Data Dashboards

Viet Nam
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data with a complete statistical definition is only provided for 2012. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.694 (2017)

Mean School Years: 8 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 62.6% (2013)

Working Poverty Rate: 3.8% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2012
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 37.9% (2016)

Unemployed:  45% (2016)

Pension: 39.9% (2016)

Vulnerable: 10% (2016)

Children: Not Available

Disabled: 9.7% (2016)

Poor: Not Available

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes: 

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

Only the measure provided for 2012 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences by sex and region in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour for 2010 and 2012,  in the percentage of children aged 6-17 for 2004, 2006 and 2008 and in the percentage of children aged 10-17 for 2002. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Viet Nam, the latest estimates show that 6.9 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2012. Only the measure provided for 2012 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences by sex and region in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in child labour for 2000 and 2012, in the percentage of children aged 6-14 for 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010 and in the percentage of children aged 10-14 for 2002. Disaggregated data exists for the years 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)). 

 In Viet Nam, the latest estimates show that 29.8 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2012. The percentage is lower than in 2006, and has decreased from 41.5 percent in 2002.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2012 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Viet Nam was 15.7 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 11.9 hours in 2010.

The chart displays differences by sex and region in the number of hours children work in economic activities: aged 5-14  for 2000, 2010 and 2012; aged 6-14 for 2004, 2006 and 2008; and aged 10-14 for 2002. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2012, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 34.2 hours per week. This number has increased since 2010, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 29.2. 

The chart displays differences by sex and region in the number of hours worked by children who are not in school, aged 5-14 for 2000, 2010 and 2012, aged 6-14 for 2004, 2006 and 2008 and aged 10-14 for 2002.  Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. 

Weekly Hours in Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 7.2 hours per week according to the 2012 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2010, which found that children aged 5-14 in Viet Nam worked an average of 7.3 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2010 and 2012.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Viet Nam is from 2012. By the 2012 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Manufacturing sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region. 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Viet Nam.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Viet Nam.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Viet Nam between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Viet Nam is 0.683. This score indicates medium human development. 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Viet Nam over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2000 and 2013, Viet Nam showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants. 

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

 As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Viet Nam.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution, 2013

Article 35.

1. Citizen has the right to work and to select career, job, and workplace.

2. Worker shall be provided equal and safe conditions of work and shall be paid with salary and enjoy break policy.

3. Discrimination, forced labor, and employment of worker under minimum age of labor are strictly prohibited.

Labour Code, 2012

Article 3. Interpretation of terminologies

For the purpose of this Labour Code, the terminologies are interpreted as follows:

10. “To extract forced labour” shall mean to use force, or to threaten to use force or a similar practice to force a person to work against his or her will.

Article 8. Prohibited acts

1. Discriminating on the basis of gender, race, colour, social class, marital status, belief, religion, HIV status, disabilities or for the reason of establishing, joining trade union and participating in trade union activities.

2. Maltreating a worker, committing sexual harassment at the workplace.

3. Extracting forced labour.

4. Making use of apprenticeship or on-the-job training for the purpose of extracting benefits and exploiting labour, or enticing or compelling an apprentice or on-the-job trainee to commit an illegal activity.

5. Using an employee who does not have vocational training or national occupational skills certificate for the work which requires the worker to have relevant vocational training or a national occupational skills certificate.

6. Making enticement, false promises or false advertising to deceive a worker; or making use of employment service or activities on sending workers abroad to work on the basis of employment contract to commit illegal acts.

7. Using minor workers illegally.

Article 20. Prohibited acts of employers when signing and implementing employment contracts

1. To keep the employee’s original identification documents, degrees and certificates;

2. To request the employee to make a deposit in cash or asset to guarantee his/her compliance with the employment contract.

Law on the Prevention of and Combat Against Human Trafficking, 2011

Article 2. Interpretation of terms

In this Law, the terms below are construed as follows:

3. Forced labor means using force or threatening to use force or using other tricks to force a person to work against his/her will.

Child Labour

Constitution, 2013

Article 35.

1. Citizen has the right to work and to select career, job, and workplace.

2. Worker shall be provided equal and safe conditions of work and shall be paid with salary and enjoy break policy.

3. Discrimination, forced labor, and employment of worker under minimum age of labor are strictly prohibited.

Labour Code, 2012

Article 8. Prohibited acts

1. Discriminating on the basis of gender, race, colour, social class, marital status, belief, religion, HIV status, disabilities or for the reason of establishing, joining trade union and participating in trade union activities.

2. Maltreating a worker, committing sexual harassment at the workplace.

3. Extracting forced labour.

4. Making use of apprenticeship or on-the-job training for the purpose of extracting benefits and exploiting labour, or enticing or compelling an apprentice or on-the-job trainee to commit an illegal activity.

5. Using an employee who does not have vocational training or national occupational skills certificate for the work which requires the worker to have relevant vocational training or a national occupational skills certificate.

6. Making enticement, false promises or false advertising to deceive a worker; or making use of employment service or activities on sending workers abroad to work on the basis of employment contract to commit illegal acts.

7. Using minor workers illegally.

Article 161. Minor employees

A Minor employee is an employee under 18 years of age.

Article 162. Employment of minors

1. Employer shall only employ a minor employee in work suitable to the health of the minor employee in order to ensure his/her physical, mental and personality development, and shall have the responsibility to take care of the minor employee in regard to his/her work, wage, health and study in the course of his/her employment.

2. When an employer employs a minor employee, the employer must have a separate record which writes in full of his/her name, date of birth, the work assigned, results of periodical health check-ups, and shall be presented at the request of the competent authority.

Article 164. Employment of minors under the age of 15 years

1. An employer is only entitled to employ persons from 13 full years of age to fewer than 15 years of age to undertake light work in accordance with the list issued by the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs.

2. When employing a person from 13 full years of age to less than 15 years of age, the employer shall comply with the following regulations:

a. Sign the employment contract in writing with the legal representative of a person from 13 full years of age to under 15 years of age and with his/her agreement;

b. Arrange the working hours so as not to affect the school hours of the minor;

c. Ensure that the working conditions, occupational safety and health are suitable to his/her age;

3. The employment of persons less than 13 years of age is prohibited except for certain specific work as regulated by the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs.
Where employing persons under 13 years of age, the employer must follow the provisions prescribed in Clause 2 of this Article.

Law on Children, 2016

Article 1. Children

A child is a human being below the age of 16.

Article 4. Interpretation of terms

In this Law, these terms are construed as follows:

1. Child protection refers to the implementation of appropriate measures for ensuring safe and healthy life for children, the prevention and response to child abuse and the support for disadvantaged children.

7. Child exploitation refers to the act of forcing the child to work against the law on labor, perform or produce pornographic products; organizing or supporting for tourist activities for the purpose of child sexual abuse; offering, adopting or supplying the child for prostitution and other acts of using the child for profiteering purpose.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Labour Code, 2012

Article 163. Principles of employing minor employees

1. The employment of minor employees is prohibited for heavy and hazardous work, and work with exposure to toxic substances or in work and workplaces which create a harmful influence to their dignities, as described in the list issued by the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs in coordination with the Ministry of Health.

2. The working hours of minor employees from 15 full years of age to fewer than 18 years of age shall not exceed 08 hours in 01 day and 40 hours in 01 week.
The working hours of minor employees less than 15 years of age shall not exceed 04 hours in 01 day and 20 hours in 01 week and employers must not employ these minor employees to undertake overtime work or night work.

3. Minor employees from 15 full years of age to fewer than 18 years of age shall have the right to undertake overtime work or night work only in certain occupations and work as regulated by the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs.

4. The employer must not employ minor persons in the manufacture and trade of alcohol, beer or wine, cigarettes, stimulants or other addictive drugs.

5. The employer shall create opportunities for minor employees and those under 15 years of age to participate in education.

Article 165. Prohibited work and workplaces for minor employees

1. An employer must not employ a minor employee to undertake the following work:

a. Carrying and lifting of heavy things which are beyond the physical capacities of the minor employee;

b. Manufacturing, using or transporting chemical substances, gas, or explosive substances;

c. Maintaining equipment or machinery;

d.  Demolishing or disassembling construction works;

e. Moulding, founding, welding, fusing, melting or casting metals;

f. Marine diving, offshore fishing;

g. Other types of work which are harmful to the health, safety and dignity of the minor employee.

2. The employment of minor employees is prohibited in the following workplaces:

a. Underwater, underground, in caves, in tunnels;

b. Construction sites;

c. Slaughter houses;

d. Casinos, bars, discotheques, karaoke rooms, hotels, hostels, saunas, massage rooms;

e. Other types of workplaces which are harmful to the health, safety and dignity of the minor employee.

3. The Ministry of Labour- Invalids and Social Affairs shall provide the lists as stipulated in Clause 1.g. and Clause 2.e. of this Article

Law on Children, 2016

Article 6. Prohibited acts

1. Deprive children of right to life.

2. Neglect, abandon or engage in children trafficking, kidnap, swap and appropriate children.

3. Involve in child sexual abuse, use violence against children, abuse or exploit children.

4. Organize, support, incite or force the child to engage in child marriage.

5. Use, persuade, incite, excite, entice or force children to commit violations against the law, or offend honor or dignity of other person.

6. Prevent children from exercising their rights and responsibilities.

7. Fails to provide or conceal or preclude the provision of information concerning children who are abused or threatened to be exploited or suffered violence to their families, educational establishments or competent agencies and officials.

Article 26. Right to be protected from labor exploitation

Children have the right to be protected, in any form, from the labor exploitation. They must not work when they are under the working age and they must not work overtime or do arduous, harmful or dangerous works as regulated by the law. They are protected from forcing to do jobs or arranging in working places where cause adverse influence on their personality and comprehensive development.

Article 28. Right to be protected from trafficking, kidnapping, swap and appropriation

Children have the right to be protected, in any form, from trafficking, kidnapping, swap and appropriation.

Slavery

Law on the Prevention of and Combat Against Human Trafficking, 2011

Article 2. Interpretation of terms

In this Law, the terms below are construed as follows:

1. Sexual exploitation means forcing a person to prostitution or to be the subject of a pornographic publication or show or to sexual slavery.

2. Sexual slavery means forcing a person, due to his/her dependence, to satisfy the sexual demand of another person.

Governments take action that assists victims and prevents or ends perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for assistance, Human Trafficking

Law on the Prevention of and Combat Against Human Trafficking, 2011

Article 6. Rights and obligations of victims

1. To request competent agencies, organizations or persons to take measures to protect them or their relatives when they have or are threatened to have their life, health, honor, dignity or property infringed upon.

2. To receive support and protection under this Law.

3. To be compensated for damage under law.

4. To provide information relating to violations of the law on human trafficking prevention and combat to competent agencies, organizations and persons.

5. To comply with requests made by competent authorities concerning human trafficking cases.

Chapter IV

Section I: RECEIPT AND VERIFICATION OF VICTIMS

Section 2 PROTECTION OF VICTIMS

Chapter V

SUPPORT FOR VICTIMS

Policies for Assistance, General

Law on Children, 2016

CHILD PROTECTION

Section 1. LEVELS OF CHILD PROTECTION AND RESPONSIBILITY FOR IMPLEMENTATION

Penalties
Penalties, General

Labour Code, 2012

Article 239. Handling violations in the area of labour

Any person who commits an act that constitutes a violation of the provisions of this Labour Code shall, depending on the seriousness of the violation, be dealt with by disciplinary measures, administrative sanction or prosecuted for criminal liability; and is liable to pay compensation for the damages, if any, as stipulated by law .

Law on the Prevention of and Combat Against Human Trafficking, 2011

Article 3. Prohibited acts

1. Trafficking in persons under Articles 119 and 120 of the Penal Code.

2. Transferring or receiving persons for sexual exploitation, forced labor or removal of human organs or other inhuman purposes.

3. Recruiting, transporting or harboring persons for sexual exploitation, forced labor, removal of human organs or other inhuman purposes or for committing an act specified in Clause 1 or 2 of this Article.

4. Forcing others to commit an act specified in Clause 1. 2 or 3 of this Article.

5. Acting as a broker for others to commit an act specified in Clause 1.2 or 3 of this Article.

6. Taking revenge or threatening to take revenge on victims, witnesses, reporting persons, denunciators or their relatives or persons stopping the acts specified in this Article.

7. Taking advantage of human trafficking prevention and combat activities for self-seeking purposes or for committing unlawful acts.

8. Obstructing the reporting, denunciation and handling of the acts specified in this Article.

9. Stigmatizing or discriminating against victims.

10. Disclosing information on victims without their consent or their lawful representatives’.

11. Impersonating victims.

12. Committing other violations of this Law.

Article 23. Handling violations

1. A person who commits an act specified in Article 3 of this Article shall, depending on the nature and severity of his/her violation, be administratively handled or examined for penal liability. If causing damage, he/she shall compensate under law.

2. A person who takes advantage of his/her position or powers to cover up, tolerate, improperly handle or not to handle the acts specified in Article 3 of this Law shall, depending on the nature and severity of his/her violation, be disciplined or examined for penal liability. If causing damage, he/she shall compensate under law.

3. A person who impersonates a victim shall, apart from being handled under law. repay the funds he/she has received as a victim.

Penalties, Child Labour

Penal Code, 1999

Article 228.- Breaching regulations on employment of child labor

1. Those who employ children to perform jobs which are heavy, dangerous or in contact with hazardous substances on the lists prescribed by the State, causing serious consequences, or who have already been administratively sanctioned for this act but continue to commit it, shall be subject to a fine of between five million dong and fifty million dong, non-custodial reform for up to two years or a prison term of between three months and two years.

2. Committing the crime in one of the following circumstances, the offenders shall be sentenced to between two and seven years of imprisonment:

a. Committing the crime more than once;

b. Against more than one children;

c. Causing very serious or particularly serious consequences.

3. The offenders may also be subject to a fine of between two million dong and twenty million dong.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Penal Code, 1999 amend. 2009

Article 119. Trafficking in humans

1. Those who traffic in humans shall be sentenced to between two and seven years of imprisonment

2. Committing the crime in any of the following circumstances, offenders shall be sentenced to between five and twenty years of imprisonment:

a. for prostitution purposes;

b. in an organized manner;

c. in a professional manner;

d. for taking victims’ bodily organs;

e. for bringing abroad;

f. trafficking in more than one person;

g. committing the crime more than once

3. Offenders maybe imposed a fine of between five million and fifty million dong, subject to probation or residence ban for one to five years

Article 120.- Trading in, fraudulently exchanging or appropriating children

1. Those who trade in, fraudulently exchange or appropriate children in any form shall be sentenced to between three and ten years of imprisonment.

2. Committing the crime in any of the following circumstances, offenders shall be sentenced to between ten and twenty years of imprisonment or life imprisonment:

a. in an organized manner;

b. in a professional manner;

c. for a despicable motive;

d. against more than one child;

e. for taking victims’ bodily organs;

f. for bringing abroad;

g. for inhuman purposes;

h. for prostitution purposes;

i. dangerous recidivism;

j. causing serious consequences

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (At Least One)
Social Protection Coverage (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Viet Nam. If you are a representative of Viet Nam and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.