Papan Pemuka Data

United Republic of Tanzania
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour between 2001 and 2014 decreased by 27%.

-27%

2001- 2014

Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.531 (2015)

Mean School Years: 5.8 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 74% (2013)

Working Poverty Rate: 33.1% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2006
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 6.5% (2016)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In the United Republic of Tanzania, the percentage of child labourers has decreased overall from 2001 to 2014. Measures provided for 2009 and 2013 do not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2006, 2009, 2013 and 2014.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In the United Republic of Tanzania, the latest estimates show that 3.6 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2014. The number is lower than in 2006, and has decreased from 6 percent in 2001. The measures provided for 1999, 2009 and 2013 do not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999, 2001, 2006, 2009, 2013 and 2014.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In the United Republic of Tanzania, the latest estimates show that 16.7 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2014). The percentage is lower than in 2006, and has decreased from 21.4 percent in 2001. Measures provided for 2009 and 2013 do not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2006, 2009, 2013 and 2014.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2014 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in the United Republic of Tanzania was 19 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 18.3 hours in 2013.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999, 2001, 2006, 2009, 2013 and 2014.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2014, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 30.2 hours per week. This number has increased since 2013, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 28.1.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999, 2001, 2006, 2009, 2013 and 2014.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 6 hours per week according to the 2014 estimate.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2014.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for the United Republic of Tanzania is from 2014. By the 2014 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Other Services sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in the United Republic of Tanzania.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in the United Republic of Tanzania.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in the United Republic of Tanzania between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in the United Republic of Tanzania is 0.531. This score indicates that human development is low.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in the United Republic of Tanzania over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2011 and 2013, the United Republic of Tanzania showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in the United Republic of Tanzania.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania, 1977
25.1. Work alone creates the material wealth in society and is the source of the well-being of the people and the measure of human dignity. Accordingly, every person has the duty to-

a. participate voluntarily and honestly in lawful and productive work; and
b. observe work discipline and strive to attain the individual and group production targets desired or set by law

25.2. Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-article 1., there shall be no forced labour in the United Republic.
25.3. For the purposes of this Article, and in this Constitution generally, it is hereby declared that no work shall be deemed to be forced, cruel or humiliating labour, if such work is according to law –

a. work which has to be done pursuant to a judgement or order of a court
b. work which has to be done by members of any Force in the discharge of their responsibilities;
c. work which has to be done by any person due to a state of emergency or any calamity which threatens the life or well-being of the society;
d. any work or service which forms part of –

i. routine services for ensuring the well-being of society;
ii. compulsory national service provided for by law;
iii. the national endeavor at the mobilization of human resources for the enhancement of the society and the national economy and to ensure development and national productivity.

Employment and Labour Relations Act, 2004
6.1. Any person who procures, demands or imposes forced labour, commits an offence.
6.2. For the purposes of this section, forced labour includes bonded labour or any work exacted from a person under the threat of a penalty and to which that person has not consented but does not include-

a. any work exacted under the National Defence Act, 1966 for work of a purely military character;
b. any work that forms part of the normal civic obligations of a citizen of the United Republic of Tanzania;
c. any work exacted from any person as a consequence of a conviction in a court of law, provided that the work is carried out under the supervision and control of a public authority and that the person is not hired to, or placed at, the disposal of private persons;
d. any work exacted in cases of an emergency or a circumstance that would endanger the existence or the well-being of the whole or part of the population;
e. minor communal services performed by the members of a community in the direct interest of that community after consultation with them or their direct representatives on the need for the services.

The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, 2008
3. In this Act unless the context otherwise requires
“forced labour and slavery” means the extraction of work or services from any person by means of enticement, violence, intimidation or threat, use of force or coercion, including deprivation of freedom, abuse of authority or moral ascendancy, debt-bondage or deception;

Employment Act, 2005 (Zanzibar)
5.1. Notwithstanding any law to the contrary, forced labour is prohibited
5.3. For the purpose of this Act forced labour means any work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and to which that person has not consented or offered himself or herself voluntarily but does not include-

a. without prejudice to the provisions of section 8.2.a. of this Act, any work or service exacted by virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character;
b. any work or service which forms part of the normal civic obligations of the citizens of Tanzania
c. any work or service exacted from any person as a consequence of a conviction in a court of law, provided that the said work or service is carried out under the supervision and control of a public authority and that the said person is not hired to or placed at the disposal of private individuals, companies or associations;
d. any work or service exacted in cases of emergency, such as in the event of war or of a calamity or threatened calamity, and in any circumstance that would endanger the existence or the well-being of the whole or part of the population.

Child Labour

Employment and Labour Relations Act, 2004
4. In this Act, unless the context requires otherwise-
”child” means a person under the age of 14 years; provided that for the employment in hazardous sectors, child means a person under the age of 18 years;

5.1. No person shall employ a child under the age of fourteen years.
5.2. A child of fourteen years of age may only be employed to do light work, which is not likely to be harmful to the child’s health and development; and does not prejudice the child’s attendance at school, participation in vocational orientation or training programmes approved by the competent authority or the child’s capacity to benefit from the instruction received.
5.3. A child under eighteen years of age shall not be employed in a mine, factory or as crew on a ship or in any other worksite including non-formal settings and agriculture, where work conditions may be considered hazardous by the Minister. For the purpose of this subsection, ”ship” includes a vessel of any description used for navigation.
5.4. No person shall employ a child in employment-

a. that is inappropriate for a person of that age;
b. that places at risk the child’s well-being, education, physical or mental health, or spiritual, moral or social development.

5.5. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection 3., any written law regulating the provisions of training may permit a child under the age of eighteen to work-

a. on board a training ship as part of the child’s training;
b. in a factory or a mine if that work is part of the child’s training.
c. in any other worksites on condition that the health, safety and morals of the child are fully protected and that the child has received or is receiving adequate specific instruction or vocational training in the relevant work or activity.

5.6. The Minister shall make regulations-

a. to prohibit, or place conditions on the employment of children under eighteen years of age;
b. to determine the forms of work referred to in sub-section 4. of this Act and to make provision for the regular revision and updating of the list of hazardous forms of work.

5.7. It is an offence for any person-

a. to employ a child in contravention of this section;
b. to procure a child for employment in contravention of this section.

5.8. In any proceedings under this section, if the age of the child is in issue, the burden of proofing that it was reasonable to believe, after investigation, that the child was not underage for the purposes of this section shall lie on the person employing or procuring the child for employment.

20.1. In this section, ”night” means the hours after twenty hours and before six hours.
20.2. It is prohibited for an employer to require or permit –

c. children under 18 years of age;

Employment and Labour Relations (General Regulations), 2017
3.1. No person shall employ or cause to be employed a child under the age of fourteen.
3.2. Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-part A of Part II of the Act, a child of fourteen of age and above may be employed to perform light work which is not listed in the List of Hazardous Works for Children in a manner set out in the First Schedule to these Regulations.

4.1. Subject to sub-regulations 2. and 3., no child who is still attending school shall be required or permitted to work in any establishment in excess of three hours per day.
4.2. A child of fourteen years and above who-

a. is on leave;
b. has completed his studies; or
c. is not in school for any justifiable reason,

may be employed to work in an establishment for not more than six hours per day:
Provided that the employer shall be responsible for the safety of the child so employed at the workplace.
4.3. Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-regulation 1., no child shall be required or permitted to work during school hours.

10.1. Subject to regulation 4, an employment of a child granted under these Regulations shall be in writing and the child shall be entitled to a copy of the contract before commencing the employment.
10.2. The contract under sub-regulation 1. shall take into consideration the provisions of the Act, these Regulations, the Law of Contract Act and the Law of the Child Act, and shall be in a manner set out in the Schedule to the Employment and Labour Relations (Code of Good Practice) Rules, 2007.

Law of the Child Act, 2009
77.1. A child shall have a right to light work.
77.2. For the purposes of subsection 1, the minimum age for employment or engagement of a child shall be fourteen years.
77.3. Subject to subsection 1, “light work” shall constitute work which is not likely to be harmful to the health or development of the child and does not prevent or affect the child’s attendance at school, participation in vocational orientation or training programmes or the capacity of the child to benefit from school work.

78.1. A person shall not employ or engage a child in any kind of exploitative labour.
78.2. Without prejudice to the provisions of this section, every employer shall ensure that every child lawfully employed or engaged in accordance with the provisions of this Act is protected against any discrimination or acts which may have negative effect on him taking into consideration his age and evolving capacities.
78.3. Labour shall be construed as exploitative if –

a. it deprives the child of his health or development;
b. it exceeds six hours a day;
c. it is inappropriate to his age; or
d. the child receives inadequate remuneration.

Employment Act, 2005 (Zanzibar)
3.1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires
“child” means a person under the age of 17 years; Provided that for the purpose of employment in hazardous sectors child means a person under the age of 18 years;
“young person” means a person, other than a child, who is under the age of 21 years;

6.1. All child labour including the worst forms of child labour is prohibited.
6.2. No person shall employ a child in an type of work except domestic work
6.3. In assigning domestic work to a child a parent or guardian shall ensure that a child has sufficient time to attend to matters pertaining to education and sufficient time to rest
6.4. Any person who employs a child or procures a child for employment contrary to the provisions of this section shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable upon conviction to a fine of not less than five hundred thousand shillings or in default of fine to imprisonment for a term of not less than six months.

8. Condition of employment of young persons

9. Exemption from restriction of employment of children and young persons

The Children’s Act, 2011 (Zanzibar)
97. Child Employment

98. Child’s right to work

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Employment and Labour Relations (General Regulations) 2017
6. No child shall be required or permitted to work-

a. overtime; or
b. between 8pm and 6am.

Law of the Child Act, 2009
3. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires-
“hazardous work” means any work which places a child at risk to suffer physical or mental injury.

12. A person shall not employ or engage a child in any activity that may be harmful to his health, education, mental, physical or moral development.

79.1. Without prejudice to the provisions of section 78, the child shall not be employed or engaged in a contract of the service performance which shall require a child to work at night.
79.2. “Night work” shall be construed to constitute work performance of which requires the child to be at work between the hours of twenty hours in the evening and six o’clock in the morning.

80.1. Any person who induces, procures, demands or imposes forced labour to a child, commits an offence.
80.2. For the purposes of this section, “forced labour” includes bonded labour or any other work exacted from a person under the threat of a penalty but shall not include work that forms part of the normal civic obligations, minor communal services performed by the members of a community in the direct interest of that community.

82.1. It shall be unlawful to employ or engage a child in any hazardous work.
82.2. Work shall be construed as or considered to be hazardous when it poses a danger to the health, safety or morals of a person.
82.3. Without prejudice to subsection 3, hazardous work shall include-

a. going to sea;
b. mining and quarrying;
c. porterage of heavy loads;
d. manufacturing industries where chemicals are produced or used;
e. work in places where machines are used; and f. work in place such as bars, hotels and places of entertainment.

82.4. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection 3, any
written law regulating the provisions of training may permit a child –

a. on board a training ship as part of the child’s training;
b. in a factory or a mine, if that work is part of the child’s training;
c. in any other worksites on condition that the health, safety and morals of the child are fully protected and that the child has received or is receiving adequate specific instruction or training in the relevant work or activity.

83.1. A child shall not be engaged in any work or trade that exposes the child to activities of sexual nature, whether paid for or not.
83.2. For avoidance of doubt, it shall be unlawful for any person to use

a. inducement or coercion in the encouragement of a child to engage in any sexual activity;
b. children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices; and
c. children in pornographic performances or materials.

83.3. Any person who contravenes the provisions of this section commits an offence and shall on conviction be liable to a fine of not less than one million shillings and not more than five hundred million shilling or to imprisonment for a term of not less than one year and not more than twenty years or to both

84.1. For the avoidance of doubt, this Part shall apply to employment in the formal and informal sector.
84.2. Subject to subsection (I), a labour officer shall, at any reasonable time, enter into any premises and carry out inspection which he may consider necessary in order to satisfy himself that the provisions of this Part are complied with.
84.3. For purposes of this section, the term “premises” means a building, establishment, office, grounds, estate, site and shall include vessel, vehicle, and aircraft.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Employment Act, 2005 (Zanzibar)
3.1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires
“hazardous sector” includes all the worst forms of child labour provided for in section 7.2 of this Act;
7. Prohibition of the worst forms of child labour

The Children’s Act, 2011 (Zanzibar)
99. Prohibition of exploitative labour

100. Prohibition of hazardous work

102. Prohibition of forced labour

Human Trafficking

The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, 2008
Article 4.1. a person commits an offence of trafficking in person if that person –

a. recruits, transports, transfers, harbours, provides or receives a person by any means, including those done under the pretext of domestic or overseas employment, training or apprenticeship, for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labour, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
b. introduces or matches a person to a foreign national for marriage for the purpose of acquiring, buying, offering, selling or trading the person in order that person be engaged in prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labour, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
c. offers or contracts marriage, real or simulated, for the purposes of acquiring, buying, offering, selling or trading a person in order that person be engaged in prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labour or slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
d. undertakes or organizes sex tourism or sexual exploitation;
e. maintains or hires person to engage in prostitution or pornography;
f. adopts or facilitates the adoption of persons for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced-labour and slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
g. recruits, hires, adopts, transport or abducts –

i. a person, by means of threat or use of force, fraud, deceit, violence, coercion or intimidation for the purpose of removal or sale of organs of the person; or
ii. a child or a disabled person for the purposes of engaging the child or disabled person in armed activities.

Article 4.2. Trafficking in persons shall also be constituted upon placement for sale, bonded placement, temporary placement or placement as service where exploitation by some other person is the motive.
Article 4.3. Where a victim of trafficking in persons is a child, consent of the child, parent or guardian of the child shall not be used as a defence in prosecution under this Act regardless of whether there is evidence of abuse of power, fraud, deception or that the vulnerability of the child was taken advantage of.
Article 4.4. A consent of a victim of trafficking in persons shall be immaterial where any of the means referred to under subsection 1 has been used against the victim.

Penal Decree Code, 2004 (Zanzibar)
172.1. Any person who:

a. engages in the act of buying, selling or bartering of any person for money or for any other consideration; or
b. for the purpose of promoting, facilitating or inducing the buying or selling or bartering of the placement in adoption of any person for money or for any other consideration –

i. arranges for, or assists, a child to travel to a foreign country without the consent of his parent or lawful guardian; or
ii. obtains an affidavit of consent from a pregnant woman for money or for any other consideration, for the adoption of the unborn child of that woman; or
iii. recruits women or couples to bear children; or
iv. being a person concerned with the registration of births, knowingly permits the falsification of any birth record or register; or
v. engages in procuring children from hospitals, shelters for women, clinics, nurseries, day care centres, or other child care institutions or welfare centres for money or other consideration or procures a child for adoption from any such institution or centre, by intimidation of the mother or any other person, or child for adoption from any such institution or centres; or
vi. impersonates the mother or assists in the impersonation;
commits the offence of trafficking and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not less than five years and not exceeding twenty years and a fine of not more than three hundred thousand shillings or to both the fine and imprisonment.

172.2. In this section “child” means a person of the age of eighteen years or below.

Slavery

The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, 2008
3. In this Act unless the context otherwise requires
“forced labour and slavery” means the extraction of work or services from any person by means of enticement, violence, intimidation or threat, use of force or coercion, including deprivation of freedom, abuse of authority or moral ascendancy, debt-bondage or deception;

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

The Children’s Act, 2011 (Zanzibar)
Part IV Care and Protection of a Child

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Law of the Child Act, 2009
16. For the purposes of this Act, a child is in need of care and protection if that child-

l. is a person in relation to whom an offence has been committed or attempted under the Anti-Trafficking of Persons Act

18.1. A court may issue a care order or an interim care order on an application by a social welfare officer for the benefit of a child.
18.2. The care order or an interim care order shall remove the child from any situation where he is suffering or likely to suffer significant harm and transfer the parental rights to the social welfare officer.
18.3. The social welfare officer shall take custody of the child and determine the most suitable place for the child which may be –

a. an approved residential home;
b. a fit person;
c. an approved foster parent in accordance with the foster care placements Rules made under this Act; or
d. at the home of a parent, guardian or relative.

18.4. The maximum duration of a care order shall be three years or until such time when the child attains the age of eighteen, whichever period is earlier.
18.5. The court may make a further order that the parent, guardian or other person responsible for the child shall pay for the cost of maintaining the child.
18.6. A court shall not designate a manager or patron of an institution or an approved residential home, as an approved fit person to whom the care of a child can be entrusted, unless the institution or approved residential home is the one which the Commissioner has, by notice published in the Gazette, approved.
18.7. An interim care order may not be made unless a child is suffering or is likely to suffer significant harm as provided for under section 16 of this Act.

The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, 2008
Article 9 Confidentiality

Article 15. Compensation

Article 16. Identification of victims

Article 17 Rescue, care, rehabilitation and counseling of trafficked persons

Article 18 Protection and assistance of victims

Article 19 Assistance and protection to child or disabled person

Article 20 Centres for protection of victims

Article 21 Repatriation of victims

Article 22 Repatriation of a child or disabled person

Article 23 Repatriation of foreign citizens etc

Article 24 Programs that address trafficking in persons

Article 25 Establishment of Anti Trafficking Fund

Article 34 Legal protection to trafficked persons

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Penal Code, 1945
256. Any person who unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person is guilty of a misdemeanour.

35. When in this Code no punishment is specially provided for General any misdemeanor, it shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or with a fine or with both.

Employment Act, 2005 (Zanzibar)
5.1. Notwithstanding any law to the contrary, forced labour is prohibited
5.2. Any person who exacts or imposes forced labour or causes or permits forced labour to be exacted or imposed for his or her own benefit or for the benefit of any other private individual, association or any public or private body shall be guilty of an offence and shall on conviction be liable to a fine of not less than three million shillings or in default of such fine to imprisonment of not less than three years or to both such fine and imprisonment.

Penal Decree Code, 2004 (Zanzibar)
265. Any person who unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person is guilty of a misdemeanour.

Penalties, Child Labour

Employment and Labour Relations Act, 2004
102.1. A District Court and a Resident Magistrate’s Court have jurisdiction to impose a penalty for an offence under this Act.
102.2. Any person convicted of any of the offences referred to in sections 5 and 6, may be sentenced to –

a. a fine not exceeding five million shillings;
b. imprisonment for a term of one year;
c. both to such fine and imprisonment.

Employment and Labour Relations (General Regulations) 2017
35. A person who contravenes provisions of these Regulations commits an offence and upon conviction shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one million shilling or imprisonment for a term of one year or both.
36. A person who contravenes provisions of these Regulations, where no specific penalty is provided under the Act or these regulations, shall upon conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding one million shilling or imprisonment for a term of one year or both.

Law of the Child Act, 2009
14. A person who contravenes any provision of this Part, commits an offence and shall on conviction be liable to a fine not exceeding five million shillings or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both.

78.1. A person shall not employ or engage a child in any kind of exploitative labour.
78.2. Without prejudice to the provisions of this section, every employer shall ensure that every child lawfully employed or engaged in accordance with the provisions of this Act is protected against any discrimination or acts which may have negative effect on him taking into consideration his age and evolving capacities.
78.3. Labour shall be construed as exploitative if –

a. it deprives the child of his health or development;
b. it exceeds six hours a day;
c. it is inappropriate to his age; or
d. the child receives inadequate remuneration.

78.4. Any person who contravenes any of the provisions of this section commits an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine of not less than one hundred thousand shillings or to imprisonment for a term of three months or to both.

79.1. Without prejudice to the provisions of section 78, the child shall not be employed or engaged in a contract of the service performance which shall require a child to work at night.
79.2. “Night work” shall be construed to constitute work performance of which requires the child to be at work between the hours of twenty hours in the evening and six o’clock in the morning.
79.3. Any person who contravenes any of.the provisions of this section commits an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to a fme of not less than one hundred thousand shillings or to imprisonment for a term of three months or to both.

80.1. Any person who induces, procures, demands or imposes forced labour to a child, commits an offence.
80.2. For the purposes of this section, “forced labour” includes bonded labour or any other work exacted from a person under the threat of a penalty but shall not include work that forms part of the normal civic obligations, minor communal services performed by the members of a community in the direct interest of that community.
80.3. Ay person who contravenes any of the provision of this section commits an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine of not less than two hundred thousand shillings or to imprisonment for a term of six months or to both.

Employment Act, 2005 (Zanzibar)
6.1. All child labour including the worst forms of child labour is prohibited.
6.2. No person shall employ a child in an type of work except domestic work
6.3. In assigning domestic work to a child a parent or guardian shall ensure that a child has sufficient time to attend to matters pertaining to education and sufficient time to rest
6.4. Any person who employs a child or procures a child for employment contrary to the provisions of this section shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable upon conviction to a fine of not less than five hundred thousand shillings or in default of fine to imprisonment for a term of not less than six months.

7.3. Prohibition of the worst forms of child labour

The Children’s Act, 2011 (Zanzibar)
105. Enforcement
106. Penalty for contravention

Penalties, Human Trafficking

The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, 2008
Article 4.1. a person commits an offence of trafficking in person if that person –

a. recruits, transports, transfers, harbours, provides or receives a person by any means, including those done under the pretext of domestic or overseas employment, training or apprenticeship, for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labour, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
b. introduces or matches a person to a foreign national for marriage for the purpose of acquiring, buying, offering, selling or trading the person in order that person be engaged in prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labour, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
c. offers or contracts marriage, real or simulated, for the purposes of acquiring, buying, offering, selling or trading a person in order that person be engaged in prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labour or slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
d. undertakes or organizes sex tourism or sexual exploitation;
e. maintains or hires person to engage in prostitution or pornography;
f. adopts or facilitates the adoption of persons for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced-labour and slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
g. recruits, hires, adopts, transport or abducts –

i. a person, by means of threat or use of force, fraud, deceit, violence, coercion or intimidation for the purpose of removal or sale of organs of the person; or
ii. a child or a disabled person for the purposes of engaging the child or disabled person in armed activities.

Article 4.2. Trafficking in persons shall also be constituted upon placement for sale, bonded placement, temporary placement or placement as service where exploitation by some other person is the motive.
Article 4.3. Where a victim of trafficking in persons is a child, consent of the child, parent or guardian of the child shall not be used as a defence in prosecution under this Act regardless of whether there is evidence of abuse of power, fraud, deception or that the vulnerability of the child was taken advantage of.
Article 4.4. A consent of a victim of trafficking in persons shall be immaterial where any of the means referred to under subsection 1 has been used against the victim.
Article 4.5. A person who commits any of the offences or acts specified under this section shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine of not less than five million shillings but not more than one hundred million shillings or to imprisonment for a term of not less than two years and not more than ten years or to both.

Article 5 Acts that promote or facilitate trafficking in persons

Article 6 Severe trafficking in persons

Article 7 Trafficking in person by intermediary

Article 8 Use of trafficked persons

Penal Decree Code, 2004 (Zanzibar)
172.1. Any person who:

a. engages in the act of buying, selling or bartering of any person for money or for any other consideration; or
b. for the purpose of promoting, facilitating or inducing the buying or selling or bartering of the placement in adoption of any person for money or for any other consideration –

i. arranges for, or assists, a child to travel to a foreign country without the consent of his parent or lawful guardian; or
ii. obtains an affidavit of consent from a pregnant woman for money or for any other consideration, for the adoption of the unborn child of that woman; or
iii. recruits women or couples to bear children; or
iv. being a person concerned with the registration of births, knowingly permits the falsification of any birth record or register; or
v. engages in procuring children from hospitals, shelters for women, clinics, nurseries, day care centres, or other child care institutions or welfare centres for money or other consideration or procures a child for adoption from any such institution or centre, by intimidation of the mother or any other person, or child for adoption from any such institution or centres; or
vi. impersonates the mother or assists in the impersonation;
commits the offence of trafficking and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not less than five years and not exceeding twenty years and a fine of not more than three hundred thousand shillings or to both the fine and imprisonment.

2. In this section “child” means a person of the age of eighteen years or below.

Penalties, General

Penal Code, 1945
250. Any person who kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be subjected, or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being subjected, to grievous harm, or slavery, or to the unnatural lust of any person, or knowing it to be likely that such person will be so subjected or disposed of, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for ten years.

35. When in this Code no punishment is specially provided for General any misdemeanor, it shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or with a fine or with both.

254. Any person who imports, exports, removes, buys, sells or disposes of any person as a slave, or accepts, receives or detains against his will any person as a slave, is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

255. Any person who habitually imports, exports,’ removes, buys, sells, traffics or deals in slaves is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for ten years.

Penal Decree Code, 2004 (Zanzibar)
263. Any person who imports, exports, removes, buys, sells or disposes of any person as a slave, or accepts, receives or detains any person as a slave, is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years.

264. Any person who habitually imports, exports, removes, buys, sells, traffics or deals in slaves is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years.

256. Any person who kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be subjected, or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being subjected to grievous harm, or slavery, or to the unnatural lust of any person, or knowing it to be likely that such person will be subjected or disposed of, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

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