Datos de los paneles

Zambia
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same, reduced definition. Therefore, due to lack of nationally representative data that includes the full statistical definition of child labour, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.591 (2018)

Mean School Years: 7.1 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 77.8% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 44.8% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2005
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 15.3% 92016)

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 8.8% (2016)

Vulnerable: 10.2% (2016)

Children: 21.1% (2016)

Disabled: No data

Poor: 18.7% (2016)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same, reduced definition. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999, 2005 and 2008. 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same, reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999, 2005 and 2008. 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)). 

All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same, reduced definition. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999, 2005 and 2008. 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2005 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Zambia was 24.2 hours.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005.

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2005, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 23.9 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005. 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Zambia is from 2008. By the 2008 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Other Services sector, the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector, the Manufacturing sector and the Construction, Mining and Other Industrial Sectors.

The chart to the left displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region. 

 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Zambia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

 

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Zambia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Zambia between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Zambia is 0.591. This score indicates that human development is medium.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Zambia over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Zambia showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Zambia.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

The Constitution of Zambia Act, 1991 (No.1 of 1991)

“Article 14. [Protection from slavery and forced labour]
2. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
3. For the purpose of this Article, the expression “”force labour”” does not include–

a. any labour required in consequence of a sentence or order of a court;
b. labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of a sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
c. any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
d. any labour required during any period when the Republic is at war or a declaration under Article 30 or 31 is in force or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period, or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or
e. any labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic obligation.”

Penal Code, 1931

“Unlawful compulsory labour
263. Any person who unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person is guilty of a misdemeanour”

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2008 (No. 11 of 2008)

“2.1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires-
“”forced labour”” means labour or services obtained or maintained through threats, the use of force, intimidation or other forms of coercion or physical restraint”

Child Labor

Employment Code Act, 2019 (Act No. 3 of 2019).

“Repeals and replaces the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act, 1933. PART V
EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS”

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2008 (No. 11 of 2008)

“2.1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires-
“”child labour”” includes all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery such as-

a. the sale of a child;
b. trafficking of a child for the purpose of engaging the child in work away from home and from the care of the child’s family, in circumstances within which the child is exploited;
c. debt bondage or any other form of bonded labour;
d. serfdom; and
e. forced or compulsory labour, including forced or campus loory recruitment of a child for use in armed conflict;”

Worst Forms of Child Labor

Employment Code Act, 2019 (Act No. 3 of 2019).

“Repeals and replaces the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act, 1933. PART V
EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS”

The Prohibition of the Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labour) Order, 2013 (S.I. No. 121 of 2013).

2. “hazardous labour” means work which by its nature or circumstances in which it is carried out is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of a child or a young person

“3.1. A person shall not employ or engage a child or young person in any type of hazardous labour.
3.2. Hazardous labour constitutes the following types of work or work which involves the following:

a. animal herding;
b. block or brick-making;
c. charcoal burning;
d. explosives;
e. exposure to dust;
f. exposure to asbestos and silica dust;
g. exposure to high voltage;
h. exposure to lead;
i. exposure to waterborne diseases and infections;
j. exposure to toxic chemicals and gases;
k. exposure to falling objects;
l. exposure to physical or sexual abuse;
m. exposure to high levels of noise;
n. excavation or drilling;
o. fishing;
p. handling tobacco and cotton at all stages of production;
q. human trafficking;
r. lifting heavy loads;
s. long working hours;
t. night work;
u. operating power or manual driven machinery;
v. selling or serving in bars;
w. welding;
x. stone crushing;
y. spraying of pesticides or herbicides;
z. tour guiding;
aa. using or handling sharp cutting tools;
bb. underground work;
cc. working at a height;
dd. working under insufficient light; and
ee. working under water.”

Human Trafficking

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2008 (No. 11 of 2008)

“2.1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires-
“”traffic”” means to recruit, transport, transfer, harbour, receive or obtain a person, within or across the territorial boundaries of Zambia, by means of-

a. any threat or use of force or other forms of coercion;
b. abduction;
c. fraud or deception;
d. false or illegal adoption of a child contrary to the Adoption Act or any other written law;
e. the destruction, concealment, removal, confiscation or possession of any passport, immigration document or other official identification document of a person;
f. the abuse or threatened abuse of the law or legal process or any other form of abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability; or
g. the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of the person”

Slavery

The Constitution of Zambia Act, 1991 (No.1 of 1991)

“Article 14. [Protection from slavery and forced labour]
1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.”

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2008 (No. 11 of 2008)

“2.1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires-
“”practices similar to slavery”” include-

a. debt bondage;
b. serfdom
c. any institution in which , or practice under which-

i. a woman who does not have the right to refuse is promised or given in marriage on payment of a consideration in money or in kind to her parents, guardian, family or any other person;
ii. the husband of a woman, his family or his clan has the right to transfer her to another person for value received or otherwise; or
iii. a woman, on the death of her husband, is liable to be inherited by any other person; or

d. any institution in which, or practice under which a child is delivered by either one or both of the child’s natural parents or by the child’s guardian to another person, whether for reward or not, for the purpose of the exploitation of the child.

“”servitude”” means a condition in which the labour or services of a person are provided or obtained through threats of serious harm to that person or another person or through any scheme plan or pattern intended to cause the person to believe that, if the person does not perform such labour or services, that person or another person would suffer serious harm;
“”sexual exploitation”” means the participation of a person in prostitution or other sexual acts, or the production of pornographic material as a result of being subjected to threat, force, intimidation or other forms of coercion or any other practice in terms of which it cannot be said that he person participated voluntarily;
“”slavery”” means the exercise of any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a person; ”

Debt Bondage

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2008 (No. 11 of 2008)

“2.1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires-
“”debt bondage”” means the status or condition that arises from a pledge by a person-

a. of the person’s personal services; or
b. of the personal services of another person under that person’s control;
as s security for a debt owed, or claimed to be owed, including any debt incurred or claimed to be incurred after the pledge is given, by that person if-

i. the debt owed or claimed to be owed i manifestly excessive;
ii. the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or purported debt; or
iii. the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined;”

Exploitation

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2008 (No. 11 of 2008)

“2.1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires-
“”exploitation”” includes-

a. all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, including debt bondage or forced marriage;
b. sexual exploitation;
c. servitude;
d. forced labour;
e. child labour; and
f. the removal of body parts contrary to the Human Tissue Act;”

International Commitments

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2008 (No. 11 of 2008)

“31. 1. A child who is a victim may be placed in temporary safe care, pending an investigation
2. If, after an investigation referred to in subsection 1, an illegal foreign child is brought before a court the court may order that the child be assisted in applying for asyllum in terms of the Refugees (control) Act.
3. A finding that an illegal foreign child who is a victim is a child in need of care and protection shall serve as authorisation for allowing the child to remain in Zambia for the duration of the children’s court order. ”

32. The summary deportation of a victim is prohibited

“37. The Ministry responsible for social welfare shall-

a. take reasonable steps to find an institution or organisation that renders assistance to victims of trafficking in the country to which a person referred to in subsection 1 or 2 of section 36 is to be returned and that is willing to provide assistance to such a person; and
b. without undue delay, provide the Ministry with information in respect of a request made in terms of subparagraph i of paragraph b of subsection 2 of section 36. “

“40. The Minister responsible for social welfare shall-

a. from money appropriated by Parliament for that purpose, establish and operate centres for victims; and
b. ensure an appropriate spread of such centres throughout Zambia. “

41. A centre for victims shall comply with the norms and standards as the Minister may, by statutory instrument, prescribe

“42. A centre for child victims-

a. shall secure the physical safety of a child victim;
b. shall provide temporary basic material support for the care of a child victim;
c. shall offer a programme for-

i. the provision of counselling to child victims; and
ii. the provision of rehabilitation services to child victims; and

d. shall, in cooperation with the Ministry responsible for education, offer a programme aimed at the provision of education to child victims”

“43. a centre for adult victims-

a. shall secure the safety of adult victims at risk of tealiation;
b. shall offer a programme aimed at-

i. the provision of counselling to adult victims;
ii. the provision of rehabilitation services to adult victims; and
iii. the re-integration of adult victims into their families and communities;

c. may, in cooperation with the Ministry responsible for education offer a programme aimed at the provision of education to adult victims; and
d. may, in cooperation with the Ministry responsible for labour, offer a programme aimed at the provision of skills development training to adult victims

2. A centre for adult victims that provides accommodation to an adult victim who has a child in her care shall offer a programme aimed at the reception, care and development of such a child.
3. Subject to subsection 4, a child referred to in subsection 2 may be cared for at any other premises only with the explicit consent of the adult victim.
4. A child referred to in subsection 2 shall be referred to a designated social worker for investigation to determine whether the child is in need of care and protection. ”

“44. Upon admission of a victim to a centre for victims, an assessment shall be made by a social worker to determine-

a. the risks to the safety and life of the victim;
b. the immediate needs of the victim; and
c. the long term needs of the victim”

“46. 1. The Ministry responsible for social welfare shall provide mechanisms and programs for the rehabilitation of trafficked persons.
2. Trafficked persons may receive financial assistance from the Fund under this Act.
3. The best interest of the child shall be paramount in any assistance given to rescue.”

47. A victim is entitled to the same public health care services as those to which the citizens of Zambia have access

Penalties
Penalties, Slavery

Penal Code, 1931

257. Any person who kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be subjected, or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being subjected, to grievous harm, or slavery, or to the unnatural lust of any person, or knowing it to be likely that such person will be so subjected or disposed of, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for ten years.

“261. Any person who imports, exports, removes, buys, sells or
disposes of any person as a slave, or accepts, receives or detains against his will any person as a slave, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.
262. Any person who habitually imports, exports, removes, buys, sells, traffics or deals in slaves is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for ten years.”

“263. Any person who unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person is guilty of a misdemeanour.
CHAPTER VI PUNISHMENTS
38. When in this Code no punishment is specially provided for any misdemeanour, it shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or with a fine or with both.”

Penalties, Child Labour and Worst Forms of Child Labour

Employment Code Act, 2019 (Act No. 3 of 2019).

“Repeals and replaces the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act, 1933. PART V
EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS”

“4B. 1. notwithstanding anything in this Act, a child shall not be employed in any type of employment or work, which by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out constitutes a worst form of labour.
2. Any person who contravenes subsection 1. commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not less than two hundred thousand penalty units but not exceeding one million penalty units, or to imprisonment for a term not less than five years but not exceeding twenty-five years, or to both.
5. Every person who contravenes the provisions of this Part shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction thereof to a fine of six hundred penalty units or to imprisonment for three months, or to both.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2008 (No. 11 of 2008)

“3.1 Subject to subsections 2 to 11, a person who intentionally and unlawfully trafficks another person commits an offence and is liable, upon conviction, to imprisonment for a term of not less than twenty years and not exceeding thirty-years
3.2. Where the victim of an offence under subsection 1 is a child, the offender is liable to imprisonment for a term of not less than twenty-five years and not exceeding thirty-five years.
3.3. Where the victim of an offence under subsection 1 is trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation, the offender is liable to imprisonment for a term of not less than twenty-five years and may be liable to imprisonment for life.
3.4. Where the victim is trafficked for the purpose of engaging the victim in the worst forms of labour or child labour the offender is liable to imprisonment for a term of not less than twenty-years and not exceeding thirty-five years.
3.5. Where the victim of an offence under subsection 1 is abducted, the offender is liable to imprisonment for a term of not less than twenty-five years and not exceeding thirty-five years
3.6. Where the trafficking results in the death or grievous bodily harm of a victim, the offender may be liable to imprisonment for life.
3.7. Where the offender is the natural parent, guardian or any other person who has parental responsibilities and rights in respect of a child and the offender trafficked or permitted the trafficking of the child, the offender is liable to imprisonment for a term of not less than twenty-five years and not exceeding thirty-five years
3.8. Where the offender is a public officer and uses the person’s office in furtherance of an offence under this section, the offender is liable to imprisonment for a term of not less than twenty-five years and not exceeding thirty-five years.
3.9. Where the offender is a person who is concerned in the management of an institution or organised criminal group engaged in trafficking in persons, the offender is liable to imprisonment for a term of not less than twenty-five years and not exceeding thirty-five years.
3.10. Where the offender is charged with and convicted by a court for the commission of five or more counts of human trafficking , the offender ris liable to imprisonment for a term of not less than twenty-five years and not exceeding thirty-five years.
3.14. A finding by a court that an employer or principal has contravened subsection 1 shall constitute a ground for revoking the licence or registration of the employer or principal to operate”

National Statistical Office

Central Statistical Office of Zambia

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Zambia. If you are a representative of Zambia and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.