in slavery or servitude; or
(f) be required to perform forced labour.

(2)For the purposes of this section—

(b) forced labour does not include —

(i) labour required by or in consequence of the sentence or order of a court; or
(ii) labour required in accordance with law of a person while he is lawfully detained that is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place where he is detained; or
(iii) labour required in accordance with law of a member of a disciplined force as a member of that force; or
(iv) in the case of a person who proves that he has a conscientious objection to compulsory service as a member of a naval, military or air force – labour which he is required by law to perform in place of such service; or
(v) labour required in accordance with law —

(A) during a period of public emergency within the meaning of Division 4 (Public Emergencies); or
(B) in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life or well-being of the community or a part of the community, to the extent that the requirement is reasonably justified for the purpose of dealing with any situation arising or existing by reason of the public emergency or the other emergency or calamity; or

(vi) in the case of a person under the age of 18 years – labour required in the reasonable exercise of the authority of a parent, teacher or guardian; or
(vii) labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal traditional, communal or civic obligations, including any service required in accordance with section 23(7) (which relates to the performance of certain services instead of other traditional, etc., obligations).”

Child Labour

Employment Ordinance, 1966

“60 Workers under 18 years may not enter into contract
Workers whose age is, or appears to the Commissioner to be, less than 18 years shall not be capable of entering into a contract.”

“84 Employment of children under 14 forbidden
A child under the age of 14 shall not be employed.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Employment Ordinance, 1966

“85 Employment of persons under 15
(1) A person under the age of 15 shall not be employed or work —

(a) in any industrial undertaking, or in any branch thereof except in employment approved by the Minister; or
(b) on any ship.

(2) Nothing contained in the preceding subsection shall prevent the employment of a person under the age of 15 years upon work upon a school-ship or a training-ship when such work is approved and supervised by a public authority.

86 Employment underground of male persons under 16
A male person under the age of 16 shall not be employed underground in any mine.

87 Employment of persons under 18
A male person under the age of 18 shall not be employed or work —

(a) underground in any mine unless he has attained the age of 16 and produces a medical certificate of a medical practitioner or a person approved for that purpose by the Health Officer attesting his fitness for such work;
(b) on any ship as a trimmer or stoker:
Provided that a male person between the ages of 16 and 18 may be employed on a ship mainly propelled by means others than steam or as a trimmer or stoker on a ship exclusively engaged in the coastal trade if he is certified by a medical practitioner to be physically fit for such work;
(c) on any kind of work on a ship unless certified by a medical practitioner to be fit for such work:
Provided that in urgent cases the Commissioner may permit the embarkation of a male person under the age of 18 without prior medical examination, and in such case the employer shall at his own expense have such person medically examined by a medical practitioner at the first place of call at which there is a medical practitioner, and should such practitioner not attest such person as fit for the work, the employer shall at his own expense return such person as a passenger to the port or place where he was engaged, or to his home, whichever is the nearer; or
(d) during the night in any industrial undertaking:
Provided that a male person over the age of 16 may be so employed with the permission in writing of the Commissioner.”

Human Trafficking

Counter Terrorism and Transnational Organised Crime Act, 2009

“3 Interpretation
(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires:
“child” means a person under 18 years;
“trafficking in persons” means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a person for the purpose of exploitation;”

Slavery

Constitution, 1986

“18 Slavery and Forced Labour
(1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, and in particular to —

(a) the succeeding provisions of this section; and
(b) section 32 (foreign disciplined forces); and
(c) section 33 (hostile disciplined forces); and
(d) section 36 (restrictions on certain rights and freedoms during public emergencies),
no-one shall —
(e) be held in slavery or servitude; or
(f) be required to perform forced labour.

(2)For the purposes of this section—

(a) slavery or servitude includes slavery or servitude within the meaning of any international or multinational convention or treaty prohibiting slavery or servitude to which Tuvalu is a party; and”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Family Protection and Domestic Violence Act, 2014

“4 Principles
The Court or a person who exercises a power or performs a function under this Act must apply the following principles when exercising jurisdiction under this Act –

(f) ensuring that persons trafficked, irrespective of nationality –

(i) must not be prosecuted on any charge of trafficking, illegal immigration or prostitution; and
(ii) given every assistance and be fully informed when testifying in trafficking trials in which the victim has been involved;”

Penal Code, 1965

“72 Protection for trafficked persons
(1) A trafficked person is not liable to criminal prosecution for:

(a) the act of trafficking in persons or being a party to an offence of trafficking in persons; or
(b) the person’s illegal entry into Tuvalu, in connection with the act of trafficking in person if Tuvalu is the receiving country; or
(c) the person’s period of unlawful residence in Tuvalu after being trafficked, if Tuvalu is the receiving country; or
(d) the person’s procurement or possession of any fraudulent travel or identity documents that the person obtained, or with which the person was supplied, for the purpose of entering the receiving country in connection with the act of trafficking in persons.”

Policies for Assistance, General

Penal Code, 1965

“46 Compensation for personal injury
When any person is convicted of an offence under section 181 or Part XXXV, the court may, in addition to, or in lieu of, any penalty which may be imposed, order him to pay compensation to any person injured by his offence.”

“16 Compulsion
A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if it is committed by 2 or more offenders, and if the act is done or omitted only because during the whole of the time in which it is being done or omitted the person is compelled to do or omit to do the act by threats on the part of the other offender or offenders instantly to kill him or do him grievous bodily harm if he refuses; but threats of future injury do not excuse any offence.”

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Employment Ordinance, 1966

“75 Prohibition of forced labour
Any person who exacts, procures or employs forced or compulsory labour is guilty of an offence and shall be liable to a fine of $100.”

Penal Code, 1965

“249 Unlawful compulsory labour
Any person who unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person is guilty of a misdemeanour.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Employment Ordinance, 1966

“73 Penalty
Any person who acts in contravention of, or fails to comply with, any of the provisions of this Part, or an order made by the Commissioner pursuant thereto, shall be liable to a fine of $100, and may, where the offence is under section 64, be further ordered to pay such compensation as the Commissioner has awarded under that section, which compensation shall be recovered as a fine.”

“90 Penalty
Any person who acts in contravention of, or fails to comply with, any of the provisions of this Part, shall be liable to a fine of $50.”

Penalties, General

Penal Code, 1965

“244 Kidnapping or abducting in order to subject person to grievous harm, slavery, etc.
Any person who kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be subjected, or may be so disposed of as to put in danger of being subjected, to grievous harm, or slavery, the unnatural lust of any person, or knowing it to be likely that such person will be so subjected or disposed of, is guilty of a felony, and shall be liable to imprisonment for 10 years.”

Counter Terrorism and Transnational Organised Crime Act, 2009

“69 Exploitation of people not legally entitled to work
(1) An employer who allows an unlawful employee to undertake employment in the employer’s service must not take an action with the intention of preventing or hindering the employee from:

(a) leaving Tuvalu; or
(b) ascertaining or seeking that person’s entitlement under the law of Tuvalu;
(c) disclosing to any person the circumstances of that person’s employment by the employer.

(2) Without the limiting the generality of subsection (1), the following are examples of actions of the kind mentioned in that subsection:

(a) taking or retaining possession or control of a person’s passport, any other travel or identity document, or travel tickets;
(b) preventing or hindering a person from:

(i) having access to a telephone; or
(ii) using a telephone; or
(iii) using a telephone privately; or
(iv) leaving premises; or
(v) leaving premises unaccompanied;
(c) preventing or hindering a labour officer from entering or having access to any place or premises to which the person is entitled to have access under any law.

(3) Any person who breaches subsection (1) commits an offence and is liable on conviction to an imprisonment term not exceeding 15 years.”

“85 Liability of a company
(1) This Act applies to a company in the same way as it applies to an individual and a company may be found guilty of any of the offences set out in this Act, in addition to the liability of any person for the same offence.
(2) For an offence under this Act, the conduct or state of mind of an employee, agent or officer of a company is taken to be attributed to the company if that person is acting:

(a) within the scope of the person’s employment; or
(b) within the scope of the person’s actual or apparent authority; or
(c) with the consent or agreement (express or implied) of a director, servant or agent of the company, and giving that consent is within the actual or apparent authority of the director, servant or agent.

(3) A reference to this section to the state of mind of a person includes the person’s knowledge, intention, opinion, belief or purpose, and the person’s reasons for that intention, opinion, belief or purpose.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Counter Terrorism and Transnational Organised Crime Act, 2009

“67 Offence of trafficking in persons
(1) A person must not engage in trafficking in a person or be involved in the arranging of trafficking in a person, knowing that the person’s entry into Tuvalu or any other state is or was arranged by specified means.
(2) Any person who breaches subsection (1) commits an offence and is liable on conviction to an imprisonment term not exceeding 25 years.”

“68 Offence of trafficking in children
(1) A person must not intentionally engage in trafficking in a person who is a child or be involved in the arranging of trafficking in a person who is a child, regardless of whether the child’s entry into Tuvalu, or any other state is or was for arranged by specified means.
(2) Any person who breaches subsection (1) commits an offence and is liable on conviction to an imprisonment term not exceeding 20 years.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Tuvalu. If you are a representative of Tuvalu and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.