Data Dashboards

Yemen
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data with a complete statistical definition is only provided for 2010. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.463 (2018)

Mean School Years: 3.2 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 45.4% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 47.8% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Not Ratified
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 8.5% (2011)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Yemen, data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2010.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2010. 

 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Yemen, the latest estimates show that 5.2 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2010. The measure provided for 2006 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006 and 2010. 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)). 

In Yemen, the latest estimates show that 15.6 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2010.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2010.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2010 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Yemen was 21.5 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 20.1 hours in 2006.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006 and 2010. 

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2010, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 29.5 hours per week. This number has increased since 2006, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 19.2. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006 and 2010. 

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 10.4 hours per week according to the 2010 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2006, which found that children aged 5-14 in Yemen worked an average of 16.2 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006 and 2010. 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Yemen is from 2010. By the 2010 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Other Services sector, the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector, Construction, Mining and Other Industrial Sectors, and the Manufacturing sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region. 

 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Yemen.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Yemen.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Yemen between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Yemen is 0.463. This score indicates that human development is low. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Yemen over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Yemen showed an increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Yemen.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution, 1991

Child Labour

Labour Code, 1995

“Article 49

1. It shall be forbidden to employ a young person without his guardian’s approval and without notifying the competent office of the Ministry accordingly.

2. It shall be forbidden to employ a young person in a remote place isolated from inhabited areas.

3. Employers shall provide young persons with a healthy and safe working environment in accordance with the conditions and circumstances specified by the Minister.

4. It shall be prohibited to employ young persons in arduous work, harmful industries or jobs which are socially damaging. Such jobs and industries shall be specified by order of the Minister.

Article 53

The provisions of this Part shall not apply to young persons working with their family under the supervision of the head of the family, provided that their work is performed in suitable health and social conditions.”

Order of the Prime Minister No. 180 of 2005 on the Executive Regulation of Law No. 45 of 2002 on the Rights of the Child.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Ministerial Order No. 11 of 2013 Regulating the prohibited hazardous work and the authorized works for children under 18 years old.

“””In Section 7 of this Ministerial Order No. 11 of 2013, provides a list of more than 35 industries and occupations, including domestic work, work related to agriculture, fishing, textiles, mechanical work and construction, which are prohibited for children under 18 years.
Moreover, section 8 prohibits carrying; pulling or pushing heavy weights.
While section 15 prohibits night work and overtime work for children under 18 years.”””

Labour Code, 1995

“Article 49

1. It shall be forbidden to employ a young person without his guardian’s approval and without notifying the competent office of the Ministry accordingly.

2. It shall be forbidden to employ a young person in a remote place isolated from inhabited areas.

3. Employers shall provide young persons with a healthy and safe working environment in accordance with the conditions and circumstances specified by the Minister.

4. It shall be prohibited to employ young persons in arduous work, harmful industries or jobs which are socially damaging. Such jobs and industries shall be specified by order of the Minister.

Article 53

The provisions of this Part shall not apply to young persons working with their family under the supervision of the head of the family, provided that their work is performed in suitable health and social conditions.”

Human Trafficking

Law on Combating Human Trafficking, 2018

“Chapter I: Definitions.
Chapter II: General Provisions and the Law Objectives.
Chapter III:Crimes and Penalties.
Chapter IV: The carriers’ Liability and Legal Persons.
Chapter V: The Law’s Validity and the Competence of the Yemeni Judiciary and the International Cooperation.
Chapter VI: Protection of Victims.
Chapter VII: Final Provisions. ”

Slavery

Republican Decree, By Law No. 12, 1994 concerning Crimes and Penalties.

“The Crime of Slavery
Article (248): Anyone who buys or sells or presents or deals in any such way on a human being shall receive the punishment of imprisonment for a period not exceeding ten years is to :
First: Anyone who buys of sells or give as present or deal in any way in a human being. Second: Anyone who brings to the country or imports from it a person for the purpose
of dealing with him.”

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Law on Combating Human Trafficking, 2018

“Chapter I: Definitions.
Chapter II: General Provisions and the Law Objectives.
Chapter III:Crimes and Penalties.
Chapter IV: The carriers’ Liability and Legal Persons.
Chapter V: The Law’s Validity and the Competence of the Yemeni Judiciary and the International Cooperation.
Chapter VI: Protection of Victims.
Chapter VII: Final Provisions. ”

Policies for Assistance, General

Order of the Prime Minister No. 180 of 2005 on the Executive Regulation of Law No. 45 of 2002 on the Rights of the Child.

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Code, 1995

“Article 153

The penalties provided for in the provisions of this chapter shall apply without prejudice to any stronger penalty provided for in another law.

Article 154

Any person who violates a provision of Chapters II, IV, V, VIII, IX and XI of this Code shall be punished with a fine of not less than 1,000 (one thousand) riyals and not more than 20,000 (twenty thousand) riyals.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Law on Combating Human Trafficking, 2018

“Chapter I: Definitions.
Chapter II: General Provisions and the Law Objectives.
Chapter III:Crimes and Penalties.
Chapter IV: The carriers’ Liability and Legal Persons.
Chapter V: The Law’s Validity and the Competence of the Yemeni Judiciary and the International Cooperation.
Chapter VI: Protection of Victims.
Chapter VII: Final Provisions. ”

Penalties, Slavery

Republican Decree, By Law No. 12, 1994 concerning Crimes and Penalties.

“The Crime of Slavery
Article (248): Anyone who buys or sells or presents or deals in any such way on a human being shall receive the punishment of imprisonment for a period not exceeding ten years is to :
First: Anyone who buys of sells or give as present or deal in any way in a human being. Second: Anyone who brings to the country or imports from it a person for the purpose
of dealing with him.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

The ILO measures social protections coverage through the Social Security Inquiry (SSI). Every two years, national governments, including responsible ministries, provide data to the SSI on social protections including coverage and expenditure.

There are no visualizations as there is not a sufficient amount of data provided on social protections for the Arab States region.

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Yemen. If you are a representative of Yemen and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.