Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate
No data available
- Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Human Development Index Score: 0.710 (2018)
Mean School Years: 11.5 years (2018)
Vulnerable Employment: 40.1% (2018)
Working Poverty Rate: 18.4% (2020)
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2019
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2008
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2008
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): 48.0% (2017)
Unemployed: 0.8% (2017)
Pension: 100% (2017)
Vulnerable: 16.0% (2017)
Children: 22.0% (2017)
Disabled: 33.0% (2017)
Poor: 68.0% (2017)
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.
In Uzbekistan, the latest estimates show that 0.3 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2000. The measure provided for 2000 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but uses a reduced definition.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000.
Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.
According to the latest 2006 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Uzbekistan was 4.2 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 12.9 hours in 2000.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2006.
Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.
In 2006, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 2.6 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2000, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 9.8.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2006.
Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.
Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 6.2 hours per week according to the 2006 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2000, which found that children aged 5-14 in Uzbekistan worked an average of 14.4 hours per week.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2006.
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Uzbekistan.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Uzbekistan.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).
Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations
Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.
Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.
UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Uzbekistan between 2000 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Uzbekistan is 0.710. This score indicates that human development is high.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Uzbekistan over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 1991 and 2018, Uzbekistan showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)
Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:
“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”
ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts.
“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”
There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.
Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Uzbekistan.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
“Chapter 9, Article 37
Everyone shall have the right to work, free choice of work, fair conditions of labour and protection against unemployment in the procedure specified by law.
Any forced labour shall be prohibited except for punishment under the sentence of a court or some other instances stipulated by law.”
Article 7. Prohibition of Forced Labour
Article 20. Guarantees of the Child’s Right to Work
Worst Forms of Child Labour
Ordinance No. 30-31 of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan approving the list of hazardous jobs mentioned in Article 355, for which the employment of persons under the age of eighteen years is prohibited, 2009
Article 20. Guarantees of the Child’s Right to Work
“Article 3. Main Definitions
The following main terms have been used in the present Law:
Trafficking in Persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall mean, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs or tissues from a human body.”
“Article 9. Specialized Institutions on Assistance and Protection of Victims of Trafficking Article 10. Social Rehabilitation of Victims of Trafficking
Article 11. Assistance to Child Victims of Trafficking
Article 12. Safety Measures and Other Guarantees for Victims of Trafficking
Article 13. Reimbursement of the Expenditures Related to Accommodation and Services and Rehabilitation of Victims of Trafficking”
National Action Plans, National Strategies
Establishes terms of agreement between the ILO and the government on cooperation to implement the Decent Work Country Program in Uzbekistan. Represents an important step toward implementation of the ILO’s technical advice, including using ILO technical assistance and continuing to work with the ILO or other credible third parties to observe cotton harvests. In March 2017, the government signed an extension of the MOU through 2020.
Establishes a plan to harmonize national legislation with the requirements of ILO conventions, including through developing relevant organizational structures and national programs; strengthening state and civil society capacity to guarantee the provision of labor rights; and carrying out an information campaign to inform citizens of their rights.
Outlines measures for economic liberalization and modernization, including through a decrease in cotton production, an increased focus on the production of finished goods, and a reduction of the state regulation. Includes objectives for poverty reduction; development of education and social protection measures; capacity building for civil society and the press; and increased efficacy in anti-corruption measures.
Establishes a framework for implementing ILO Conventions 138 and 182 by coordinating the activities of ministries, departments, and local government authorities. Includes activities for the annual monitoring of the cotton harvest, which took place during the reporting period.
Demonstrates the government’s commitment to improving conditions for hiring of workers in agriculture; strengthening the FBM and national monitoring to prevent child and forced labor, providing increased information and guidance to advance decent work, increasing mechanization of agriculture, and improving social protection of workers in agriculture.
Outlines steps to ensure decent working conditions by preventing child and forced labor. Lays out the government’s intentions to improve monitoring and feedback mechanisms, and to continue working with the ILO and World Bank to develop information materials and conduct public awareness campaigns on child and forced labor.
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victim Support
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking
“Article 6. Inter-Agency Commissionson Combating Trafficking in Persons
The main objectives of the Inter-Agency Commission shall include:
Development of proposals to improve the work in the field of assistance to and protection of victims of trafficking;”
“Article 7. Authorities of the State Agencies Competent to Directly Combat Trafficking in Persons
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, [its] diplomatic missions and consular offices, in the filed of combating trafficking in persons, shall:
Undertake actions to protect the rights and legitimate interests of the citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan who have become victims of trafficking while being outside the [territory of] the Republic of Uzbekistan;
Assist the victims of trafficking in their returns to the Republic of Uzbekistan, and, should they have no identification documents, undertake measures stipulated by [national] law to prove their identity and issue the documents granting them the right to return into the Republic of Uzbekistan, without taking any consular or other fees;
In necessity, provide competent authorities of foreign countries with the information about the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan on combating trafficking in persons;
Provide victims of trafficking with the information about their rights and legitimate interests.
The Ministry of Healthcare of the Republic of Uzbekistan, in the filed of combating trafficking in persons, shall facilitate medical assistance and psychological counseling for victims of trafficking, in order stipulated by the [national} legislation.
The state agencies directly involved in combating trafficking in persons may bear other responsibilities, in accordance with the [national] legislation.”
Policies for Assistance, Child Labour
Chapter 3: Additional Guarantees to Rights for Socially Vulnerable Children
Policies for Assistance, General
“Article 270. Ensuring Security of Participants of Proceedings in Criminal Case
If there exist sufficient information that a victim, witness or other participants in criminal proceedings or their relatives, are facing threats of murder, violence, or destruction of or damage to their property, or other unlawful actions, the inquiry officer, investigator, prosecutor or court shall take security measures to protect the lives, health, honor, dignity, and property of the said persons and to ascertain and prosecute persons guilty of the threatening to the said persons.
An inquiry officer, investigator, prosecutor, or court may assign in writing internal affairs agencies to take all necessary measures in order to protect the lives, health, honor, dignity, and property of the persons participating in criminal proceedings.
The internal affairs agency shall be provided with information about the endangered persons, the possible nature, sources, place and time of the threats and other relevant circumstances.”
“Article 54. General Principles of Infliction of Penalty
A person shall be subjected to penalty, if he, according to the procedure established by law, is found guilty in commission of a crime. A court shall inflict a penalty within the limits established by an Article of the Special Part envisaging liability for a crime committed, in accordance with provisions of the General Part of this Code.
When inflicting a penalty, a court shall take into account nature and degree of social danger of a committed crime, motives thereof, nature and degree of a harm caused, personality of a guilty person, mitigating and aggravating circumstances.
Article 55. Mitigating Circumstances
Mitigating circumstances shall be:
e) commission of a crime in a heat of passion caused by violence, great insult, or otherwrongful act of a victim;
i) commission of a crime under influence of wrongful or amoral behavior of a victim;
When inflicting a penalty, a court may recognize a circumstance not envisaged by this Article as mitigating.
A mitigating circumstance envisaged by an Article of the Special Part of this Code as an element of corpus delicti shall not be taken into account when inflicting a penalty.”
Penalties, Human Trafficking
“Article 15. Liability for the Violation of Legislation on Combating Trafficking in Persons
Individuals guilty in the violation of the legislation on combating trafficking in persons shall bear the responsibility in the established order.”
“Article 49 of this chapter deals with infraction of labour legislation by an official of labour and occupational safety legislation, denial of engagement of citizens sent by local labour organs, and administrative constraint to perform work.”
“Article 135. Engagement of People for Exploitation
Engagement of people for sexual or any other exploitation by deceit –
shall be punished with fine from one hundred to two hundreds minimal monthly wages or correctional labor up to three years, or arrest up to six months.
The same action committed:
a) repeatedly or by a dangerous recidivist;
b) by a previous concert by a group of individuals
c) in respect of a juvenile –
shall be punished with imprisonment up to five years.
The same action committed with a purpose of traffic of such persons outside the Republic of Uzbekistan –
shall be punished with imprisonment from five to eight years.
(As amended by the Law of 29.08.2001).
Article 137. Kidnapping
Kidnapping without elements envisaged by Article 245 of this Code – shall be punished with imprisonment from three to five years.
The same actions committed:
a) in respect of a juvenile;
b) from mercenary or other foul motives;
c) by a previous concert;
d) repeatedly or by a dangerous recidivist –
shall be punished with imprisonment from five to ten years.
The same actions:
a) committed by a special dangerous recidivist;
b) that resulted in grave consequences –
shall be punished with imprisonment from ten to fifteen years. (Paragraphs 2 and 3 – as amended by the Law of 29.08.2001).”
“Article 138. Forceful Illegal Deprivation of Liberty
Forceful illegal deprivation of liberty –
shall be punished with fine up to fifty minimal monthly wages or correctional labor up to three years, or imprisonment up to three years.
The same action committed with:
a) inflicting physical suffering;
b) placement of a victim in conditions endangering life or health;
shall be punished with imprisonment from three to five years.”
“Article 127. Inducing of Juvenile in Antisocial Conduct
Inducing a juvenile in begging alms, drinking, usage of substances, which, being neither narcotic nor psychotropic, affect, however, will and mentality of the juvenile, committed after a previous administrative penalty for the same actions –
shall be punished with correctional labor up to two years or arrest up to two months, or imprisonment up to three years.
Inducing a juvenile in usage of narcotic or psychotropic substances –
shall be punished with arrest up to six months or imprisonment from three to five years.
Inducing juveniles into illegal trafficking of narcotic or psychotropic substances, as well as the actions envisaged by of Paragraph 2 of this Article, committed:
a) by a person, who previously committed a crime that constitutes illegal turnover of narcotic of psychotropic substances;
b) in respect of at least two juveniles;
c) in educational establishments or other places that are used by schoolchildren or students for
educational, sports or public events –
shall be punished with imprisonment from five to ten years.”
1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.