Data Dashboards

Ukraine
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

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Best Target 8.7 Data: Human Trafficking

The data visualization displays the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Ukraine. Detailed information is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: Case data available
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.750 (2018)

Mean School Years: 11.3 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 14.9% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 0.0% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2004
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 73.0% (2018)

Unemployed: 17.0% (2018)

Pension: 96.0% (2018)

Vulnerable: 39.0% (2018)

Children: 100% (2018)

Disabled: 100% (2018)

Poor: 43.0% (2018)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2012 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Ukraine was 3.0 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 5.4 hours in 2005.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005 and 2012. 

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2012, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 1.6 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2005, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 5.0. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005 and 2012. 

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 4.8 hours per week according to the 2012 estimate. This estimate represents an increase in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2005, which found that children aged 5-14 in Ukraine worked an average of 4.6 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005 and 2012. 

 

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Ukraine.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

Identified Victims of Human Trafficking (Source: GRETA)

The graph on the right shows the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Ukraine, as reported by Ukrainian authorities to the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA).

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Ukraine between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Ukraine is 0.750. This score indicates that human development is high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Ukraine over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Ukraine showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

 

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

 

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Ukraine.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Law on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, 2011

“Article 1. Definitions

For the purposes of this Law, the terms provided below shall have the following meaning:
child – any natural person under the age of eighteen years;
trafficking in human beings – settlement of an illegal agreement, the object of which is a human being, as well as recruitment, transportation, harbouring, transfer or receipt of a human being for purpose of his/her exploitation, including sexual, by means of deception, fraud, blackmail, abuse of a person’s position of vulnerability or by use of force or threat of use of force, with abuse of power or economic or other dependence of the victim on another person, which is considered a crime under the Criminal Code of Ukraine.”

Constitution, 1996

Section 43

Law 5067-VI on Employment of the Population, 2012

Article 3.2

Civil Code, 2003

Article 312

Child Labour

Labour Code, 1971

“Chapter XIII: Youth labour
Article 188”

Act 2402-III on the protection of children, 2001

Article 21

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Order of the Minister of Health Protection on 31st March 1994 “To Approve the List of Heavy Works and Works with Harmful and Dangerous Working Conditions, in which the Use of the Labour Force of Persons Under the Age of 18 Years is Prohibited”

Labour Code 1971

“Chapter XIII: Youth labour
Article 190”

Penal Code, 2001

“Article 150. Exploitation of children
1. Exploitation of children, who are under legally employable age, by way of profit-seeking employment, –
shall be punishable by arrest for a term up to six months, or restraint of liberty for a term up to three years, with the deprivation of the right to occupy certain positions or engage in certain activities for a term up to three years.
2. The same actions committed in regard of several children, or where they caused significant harm to health, physical development or educational level of a child, or accompanied with the use of children labor in hazardous production, -shall be punishable by imprisonment for a term of two to five years with the deprivation of the right to occupy certain positions or engage in certain activities for a term up to three years.”

Act 2402-III on the protection of children, 2001

Article 21

Human Trafficking

Law on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, 2011

“Article 1. Definitions

For the purposes of this Law, the terms provided below shall have the following meaning:
child – any natural person under the age of eighteen years;
trafficking in human beings – settlement of an illegal agreement, the object of which is a human being, as well as recruitment, transportation, harbouring, transfer or receipt of a human being for purpose of his/her exploitation, including sexual, by means of deception, fraud, blackmail, abuse of a person’s position of vulnerability or by use of force or threat of use of force, with abuse of power or economic or other dependence of the victim on another person, which is considered a crime under the Criminal Code of Ukraine.”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Polices for Assistance
Policies, for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Law on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, 2011

“Article 1. Definitions

For the purposes of this Law, the terms provided below shall have the following meaning:
institutions for assistance to victims of trafficking in human beings – centers of social services for family, children and youth, territorial centers of social services (provision of social services), centers for social and psychological rehabilitation of children and shelters for children;
protection of victims of trafficking in human beings – a system of measures to reinstate the rights of victims of trafficking in human beings;
victim of trafficking in human beings – any natural person who has been subjected to trafficking in human beings and who has been declared a victim thereof in accordance with the provisions of this Law;
return or retention of a child who is a victim of trafficking in children and is a foreigner or a stateless person – set of measures aimed at ensuring, according to the child’s needs, his/her return to the country of origin, or the retention in the territory of Ukraine of a child who is a victim of trafficking in children in the territory of Ukraine and is a foreigner or a stateless person;
rehabilitation of a victim of trafficking in human beings – set of medical, psychological, social, legal and other measures aimed at the reinstatement of physical and mental welfare and social functions of a person, who is a victim of trafficking in human beings.”

“Section V. PROVISION OF ASSISTANCE AND PROTECTION TO VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS
Article 13. National Mechanism for Interaction of the Agents for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings
Article 14. Rights of the Person, Who Applied for the Declaration of Status of Victim of Trafficking in Human Beings
Article 15. Procedure for Declaration of the Status of a Victim of Trafficking in Human Beings
Article 16. Rights of the Victim of Trafficking in Human Beings
Article 17. Institutions for Assistance to Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings
Article 18. Return to Ukraine of Citizens of Ukraine-Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings
Article 19. Repatriation of Foreigners and Stateless Persons-Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings”

Article 23. Provision of Assistance to Child Victims of Trafficking

Policies for Assistance, General

Criminal Procedure Code, 2012

Section 4

Civil Code, 2003

Law 3460-VI on Free Civil Legal Aid, 2011

Act No. 2342-IV of 13 January 2005 to ensure organisational and legal conditions of social protection for orphans and children deprived of parental care (Text No. 147)

Act 966-IV. on social services, 2003

Law 2297-VI on Protection of Personal Data, 2010

Act 2558-III on social work with children and young people, 2001

Act 2402-III on the protection of children, 2001

Section 5

 

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Penal Code, 2001

“Article 172. Gross violation of labor law
1. Unlawful dismissal of an employee for personal reasons, and also any other gross violation of labor law, –
shall be punishable by a fine up to 50 tax-free minimum incomes, or deprivation of the right to occupy certain positions or engage in certain activities for a term up to three years, or correctional labor for a term up to two years.
2. The same actions committed in regard of a minor, or a pregnant woman, or a mother with a child under 14 years of age or a disabled child, –
shall be punishable by a fine of 50 to 100 tax-free minimum incomes, or deprivation of the right to occupy certain positions or engage in certain activities for a term up to five years, or correctional labor of a term up to two years, or arrest for a term up to six months.

Article 173. Gross violation of an employment contract
1. Any gross violation of an employment contract by any official of an enterprise, institution or organization regardless of their type of ownership, and also by a private person, or their authorized agent, causing a person, by deceit, breach of trust or coercion, to perform any work not provided for in the contract, –
shall be punishable by a fine up to 50 tax-free minimum incomes, or deprivation of the right to occupy certain positions or engage in certain activities for a term up to five years, or arrest for a term up to six months, or restraint of liberty for a term up to two years.
2. The same actions committed in regard of a citizen who was contracted to work outside Ukraine, –
shall be punishable by a fine of 50 to 100 tax-free minimum incomes, or restraint of liberty for a term up to three years.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Penal Code, 2001

“Article 150. Exploitation of children
1. Exploitation of children, who are under legally employable age, by way of profit-seeking employment, –
shall be punishable by arrest for a term up to six months, or restraint of liberty for a term up to three years, with the deprivation of the right to occupy certain positions or engage in certain activities for a term up to three years.
2. The same actions committed in regard of several children, or where they caused significant harm to health, physical development or educational level of a child, or accompanied with the use of children labor in hazardous production, -shall be punishable by imprisonment for a term of two to five years with the deprivation of the right to occupy certain positions or engage in certain activities for a term up to three years.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Law on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, 2011

“Section IX. LIABILITY IN COMBATING TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS
Article 29. Liability for Violation of the Legislation on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings
1. Persons culpable of violation of the legislation on combating trafficking in human beings shall be liable according to the law.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Ukraine. If you are a representative of Ukraine and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.