Data Dashboards

United Kingdom
Measurement
Measuring the Change

Modern Slavery data is only available for 2013. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Modern Slavery

The data visualization displays yearly National Referral Mechanism case data from the National Crime Agency (NCA) representing the number of potential victims of modern slavery referred and one data point representing an estimate of victims of modern slavery using Multiple Systems Estimation based on data from the NCA Strategic Assessment. Data, in some cases, are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: Some case data available
  • Modern Slavery (Forced labour): Case data available
  • Modern Slavery (Human trafficking): Case data available
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index: 0.922 (2017)

Mean Years of Education: 12.9 (2017)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 12.7% (2014)

 

Government Efforts
International Aid Commitments

Total Development Assistance to Anti-Slavery (2000-2013):

120,290,415 USD

Top Recipients:

Bangladesh, Asia regional programs, Ethiopia, India

 

Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2016
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2006
Social Protections

General (at least one): 93.5% (2016)

Unemployed: 62.6% (2014)

Pension: 100% (2014)

Vulnerable: 76.6% (2016)

Children: 100% (2016)

Disabled: 100% (2016)

Poor: 100% (2016)

The best estimate of modern slavery at the global and regional levels is currently provided by the ILO and Walk Free Foundation’s Global Estimates of Modern Slavery 2017. These estimates include regional estimates, but not national estimates.

Modern Slavery Estimate: Multiple Systems Estimation (Data Source: National Crime Agency/UK Home Office)

Many crimes can be quantified through victimization surveys and police recording of crime. Modern slavery is difficult to measure through victimization surveys because many victims do not present to the authorities.

Counts of potential victims recorded by the National Referral Mechanism (NRM), as well as NGO records of assisted victims, may not be nationally representative of the entire victim population. The UK government has concluded that these counts  underestimate the prevalence of modern slavery.

An estimation of 2013 modern slavery prevalence in the UK using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE) was released by the Home Office in 2014. The analysis estimated the number of potential victims of modern slavery in the UK falls roughly between 10,000 and 13,000 individuals, far greater than the actual number of potential victims (2744) picked up by the National Crime Agency. The blue bar on the graph demonstrates the range of estimated potential victims. Compared to the potential victim counts picked up by the NRM and Strategic Assessment, the total estimated number of potential victims is approximately five times larger.

National Referral Mechanism: Case data (Data Source: National Crime Agency)

The UK National Referral Mechanism (NRM) has recorded a steady rise in modern slavery cases referred to it since 2013. This does not necessarily indicate an increase in the victim population overall. Instead, it is possible (or likely) that the increase represents improvement in the ability to detect and assist potential victims, and in the practice of referral.

In referrals to the NRM, first responders note the relevant indicators of modern slavery in addition to the indicators of the relevant form of exploitation. The referral form used depends on age and whether the victim consents to enter the NRM. Those included in the sample are considered ‘potential victims’ meaning there has been an identification and referral to NRM, but a conclusive decision on the victim’s status has not been made.

Case data from National Referral Mechanisms are not considered to be nationally representative of the victim population. As modern slavery is such a hidden crime, case data often provides only a partial depiction of prevalence. In 2016, the most common types of exploitation for both adults and minors in the UK, where known, were labour exploitation and sexual exploitation.

National Referral Mechanism: Domestic Servitude (Data Source: National Crime Agency)

According to the National Crime Agency (NCA), domestic servitude involves victims being forced to work in private households. Victims’ movements are often restricted and they are forced to perform household tasks such as child care and housekeeping over long hours and for little, if any, pay.

The graph shows that referred cases of potential victims in domestic servitude have increased since 2013, the most affected group being adult females. However, the number of adult female referrals slightly decreases between 2015 and 2017.

National Referral Mechanism: Labour Exploitation (Data Source: National Crime Agency)

According to the NCA, forced or compulsory labour involves compelling victims to work very long hours, often in hard conditions without relevant training and equipment, and to hand over the majority if not all of their wages to their traffickers. Forced labour crucially implies the use of coercion and lack of freedom of choice for the victim. 

Individuals in the UK have been exploited for labour in various places of work, from hotels to farms, boats to building sites and nail bars to cannabis factories. Labour exploitation spans the agricultural, hospitality, fishing and construction sector. Those included in the sample are considered ‘potential victims’ meaning there has been an identification and referral to NRM, but a conclusive decision on the victim’s status has not been made.

The graph shows that the number of referral cases has steadily increased over the last five years. The groups that appear more frequently in cases of labour exploitation are adult males and minor males.

National Referral Mechanism: Sexual Exploitation Cases (Data Source: National Crime Agency)

According to the NCA, sexual exploitation involves any non-consensual or abusive sexual acts performed without a victim’s permission, including prostitution, escort work and pornography.

Those included in the sample are considered ‘potential victims’ meaning there has been an identification and referral to NRM, but a conclusive decision on the victim’s status has not been made.

Women, men and children of both sexes can be victims of sexual exploitation. However, as the data shows, the groups with the most referrals are consistently adult females and minor females.

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Under the UK Modern Slavery Act, children may be victims of modern slavery.

The UK National Referral Mechanism records minors involved in situations of exploitation as well as adults. However, a recent Home Office report explains that referrals for child trafficking are likely to be an underestimate of prevalence, especially for UK citizen children, as children are safeguarded by local authorities under their normal statutory safeguarding duties.

The International Conference of Labour Statisticians has additionally published guidelines on measuring ‘child labour’. These define ‘child labour’ in a way that goes beyond the scope of the ‘child labour exploitation’ captured in the UK NRM, for example relating to the number of children involved in hazardous work.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Data Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in the UK between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in the UK is 0.910. This score indicates that human development is high.

HDI Education Index (Data Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in the UK over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Data Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1990 and 2014, the UK showed an increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Labour Productivity (Data Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Children under Care Missing (Data Source: Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills)

Children under care in an institutionalized setting are believed to be more likely to go missing than children cared for in homes. Missing children are considered to be highly vulnerable to trafficking and modern slavery.

According to Ofsted, 44 percent of children at risk for child sexual exploitation had at least one incident where they were determined to be missing, compared with 5 percent of children not at risk. 3 percent (1,530) of children and young people placed in foster care—as of 31 March 2017—were considered to be at risk of child sexual exploitation, while 1 percent (420) were considered to be subject to child sexual exploitation.

The graph shows the number of missing child incidents and the number of missing children recorded by Ofsted each year.

Unaccompanied Minor Asylum (Source: Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills)

The UK Department for Education (DfE) considers unaccompanied migrant children who run away or go missing from care to be highly vulnerable to trafficking or exploitation. According to 2017 DfE guidelines, “unaccompanied children are likely to be uncertain or unaware of their rights and whom they should trust. They are at increased risk of going missing, often leaving the care of those who would protect them to return to traffickers who will continue their exploitation.”

The graph shows numbers of asylum applications from unaccompanied minors. There is no data available showing which unaccompanied minors have gone missing from care, nor is there data on unaccompanied minors who do not apply but enter the UK through extra legal means, who may also face greater vulnerability and require greater protection.

Rough Sleeping (Homelessness) Estimates in England (Source: Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government)

There is some evidence, reported by NGOs, to suggest that homeless populations may be particularly vulnerable to targeting by traffickers particularly for homeless youth and non-citizens.

The data on homelessness in England (the only data available for the UK), represents counts and estimates of a single night of people sleeping rough. Most of the data is based on estimates by local agencies and organizations who have contact with rough sleepers.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Data Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in the UK.

Underdevelopment influences and is influenced by Target 8.7 forms of exploitation. This suggests an important role for development assistance and programming in addressing these issues.

Yearly ODA Commitments to Anti-Slavery (Data Source: UNU-CPR)

A recent report released by UNU-CPR attempts to size ODA contributions that focus on tackling SDG 8.7 forms of exploitation. The UK committed 120,290,415 USD between 2000 and 2013 on anti-slavery programming. Annual commitments fluctuate, though it is important to note that commitments at any point in time may be dispersed over the course of several years. The chart also depicts the percentage of the UK’s GNI contributed to ODA. It should also be noted that this count does not include non-ODA assistance, domestic expenditure, or the growing flows of charitable giving directed at these concerns. The data source provides information up to 2013 and does not reflect the sizable uptick in ODA commitments reported by the UK in more recent years.

More current data may show a significant increase in spending on this programming, especially after the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in 2015 and the Call to Action in 2017. The 2018 UK Annual Report on Modern Slavery summarizes this data estimating that the government spent around 39 million euros in 2017/2018 and 61 million euros in 2018/2019 on modern slavery efforts, including domestic expenditure.

ODA Commitments by Form of Exploitation (Data Source: UNU-CPR)

Disaggregating ODA commitments by forms of exploitation using terms listed in each project description can provide a sense of the way aid is being spent on the various issues.

The graph shows that ODA commitments to Target 8.7 issues by the UK between 2000 and 2013 were diverse. In 2003, 2004 and 2008 there were large spikes in spending on child labour programmes, cumulatively amounting to the largest amount of ODA to an issue. These contributions were likely multi-year commitments, disbursed over several subsequent years. In other years, programming to eradicate forced labour receives greater attention. In 2011, there is also a large uptick in spending against forced marriage.

Top ODA Recipients (Data Source: UNU-CPR)

By tracking where aid commitments are focused, it is possible to take stock of priorities.

The visual displays total ODA commitments from the UK between 2000 and 2013, ranging from highest to lowest (cutting off at commitments under 10,000 USD). The countries receiving the most direct, bilateral ODA were Bangladesh, Ethiopia and India, with the largest regional aid going to programming in the Asia region (limited info on specific country recipients). The top recipient of aid addressing Target 8.7 exploitation, Bangladesh, received more than double that of the second highest recipient, Ethiopia.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Child Labour

Children and Young Persons Act 1933
18 Restrictions on employment of children.

1. Subject to the provisions of this section and of any byelaws made thereunder no child shall be employed—

a. so long as he is under the age of fourteen years; or
aa. to do any work other than light work or;
b. before the close of school hours on any day on which he is required to attend school; or
c. before seven o’clock in the morning or after seven o’clock in the evening or any day; or
d. for more than two hours on any day on which he is required to attend school; or
da. for more than twelve hours in any week in which he is required to attend school; or
e. for more than two hours on any Sunday; or
g. for more than eight hours or, if he is under the age of fifteen years, for more than five hours in any day—

i. on which he is not required to attend school, and
ii. which is not a Sunday; or

h. for more than thirty-five hours or, if he is under the age of fifteen years, for more than twenty-five hours in any week in which he is not required to attend school; or
i. for more than four hours in any day without a rest break of one hour; or
j. at any time in a year unless at that time he has had, or could still have, during a period in the year in which he is not required to attend school, at least two consecutive weeks without employment.

2. A local authority may make byelaws with respect to the employment of children, and any such byelaws may distinguish between children of different ages and sexes and between different localities, trades, occupations and circumstances, and may contain provisions—

a. authorising—

i. the employment on an occasional basis of children aged thirteen years (notwithstanding anything in paragraph a of the last foregoing subsection) by their parents or guardians in light agricultural or horticultural work.
ia. the employment of children aged thirteen years (notwithstanding anything in paragraph a. of the last foregoing subsection) in categories of light work specified in the byelaw.
ii. the employment of children (notwithstanding anything in paragraph b. of the last foregoing subsection) for not more than one hour before the commencement of school hours on any day on which they are required to attend school;

b. prohibiting absolutely the employment of children in any specified occupation;
c. prescribing—

i. the age below which children are not to be employed;
ii. the number of hours in each day, or in each week, for which, and the times of day at which, they may be employed;
iii. the intervals to be allowed to them for meals and rest;
iv. the holidays or half-holidays to be allowed to them;
v. any other conditions to be observed in relation to their employment;

so, however, that no such byelaws shall modify the restrictions contained in the last foregoing subsection save in so far as is expressly permitted by paragraph a. of this subsection, and any restriction contained in any such byelaws shall have effect in addition to the said restrictions.

In this section—
“light work” means work which, on account of the inherent nature of the tasks which it involves and the particular conditions under which they are performed—

a. is not likely to be harmful to the safety, health or development of children; and
b. is not such as to be harmful to their attendance at school or to their participation in work experience in accordance with section 560 of the Education Act 1996 F64, or their capacity to benefit from the instruction received or, as the case may be, the experience gained;

“week” means any period of seven consecutive days; and
“year”, except in expressions of age, means a period of twelve months beginning with 1st January.
Nothing in this section, or in any byelaw made under this section, shall prevent a child from doing anything—

a. under the authority of a licence granted under this Part of this Act; or
b. in a case where by virtue of section 373. of the M1Children and Young Persons Act 1963 no licence under that section is required for him to do it.

Children and Young Persons Act (Scotland) 1937
Restrictions on employment of children.

  1. Subject to the provisions of this section and of any byelaws made thereunder, no child shall be employed—

a. so long as he is under the age of fourteen years;
aa.to do any work other than light work; or

The Employment of Children Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1996

“These Regulations make provision with respect to the employment of children. For the purposes of these Regulations a child means a person who is not over school leaving age. The employment of children under age 13 is prohibited.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Children and Young Persons Act 1933
4 Causing or allowing persons under sixteen to be used for begging.

1. If any person causes or procures any child or young person under the age of sixteen years or, having responsibility for such a child or young person, allows him to be in any street, premises, or place for the purpose of begging or receiving alms, or of inducing the giving of alms (whether or not there is any pretence of singing, playing, performing, offering anything for sale, or otherwise) he shall, on summary conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding level 2 on the standard scale, or alternatively, . . . or in addition thereto, to imprisonment for any term not exceeding three months.
2. If a person having responsibility for a child or young person is charged with an offence under this section, and it is proved that the child or young person was in any street, premises, or place for any such purpose as aforesaid, and that the person charged allowed the child or young person to be in the street, premises, or place, he shall be presumed to have allowed him to be in the street, premises, or place for that purpose unless the contrary is proved.
3. If any person while singing, playing, performing or offering anything for sale in a street or public place has with him a child who has been lent or hired out to him, the child shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to be in that street or place for the purpose of inducing the giving of alms.

Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act, 1920
1 Restrictions on the employment of women, young persons, and children in industrial undertakings.

1. No child shall be employed in any industrial undertaking.
6. This section, so far as it relates to employment in mines and quarries within the meaning of the M1Mines and Quarries Act 1954, and factories and workshops, shall have effect as if it formed part of the M2Mines and Quarries Act 1954, and the M3Factories Act 1961, respectively, and the provisions of those Acts relating to registers to be kept thereunder shall apply to the registers required to be kept under this Act.

In the case of employment in any place other than the places aforesaid

a. The following provisions, namely—

i. sections 21.1 and 2 and 28.1 and 3 of the Children and Young Persons Act M41933,
ii. sections 31.1 and 2 and 36.1 and 3 of the Children and Young Persons (Scotland) Act M51937, or
iii. sections 39.1 and 3 to 5 and 45.1, 3 and 4 of the Children and Young Persons Act (Northern Ireland) M61968,

shall have effect in relation to the employment of a child in an industrial undertaking in contravention of this Act as they have effect in relation to the employment of a child in contravention of Part II of that Act of 1933, of Part III of that Act of 1937 or of Part III of that Act of 1968, as the case may be;

4 Interpretation.

In this Act—
The expression “young person” means a person who has ceased to be a child and who is under the age of eighteen years;

Human Trafficking

Modern Slavery Act 2015
2 Human trafficking

1. A person commits an offence if the person arranges or facilitates the travel of another person (“V”) with a view to V being exploited.
2. It is irrelevant whether V consents to the travel (whether V is an adult or a child).
3. A person may in particular arrange or facilitate V’s travel by recruiting V, transporting or transferring V, harbouring or receiving V, or transferring or exchanging control over V.
4. A person arranges or facilitates V’s travel with a view to V being exploited only if—

a. the person intends to exploit V (in any part of the world) during or after the travel, or
b. the person knows or ought to know that another person is likely to exploit V (in any part of the world) during or after the travel.

5. “Travel” means—

a. arriving in, or entering, any country,
b. departing from any country,
c. travelling within any country.

6. A person who is a UK national commits an offence under this section regardless of—

a. where the arranging or facilitating takes place, or
b. where the travel takes place.

7. A person who is not a UK national commits an offence under this section if—

a. any part of the arranging or facilitating takes place in the United Kingdom, or
b. the travel consists of arrival in or entry into, departure from, or travel within, the United Kingdom.

Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act, 2015

3 Exploitation for purposes of offence of human trafficking

1. For the purposes of section 1, a person is exploited only if one or more of the following subsections apply in relation to that person.

Slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour

2. The person is the victim of conduct which—

a. involves the commission of an offence under section 4, or
b. would constitute such an offence were it done in Scotland.

Prostitution and sexual exploitation

3. Another person exercises control, direction or influence over prostitution by the person in a way which shows that the other person is aiding, abetting or compelling the prostitution.
4. Another person involves the person in the making or production of obscene or indecent material (material is to be construed in accordance with section 52(1)(a) of the Civic Government (Scotland) Act 1982 and includes images within the meaning of section 51A of that Act).
5. The person is the victim of conduct which—

a. involves the commission of an offence under—

i. sections 1, 2 or 7 to 10 of the Criminal Law (Consolidation) (Scotland) Act 1995 (sexual offences),
ii. sections 9 to 12 of the Protection of Children and Prevention of Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2005 (sexual services of children and child pornography),
iii. Part 1 of the Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2009 (rape etc.),
iv. Part 4 of the Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2009 (children), or
v. Part 5 of the Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2009 (abuse of a position of trust), or

b. would constitute such an offence were it done in Scotland.

Removal of organs etc.

6. The person is encouraged, required or expected to do anything—

a. which involves the commission, by the person or another person, of an offence under Part 1 of the Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006 (transplantation etc.),
b. in connection with the removal of any part of a human body as a result of which the person or another person would commit an offence under the law of Scotland (other than an offence mentioned in paragraph a), or
c. which would constitute an offence mentioned in paragraph a or b were it done in Scotland.

Securing services and benefits

7. The person is subjected to force, threats or deception designed to induce the person—

a. to provide services of any kind,
b. to provide another person with benefits of any kind, or
c. to enable another person to acquire benefits of any kind.

8. Another person uses or attempts to use the person for any purpose within subsection 7a, b or c, where—

a. the person is—

i. a child, or
ii. an adult whose ability to refuse to be used for a purpose within subsection 7a, b or c is impaired through mental or physical illness, disability, old age or any other reason (a “vulnerable adult”), and

b. a person who is not a child or a vulnerable adult would be likely to refuse to be used for that purpose.

40 Interpretation

In this Act—

“child” means a person under 18 years of age,

Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015

Human Trafficking
2—1. A person (“A”) commits an offence if A arranges or facilitates the travel of another person (“B”) with a view to B being exploited.
2. A may in particular arrange or facilitate B’s travel by recruiting B, transporting or transferring B, harbouring or receiving B, or transferring or exchanging control over B.
3. A arranges or facilitates B’s travel with a view to B being exploited only if—

a. A intends to exploit B (in any part of the world) during or after the travel, or
b. A knows or ought to know that another person is likely to exploit B (in any part of the world) during or after the travel.

4. “Travel” means—

a. arriving in, or entering, any country,
b. departing from any country,
c. travelling within any country.

5. The consent of B to any act which forms part of an offence under this section is irrelevant.
6. A person to whom this subsection applies commits an offence under this section regardless of—

a. where the arranging or facilitating takes place, or
b. where the travel takes place.

7. Any other person commits an offence under this section if—

a. any part of the arranging or facilitating takes place in the United Kingdom, or
b. the travel consists of arrival in or entry into, departure from, or travel within the United Kingdom.

8. Subsection 6 applies to—

a. a UK national;
b. a person who at the time of the offence was habitually resident in Northern Ireland; and
c. a body incorporated under the law of a part of the United Kingdom.

Interpretation of this Act
25—1 In this Act—

“child” means a person under the age of 18;

Slavery, servitude, and forced or compulsory labour

Modern Slavery Act 2015
1 Slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour

1. A person commits an offence if—

a. the person holds another person in slavery or servitude and the circumstances are such that the person knows or ought to know that the other person is held in slavery or servitude, or
b. the person requires another person to perform forced or compulsory labour and the circumstances are such that the person knows or ought to know that the other person is being required to perform forced or compulsory labour.

2. In subsection 1 the references to holding a person in slavery or servitude or requiring a person to perform forced or compulsory labour are to be construed in accordance with Article 4 of the Human Rights Convention.
3. In determining whether a person is being held in slavery or servitude or required to perform forced or compulsory labour, regard may be had to all the circumstances.
4. For example, regard may be had—

a. to any of the person’s personal circumstances (such as the person being a child, the person’s family relationships, and any mental or physical illness) which may make the person more vulnerable than other persons;
b. to any work or services provided by the person, including work or services provided in circumstances which constitute exploitation within section 33 to 6.

5. The consent of a person (whether an adult or a child) to any of the acts alleged to constitute holding the person in slavery or servitude, or requiring the person to perform forced or compulsory labour, does not preclude a determination that the person is being held in slavery or servitude, or required to perform forced or compulsory labour.

Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act, 2015

4 Slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour

1. A person commits an offence if—

a. the person holds another person in slavery or servitude and the circumstances are such that the person knows or ought to know that the other person is so held, or
b. the person requires another person to perform forced or compulsory labour and the circumstances are such that the person knows or ought to know that the other person is being required to perform such labour.

2. In subsection 1 the references to holding a person in slavery or servitude or requiring a person to perform forced or compulsory labour are to be construed in accordance with Article 4 of the Human Rights Convention (which prohibits a person from being held in slavery or servitude or being required to perform forced or compulsory labour).
3. In determining whether a person is being held in slavery or servitude or required to perform forced or compulsory labour, regard is to be had in particular to any personal circumstances of the person (for example the person being a child, or the person’s age, or the person’s family relationships or health) that may make the person more vulnerable than other persons.
4. The consent of a person to any of the acts alleged to constitute holding the person in slavery or servitude or requiring the person to perform forced or compulsory labour, does not preclude a determination that the person is being held in slavery or servitude or required to perform forced or compulsory labour.

Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015

Slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour
1—1 A person (“A”) commits an offence if—

a. A holds another person (“B”) in slavery or servitude and the circumstances are such that A knows or ought to know that B is held in slavery or servitude, or
b. A requires B to perform forced or compulsory labour and the circumstances are such that A knows or ought to know that B is being required to perform forced or compulsory labour.

2. In subsection 1 the references to holding B in slavery or servitude or requiring B to perform forced or compulsory labour are to be construed in accordance with Article 4 of the Human Rights Convention.
3. In determining whether B is being held in slavery or servitude or required to perform forced or compulsory labour regard may be had to all the circumstances.
4. In particular, regard may be had to any of B’s personal circumstances which may make B more vulnerable than other persons such as, for example—

a. that B is a child or a vulnerable adult; or
b. that A is a member of B’s family.

5. The consent of B to any act which forms part of an offence under this section is irrelevant.

Meaning of exploitation for purposes of section 2
3—1. For the purposes of section 2, a person is exploited only if one or more of the following subsections apply in relation to the person.

Slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour
2. The person is the victim of behaviour—

a. which involves the commission of an offence under section 1, or
b. which would involve the commission of an offence under that section if it took place in Northern Ireland.

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Action Plan on Business and Human Rights, Update 2016

“The update of the UK’s National Action Plan on Business and Human Rights was published on the 12 May 2016 and reflects the broad range of activity and engagement which takes place across a large number of government departments. This update reaffirms the UK’s commitment to the implementation of the United Nations Guiding Principles (UNGP) on Business and Human Rights, and acknowledges the duty of government but also sets out our expectation that UK businesses will act responsibly and in accordance with the UNGPs, wherever they operate.”

Modern Slavery Strategy, 2014

“This strategy details the wide-ranging actions that we expect from government departments, agencies and partners in the UK and, importantly, internationally. Civil society organisations are equally important partners in delivering commitments across our response.”

“This strategy builds on and adapts the framework that has been successfully implemented in both our serious and organised crime and counter terrorism strategies. It has 4 components:

  • Pursue: prosecuting and disrupting individuals and groups responsible for modern slavery.
  • Prevent: preventing people from engaging in modern slavery.
  • Protect: strengthening safeguards against modern slavery by protecting vulnerable people from exploitation and increasing awareness and resilience against this crime.
  • Prepare: reducing the harm causes by modern slavery through improved victim identification and enhanced support and protection”

Human Trafficking and Exploitation Strategy (Scotland) 2017

“We have developed this Strategy to bring together and build on all the valuable work already undertaken by the Scottish Government, local authorities, Police Scotland, the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service ( COPFS), NHSScotland and others to provide coherent, effective support for victims and take action against perpetrators.”

Draft Modern Slavery Strategy (Northern Ireland) 2018-2019

“Section 12 of the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015 places a requirement on the Department of Justice to produce an annual strategy under sections 1 and 2 of the Act (slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour and human trafficking). The draft strategy has been developed through engagement with a wide range of statutory and civil society partners across Northern Ireland. ”

Anti-Slavery Leadership Group Delivery Plan (Wales) 2017

Labour Market Enforcement Strategy 2018-2019

“It sets outs his recommendations to improve state-led enforcement of employment rights including measures to be taken by the 3 labour market enforcement bodies:

  • Gangmasters and Labour Abuse Authority (GLAA)
  • Employment Agency Standards Inspectorate (EAS)
  • HMRC National Minimum Wage and National Living Wage team (HMRCNMW)”

Rough Sleeping Strategy, 2018

“The rough sleeping strategy is a wide ranging document which lays out the government’s plans to help people who are sleeping rough now and to put in place the structures to end rough sleeping for good.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratified 1931

ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029, Ratified 2016

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratified 1957

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratified 2000

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratified 2000

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Definitive Signature 1953

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Ratified 1957

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratified 2006

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratified 1991

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Signed 2003

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratified 2009

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support and Addressing Risk (Source: Various)

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 amend. Modern Slavery Act 2015
32A Victims of slavery, servitude or forced or compulsory labour

1. Civil legal services provided to an individual in relation to an application by
the individual for leave to enter, or to remain in, the United Kingdom where—

a. there has been a conclusive determination that the individual is a victim of slavery, servitude or forced or compulsory labour, or
b. there are reasonable grounds to believe that the individual is such a victim and there has not been a conclusive determination that the individual is not such a victim.

2. Civil legal services provided in relation to a claim under employment law arising in connection with the conduct by virtue of which an individual who is a victim of slavery, servitude or forced or compulsory labour is such a victim, but only where—

a. the services are provided to the individual, or
b. the individual has died and the services are provided to the individual’s personal representative.

3. Civil legal services provided in relation to a claim for damages arising in connection with the conduct by virtue of which an individual who is a victim of slavery, servitude or forced or compulsory labour is such a victim, but only where—

a. the services are provided to the individual, or
b. the individual has died and the services are provided to the individual’s personal representative.

Modern Slavery Act, 2015
45 Defence for slavery or trafficking victims who commit an offence

1. A person is not guilty of an offence if—

a. the person is aged 18 or over when the person does the act which constitutes the offence,
b. the person does that act because the person is compelled to do it,
c. the compulsion is attributable to slavery or to relevant exploitation, and
d. a reasonable person in the same situation as the person and having the person’s relevant characteristics would have no realistic alternative to doing that act.

2. A person may be compelled to do something by another person or by the person’s circumstances.
3. Compulsion is attributable to slavery or to relevant exploitation only if—

a. it is, or is part of, conduct which constitutes an offence under section 1 or conduct which constitutes relevant exploitation, or
b. it is a direct consequence of a person being, or having been, a victim of slavery or a victim of relevant exploitation.

4. A person is not guilty of an offence if—

a. the person is under the age of 18 when the person does the act which constitutes the offence,
b. the person does that act as a direct consequence of the person being, or having been, a victim of slavery or a victim of relevant exploitation, and
c. a reasonable person in the same situation as the person and having the person’s relevant characteristics would do that act.

5. For the purposes of this section—

“relevant characteristics” means age, sex and any physical or mental illness or disability;
“relevant exploitation” is exploitation (within the meaning of section 3) that is attributable to the exploited person being, or having been, a victim of human trafficking.

49 Guidance about identifying and supporting victims

1. The Secretary of State must issue guidance to such public authorities and other persons as the Secretary of State considers appropriate about—

a. the sorts of things which indicate that a person may be a victim of slavery or human trafficking;
b. arrangements for providing assistance and support to persons who there are reasonable grounds to believe may be victims of slavery or human trafficking;
c. arrangements for determining whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that a person may be a victim of slavery or human trafficking.

2. The Secretary of State may, from time to time, revise the guidance issued under subsection 1. .
3. The Secretary of State must arrange for any guidance issued or revised under this section to be published in a way the Secretary of State considers appropriate.
4. If the Secretary of State makes regulations under section 50, the references in subsection 1. to “arrangements” include arrangements under the regulations.

50 Regulations about identifying and supporting victims

1. The Secretary of State may make regulations providing for assistance and support to be provided to persons—

a. who there are reasonable grounds to believe may be victims of slavery or human trafficking;
b. who are victims of slavery or human trafficking.

2. The Secretary of State may make regulations providing for public authorities to determine (for the purposes of regulations under subsection 1. or other purposes specified in the regulations) whether—

a. there are reasonable grounds to believe that a person may be a victim of slavery or human trafficking;
b. a person is a victim of slavery or human trafficking.

3. Regulations under subsection 2. may in particular make provision about the public authorities who may make such determinations, and the criteria and procedure for doing so.

Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act, 2015

8 Lord Advocate’s instructions on prosecution of victims of offences

1. The Lord Advocate must issue and publish instructions about the prosecution of a person who is, or appears to be, the victim of an offence—

a. of human trafficking,
b. under section 4.

2. The instructions must in particular include factors to be taken into account or steps to be taken by the prosecutor when deciding whether to prosecute a person in the circumstances mentioned in subsections 3 and 4.
3. The circumstances are where—

a. an adult does an act which constitutes an offence because the adult has been compelled to do so, and
b. the compulsion appears to be directly attributable to the adult being a victim of an offence mentioned in subsection (1).

4. The circumstances are where—

a. a child does an act which constitutes an offence, and
b. the act appears to be done as a consequence of the child being a victim of an offence mentioned in subsection 1.

5. The Lord Advocate may from time to time revise the instructions.
6. In this section “prosecutor” means Lord Advocate, Crown Counsel or procurator fiscal (and any person duly authorised to represent or act for them).

9 Support and assistance: victims of offence of human trafficking

1. Where there are reasonable grounds to believe that an adult is a victim of an offence of human trafficking, the Scottish Ministers must, during the relevant period, secure for the adult the provision of such support and assistance as they consider necessary given the adult’s needs.
2. The relevant period—

a. begins on the date it is determined there are reasonable grounds to believe that the adult is a victim of an offence of human trafficking, and
b. ends on the earlier of the following—

i. the end of the period specified in regulations made by the Scottish Ministers, or
ii. the date on which there is a conclusive determination that the adult is or is not a victim of an offence of human trafficking.

3. The Scottish Ministers may also secure the provision of that support and assistance for an adult—

a. during the period in which a competent authority is determining whether or not there are reasonable grounds to believe that the adult is a victim of an offence of human trafficking,
b. where the relevant period in relation to the adult ends by virtue of subsection (2)(b)(i), during the period until there is a conclusive determination that the adult is or is not a victim of an offence of human trafficking,
c. for such period as they think appropriate after the conclusive determination.

4. Support and assistance may be provided under this section in connection with (but is not limited to) the following—

a. accommodation,
b. day to day living,
c. medical advice and treatment (including psychological assessment and treatment),
d. language translation and interpretation,
e. counselling,
f. legal advice,
g. information about other services available to the adult,
h. repatriation.

5. In securing the provision of support and assistance under this section to an adult, the Scottish Ministers must ensure that—

a. support and assistance is only provided where the adult consents, and
b. the provision of support and assistance is not made conditional on the adult assisting with a criminal investigation or prosecution.

6. For the purposes of this section—

a. there are reasonable grounds to believe that the adult is a victim of an offence of human trafficking if a competent authority has determined for the purposes of Article 10 of the Trafficking Convention (identification of victims) that there are such grounds,
b. there is a conclusive determination that an adult is or is not a victim of an offence of human trafficking when, on completion of the identification process required by that Article, a competent authority concludes that the adult is or is not such a victim.

7. In this section—

“competent authority” means a person who is a competent authority of the United Kingdom for the purposes of the Trafficking Convention,
“the Trafficking Convention” means the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (done at Warsaw on 16 May 2005).

8. The Scottish Ministers may by regulations modify subsections (6) and (7) to make provision about the circumstances in which—

a. there are reasonable grounds to believe that the adult is a victim of an offence of human trafficking,
b. there is a conclusive determination that an adult is or is not a victim of an offence of human trafficking.

9. Regulations under subsection (8) may in particular make provision about—

a. the procedure to be followed by a person in making a determination,
b. the criteria to be applied by a person in making a determination, and
c. the persons who may make a determination or take any step in the procedure.

10 Support and assistance: victims of an offence under section 4

  1. The Scottish Ministers may by regulations make provision about providing support and assistance to an adult who is, or appears to be, a victim of an offence under section 4.
    2. Regulations under subsection (1) may in particular make provision about—

a. the method of determining whether an adult is, or appears to be, a victim of an offence under section 4,
b. the period during which support and assistance must be provided,
c. the period during which support and assistance may be provided,
d. the types of support and assistance to be provided, and
e. the manner in which the support and assistance is to be provided.

11 Independent child trafficking guardians

1. The Scottish Ministers must make such arrangements as they consider reasonable to enable a person (an “independent child trafficking guardian”) to be appointed to assist, support and represent a child to whom subsection 2 applies.
2. This subsection applies to a child if a relevant authority determines that—

a. there are reasonable grounds to believe that the child—

i. is, or may be, a victim of the offence of human trafficking, or
ii. is vulnerable to becoming a victim of that offence, and

b. no person in the United Kingdom is a person with parental rights or responsibilities in relation to the child.

Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015

Assistance and support pending determination by competent authority
18—1. The Department must ensure that a person to whom this section applies is provided with assistance and support in accordance with this section.
2. This section applies to a person if—

a. that person is aged 18 or over or, in a case where the age of the person is uncertain, the Department reasonably believes that person is aged 18 or over; and
b. a reference relating to that person has been, or is about to be, made to the competent authority for a determination for the purposes of Article 10 of the Trafficking Convention as to whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that the person is a victim of trafficking in human beings.

3. Assistance and support is to be provided under this section until there is made in relation to that person—

a. a determination that there are not reasonable grounds to believe that the person is a victim of trafficking in human beings; or
b. a conclusive determination that the person is or is not a victim of trafficking in human beings;

but if a conclusive determination that a person is a victim of trafficking in human beings is made within the relevant period, assistance and support is to be provided until the end of that period.

4. The relevant period is the period of 45 days from the date on which the determination mentioned in subsection (2)(b) is made by the competent authority.
5. Assistance and support provided to a person under this section—

a. must not be conditional on the person’s acting as a witness in any criminal proceedings;
b. must only be provided with the agreement of that person;
c. must be provided in a manner which takes due account of the needs of that person as regards safety and protection from harm;
d. must be provided to meet the assessed needs of that person, having regard in particular to any special needs or vulnerabilities of that person caused by gender, pregnancy, physical or mental illness, disability or being the victim of serious violence or serious abuse.

6. Assistance and support under this section must be offered from a person who is of the same gender as the person receiving it.
7. The assistance and support which may be provided under this section includes, but is not to be restricted to, the provision of—

a. appropriate and safe accommodation;
b. material assistance (including financial assistance);
c. assistance in obtaining healthcare services (including counselling);
d. appropriate information on any matter of relevance or potential relevance to the particular circumstances of the person;
e. translation and interpretation services;
f. assistance in obtaining legal advice or representation;
g. assistance with repatriation.

8. Where assistance and support has been provided to any person under this section, it may continue to be provided even if that person leaves Northern Ireland.
9. Where—

a. assistance and support has been provided to a person under this section; and
b. that person ceases, by virtue of a conclusive determination that the person is a victim of trafficking in human beings or the ending of the relevant period, to be a person to whom assistance and support is to be provided under this section,

the Department may nevertheless ensure that assistance and support continues to be provided to that person under this section for such further period as the Department thinks necessary.

10. Nothing in this section affects the entitlement of any person to assistance and support under any other statutory provision.

Independent guardian
21—1. The Regional Health and Social Care Board must, in accordance with this section, make arrangements to enable a person (an “independent guardian”) to be appointed to assist, represent and support a child to whom this section applies.

Defence for slavery and trafficking victims in relation to certain offences
22—1. Subject to subsection 9, a person is not guilty of an offence if—

a. the person is over the age of 18 when the act which constitutes the offence was done;
b. the person does that act because the person is compelled to do that act,
c. the compulsion is attributable to slavery or to relevant exploitation, and
d. a reasonable person in the same situation as the person and having the person’s relevant characteristics would have no realistic alternative to doing that act.

2. “Relevant characteristics” means age, sex and any physical or mental illness or disability.
3. A person may be compelled to do something by another person or by the person’s circumstances.
4. Compulsion is attributable to slavery or to relevant exploitation only if—

a. it is, or is part of, conduct which constitutes an offence under section 1 or conduct which constitutes relevant exploitation, or
b. it is a direct consequence of a person being, or having been, a victim of an offence under section 1 or a victim of relevant exploitation.

5. For the purposes of subsection 4 “relevant exploitation” is exploitation (within the meaning of section 3. that is attributable to the exploited person being, or having been, a victim of an offence under section 2.
6. Subject to subsection 9, a person is not guilty of an offence if—

a. the person is a child at the time the act which constitutes the offence is done; and
b. that act was done as a direct consequence of the person being, or having been, a victim of an offence under section 1 or of relevant exploitation.

7. For the purposes of subsection 6 “relevant exploitation” is exploitation which falls within one or more of subsections 2 to 5 of section 3 and is attributable to the exploited person being, or having been, a victim of an offence under section 2.
8. In this section references to an act include an omission.
9. This section does not apply to an offence which, in the case of a person over the age of 21, is punishable on indictment with imprisonment for life or for a term of at least 5 years, other than—

a. an offence under—

i. section 4.2 of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 committed in respect of a Class B or Class C drug;
ii. section 5.2 of that Act committed in respect of a Class B drug;
iii. section 6.2 of that Act;

b. an offence under section 26A 3a, b, d, e, f or g of the Immigration Act 1971;
c. an offence under section 1, 2, 3 or 4 of the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981;
d. an offence under section 106 of the Asylum and Immigration Act 1999;
e. an offence under section 4 of the Identity Documents Act 2010.

10. The Department may by order amend subsection 9.

Policies for Assistance, General

Criminal Injuries Compensation Act, 1995

Children Act, 1989

Criminal Procedure Act (Scotland) 1995

Children and Young Persons Act (Scotland) 1937

The Criminal injuries Compensation Order (Northern Ireland) 2002

Children and Young Persons Act (Northern Ireland) 1968

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Children and Young Persons Act 1933
4 Causing or allowing persons under sixteen to be used for begging.

1. If any person causes or procures any child or young person under the age of sixteen years or, having responsibility for such a child or young person, allows him to be in any street, premises, or place for the purpose of begging or receiving alms, or of inducing the giving of alms (whether or not there is any pretence of singing, playing, performing, offering anything for sale, or otherwise) he shall, on summary conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding level 2 on the standard scale, or alternatively, . . . or in addition thereto, to imprisonment for any term not exceeding three months.
2. If a person having responsibility for a child or young person is charged with an offence under this section, and it is proved that the child or young person was in any street, premises, or place for any such purpose as aforesaid, and that the person charged allowed the child or young person to be in the street, premises, or place, he shall be presumed to have allowed him to be in the street, premises, or place for that purpose unless the contrary is proved.
3. If any person while singing, playing, performing or offering anything for sale in a street or public place has with him a child who has been lent or hired out to him, the child shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to be in that street or place for the purpose of inducing the giving of alms.

21 Penalties and legal proceedings in respect of general provisions as to employment.

1. If a person is employed in contravention of any of the foregoing provisions of this Part of this Act, or of the provisions of any byelaw or regulation made thereunder, the employer and any person (other than the person employed) to whose act or default the contravention is attributable shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding £50 or, in the case of a second or subsequent offence, not exceeding fifty £100:
Provided that, if proceedings are brought against the employer, the employer, upon information duly laid by him and on giving to the prosecution not less than three days’ notice of his intention, shall be entitled to have any person (other than the person employed) to whose act or default he alleges that the contravention was due, brought before the court as a party to the proceedings, and if, after the contravention has been proved, the employer proves to the satisfaction of the court that the contravention was due to the act or default of the said other person, that person may be convicted of the offence; and if the employer further proves to the satisfaction of the court that he has used all due diligence to secure that the provisions in question should be complied with, he shall be acquitted of the offence.
2. Where an employer seeks to avail himself of the proviso to the last foregoing subsection,

a. the prosecution shall have the right to cross-examine him, if he gives evidence, and any witness called by him in support of his charge against the other person, and to call rebutting evidence; and
b. the court may make such order as it thinks fit for the payment of costs by any party to the proceedings to any other party thereto.

Children and Young Persons Act (Scotland) 1937
31 Penalties and legal proceedings in respect of general provisions as to employment.

1. If a person is employed in contravention of any of the foregoing provisions of this Part of this Act, or of the provisions of any byelaw or regulations made thereunder, the employer and any person (other than the person employed) to whose act or default the contravention is attributable shall be liable on conviction by a court of summary jurisdiction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale or, in the case of a second or subsequent offence, not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale:

Provided that, if proceedings are brought against the employer, the employer, upon complaint duly laid by him and on giving to the prosecutor not less than three days’ notice of his intention, shall be entitled to have any person (other than the person employed) to whose act or default he alleges that the contravention was due, brought before the court as a party to the proceedings, and if, after the contravention has been proved, the employer proves to the satisfaction of the court that the contravention was due to the act or default of the said other person, that person may be convicted of the offence; and if the employer further proves to the satisfaction of the court that he has used all due diligence to secure that the provisions in question should be complied with, he shall be acquitted of the offence.

Penalties, General

Modern Slavery Act, 2015
Penalties

1. A person guilty of an offence under section 1 or 2 is liable—

a. on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for life;
b. on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months or a fine or both.

2. A person guilty of an offence under section 4 is liable (unless subsection 3. applies)—

a. on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years;
b. on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months or a fine or both.

3. Where the offence under section 4 is committed by kidnapping or false imprisonment, a person guilty of that offence is liable, on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for life.
4. In relation to an offence committed before section 1541. of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 comes into force, the references in subsections 1. b. and 2. b. to 12 months are to be read as references to 6 months.

54 Transparency in supply chains etc

1. A commercial organisation within subsection 2 must prepare a slavery and human trafficking statement for each financial year of the organisation.
2. A commercial organisation is within this subsection if it—

a. supplies goods or services, and
b. has a total turnover of not less than an amount prescribed by regulations made by the Secretary of State.

3. For the purposes of subsection 2.b, an organisation’s total turnover is to be determined in accordance with regulations made by the Secretary of State.
4. A slavery and human trafficking statement for a financial year is—

a. a statement of the steps the organisation has taken during the financial year to ensure that slavery and human trafficking is not taking place—

i. in any of its supply chains, and ii. in any part of its own business, or

b. a statement that the organisation has taken no such steps.

5. An organisation’s slavery and human trafficking statement may include information about—

a. the organisation’s structure, its business and its supply chains;
b. its policies in relation to slavery and human trafficking;
c. its due diligence processes in relation to slavery and human trafficking in its business and supply chains;
d. the parts of its business and supply chains where there is a risk of slavery and human trafficking taking place, and the steps it has taken to assess and manage that risk;
e. its effectiveness in ensuring that slavery and human trafficking is not taking place in its business or supply chains, measured against such performance indicators as it considers appropriate;
f. the training about slavery and human trafficking available to its staff.

6. A slavery and human trafficking statement—

a. if the organisation is a body corporate other than a limited liability partnership, must be approved by the board of directors (or equivalent management body) and signed by a director (or equivalent);
b. if the organisation is a limited liability partnership, must be approved by the members and signed by a designated member;
c. if the organisation is a limited partnership registered under the Limited Partnerships Act 1907, must be signed by a general partner;
d. if the organisation is any other kind of partnership, must be signed by a partner.

7. If the organisation has a website, it must—

a. publish the slavery and human trafficking statement on that website, and
b. include a link to the slavery and human trafficking statement in a prominent place on that website’s homepage.

8. If the organisation does not have a website, it must provide a copy of the slavery and human trafficking statement to anyone who makes a written request for one, and must do so before the end of the period of 30 days beginning with the day on which the request is received.
9. The Secretary of State—

a. may issue guidance about the duties imposed on commercial organisations by this section;
b. must publish any such guidance in a way the Secretary of State considers appropriate.

10. The guidance may in particular include further provision about the kind of information which may be included in a slavery and human trafficking statement.
11. The duties imposed on commercial organisations by this section are enforceable by the Secretary of State bringing civil proceedings in the High Court for an injunction or, in Scotland, for specific performance of a statutory duty under section 45 of the Court of Session Act 1988.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Sexual Offenses Act, 2003
57 Trafficking into the UK for sexual exploitation

  1. A person commits an offence if he intentionally arranges or facilitates the arrival in the United Kingdom of another person (B) and either—

a.  he intends to do anything to or in respect of B, after B’s arrival but in any part of the world, which if done will involve the commission of a relevant offence, or
b.  he believes that another person is likely to do something to or in respect of B, after B’s arrival but in any part of the world, which if done will involve the commission of a relevant offence.

2. A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable—

a.  on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum or both;
b.  on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years.

58 Trafficking within the UK for sexual exploitation

  1. A person commits an offence if he intentionally arranges or facilitates travel within the United Kingdom by another person (B) and either—

a.  he intends to do anything to or in respect of B, during or after the journey and in any part of the world, which if done will involve the commission of a relevant offence, or
b.  he believes that another person is likely to do something to or in respect of B, during or after the journey and in any part of the world, which if done will involve the commission of a relevant offence

2. A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable—

a.  on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum or both;
b.  on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years.

59 Trafficking out of the UK for sexual exploitation

  1. A person commits an offence if he intentionally arranges or facilitates the departure from the United Kingdom of another person (B) and either—

a.  he intends to do anything to or in respect of B, after B’s departure but in any part of the world, which if done will involve the commission of a relevant offence, or
b.  he believes that another person is likely to do something to or in respect of B, after B’s departure but in any part of the world, which if done will involve the commission of a relevant offence.

2. A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable—

a.  on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum or both
b.  on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years.

Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act, 2015
1 Offence of human trafficking

1. A person commits an offence if the person—

a. takes a relevant action, and
b. does so with a view to another person being exploited.

2. In this Part, “relevant action” means an action which is any of the following—

a. the recruitment of another person,
b. the transportation or transfer of another person,
c. the harbouring or receiving of another person,
d. the exchange or transfer of control over another person, or
e. the arrangement or facilitation of any of the actions mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (d).

3. It is irrelevant whether the other person consents to any part of the relevant action.
4. For the purposes of subsection (1), a person takes a relevant action with a view to another person being exploited only if—

a. the person intends to exploit the other person (in any part of the world) during or after the relevant action, or
b. the person knows or ought to know the other person is likely to be exploited (in any part of the world) during or after the relevant action.

5. An offence under this section is to be known as the offence of human trafficking.
6. A person who commits an offence of human trafficking is liable—

a. on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months or a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum (or both),
b. on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for life or a fine (or both).

2 Application of offence to conduct in United Kingdom and elsewhere

1. A person mentioned in subsection (2) commits an offence of human trafficking regardless of where the relevant action takes place.
2. The persons are—

a. a person who is a UK national,
b. a person who at the time of the offence was habitually resident in Scotland,
c. a body incorporated under the law of a part of the United Kingdom.

3. A person not mentioned in subsection (2) commits an offence of human trafficking if—

a. any part of the relevant action takes place in the United Kingdom, or
b. the relevant action is taken with a view to a person arriving in or entering into, departing from, or travelling within, the United Kingdom.

5 General aggravation of offence

1.This subsection applies where it is—

a. libelled in an indictment or specified in a complaint that an offence is aggravated by a connection with human trafficking activity, and
b. proved that the offence is so aggravated.

2. An offence is aggravated by a connection with human trafficking activity if the offender is motivated (wholly or partly) by the objective of committing or conspiring to commit the offence of human trafficking.
3. It is immaterial whether or not in committing an offence the offender in fact enables the offender or another person to commit the offence of human trafficking.
4. Evidence from a single source is sufficient to prove that an offence is aggravated by a connection with human trafficking activity.
5. Where subsection 1 applies, the court must—

a. state on conviction that the offence is aggravated by a connection with human trafficking activity,
b. record the conviction in a way that shows that the offence is so aggravated,
c. take the aggravation into account in determining the appropriate sentence, and
d. state—

i. where the sentence in respect of the offence is different from that which the court would have imposed if the offence were not so aggravated, the extent of and the reasons for that difference, or
ii. otherwise, the reasons for there being no such difference.

6 Aggravation involving a child

1. This subsection applies where it is—

a. libelled in an indictment or specified in a complaint that the offence of human trafficking is aggravated by being committed against a child, and
b. proved that the offence is so aggravated.

2. Evidence from a single source is sufficient to prove that the offence is aggravated by being committed against a child.
3. Where subsection 1 applies, the court must—

a. state on conviction that the offence is aggravated by being committed against a child,
b. record the conviction in a way that shows that the offence is so aggravated,
c. take the aggravation into account in determining the appropriate sentence, and
d. state—

i. where the sentence in respect of the offence is different from that which the court would have imposed if the offence were not so aggravated, the extent of and the reason for that difference, or
ii. otherwise, the reasons for there being no difference.

Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015
Human Trafficking
2—9.  A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for life.

Committing offence with intent to commit offence under section 1 or 2
4—1. A person commits an offence under this section if the person commits any offence with the intention of committing an offence under section 1 or 2 (including an offence committed by aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring an offence under that section).
2. A person guilty of an offence under this section is (unless subsection (3) applies) liable—

a. on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years;
b. on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum or both.

3. Where the offence under this section is committed by kidnapping or false imprisonment, a person guilty of that offence is liable, on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for life.

Aggravating factors
6—1. Where a court is considering for the purposes of sentencing the seriousness of an offence under section 1 or 2, the court must treat the following as aggravating factors—

a. the offence was committed by a public official in relation to the performance of her or his duties;
b. the offence was committed by a member of the family of the victim;
c. the offence was committed by a person in a position of trust;
d. the offence was committed against a child;
e. the offence was committed against a vulnerable adult;
f. the offence was committed by the use of threats against a member of the family of the victim;
g. the offender deliberately or by gross negligence endangered the life of the victim;
h. the offence caused serious harm to the victim; or
i. the offence was committed by a person who has previously been convicted—

i. of an offence under section 1 or 2;
ii. of an offence under any provision repealed by this Act;
iii. in respect of anything done outside Northern Ireland which was not an offence mentioned in sub-paragraph i or ii but would have been such an offence if done in Northern Ireland.

Minimum sentence for offence under section 1 or 2
7—1. This section applies where an individual is convicted of an offence under section 1 or 2 and that individual was aged 18 or over when the offence was committed.
2. The court shall impose a custodial sentence for a term of at least two years (with or without a fine) unless the court is of the opinion that there are exceptional circumstances relating to the offence or to the offender which justify its not doing so.

Penalties, Slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour

Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act, 2015
4 Slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour

5. A person who commits an offence under this section is liable—

a. on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months or a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum (or both),
b. on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for life or a fine (or both).

6. In this section “the Human Rights Convention” means the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms agreed by the Council of Europe at Rome on 4 November 1950.

Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015

Slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour
1—6. A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for life.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: Various)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protections: General (at Least One)
Social Protections (Data Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protections: Unemployed
Social Protections: Pension
Social Protections: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protections: Poor
Social Protections: Children
Social Protections: Disabled