Data Dashboards

Zimbabwe
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.563 (2018)

Mean School Years: 8.3 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 65.6% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 17.8% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2019
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2003
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 4.0% (2000)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Zimbabwe.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Zimbabwe.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Zimbabwe.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Zimbabwe between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Zimbabwe is 0.563. This score indicates that human development is low.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Zimbabwe over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Zimbabwe showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

 

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status. 

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

 

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Zimbabwe.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution, 2013

“55 Freedom from forced or compulsory labour
No person may be made to perform forced or compulsory labour”

Labour Relations Act, 1984

“4A Prohibition of forced labour
(1) Subject to subsection (2), no person shall be required to perform forced labour.
(2) For the purposes of subsection (1) “forced labour” does not include—

(a) any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court; or
(b) labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained which, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court—

(i) is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance or management of the place at which he is detained; or
(ii) is permitted in terms of any other enactment; or

(c) any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or any labour required of any person by virtue of an enactment in place of service as a member of any such force; or
(d) any labour required by way of parental discipline; or
(e) any labour required by virtue of an enactment during a period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or disaster that threatens the life or well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or disaster, for the purpose of dealing with that situation.

(3) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding level seven or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding two years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.”

Child Labour

Labour Relations Act, 1984

“11 Employment of young persons
(1) Subject to subsection (3), no employer shall employ any person in any occupation—

(a) as an apprentice who is under the age of sixteen years;
(b) otherwise than as an apprentice who is under the age of sixteen years.

(2) Any contract of employment entered in contravention of subsection (1), and any contract of apprenticeship with an apprentice below the age of eighteen years which was entered into without the assistance of the apprentice’s guardian, shall be void and unenforceable against the person purportedly employed under such contract, whether or not (in the case of a contravention of paragraph (b) of subsection (1)) such person was assisted by his guardian, or was married or other wise tacitly or expressly emancipated, but such person may enforce any rights that have accrued to him by or under such contract.
(3) A person under the age of eighteen years but not younger than sixteen years may—

(a) perform work other than work referred to in subsection (4) at a school or technical or vocational institution that is carried out as an integral part of a course of training or technical or vocational education for which the school or institution is primarily responsible;
(b) perform work in an undertaking, other than work referred to in subsection (4), that is carried out in conjunction with a course of technical or vocational education.

(4) No employer shall cause any person under the age of eighteen years to perform any work which is likely to jeopardise that person’s health, safety or morals, which work shall include but not be limited to work involving such activities as may be prescribed.
(5) Any employer who employs any person in contravention of subsection (1) or (4) shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding level seven or to imprisonment not exceeding two years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.”

Children’s Act, 1972

“2 Interpretation
In this Act—
“child” means a person under the age of sixteen years and includes an infant;
Article 10A”

Labour Relations (Employment of Children and Young Persons) Regulations, 1997 (S.I. No. 72 of 1997).

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Constitution, 2013

“19 Children
3(a)
3(b)”

“81 rights of Children
1(e)”

Labour Relations Act, 1984

“11 Employment of young persons
(1) Subject to subsection (3), no employer shall employ any person in any occupation—

(a) as an apprentice who is under the age of sixteen years;
(b) otherwise than as an apprentice who is under the age of sixteen years.

(2) Any contract of employment entered in contravention of subsection (1), and any contract of apprenticeship with an apprentice below the age of eighteen years which was entered into without the assistance of the apprentice’s guardian, shall be void and unenforceable against the person purportedly employed under such contract, whether or not (in the case of a contravention of paragraph (b) of subsection (1)) such person was assisted by his guardian, or was married or other wise tacitly or expressly emancipated, but such person may enforce any rights that have accrued to him by or under such contract.
(3) A person under the age of eighteen years but not younger than sixteen years may—

(a) perform work other than work referred to in subsection (4) at a school or technical or vocational institution that is carried out as an integral part of a course of training or technical or vocational education for which the school or institution is primarily responsible;
(b) perform work in an undertaking, other than work referred to in subsection (4), that is carried out in conjunction with a course of technical or vocational education.

(4) No employer shall cause any person under the age of eighteen years to perform any work which is likely to jeopardise that person’s health, safety or morals, which work shall include but not be limited to work involving such activities as may be prescribed.
(5) Any employer who employs any person in contravention of subsection (1) or (4) shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding level seven or to imprisonment not exceeding two years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.”

Children’s Act, 1972

“2 Interpretation
In this Act—
“hazardous labour”, in relation to a child or young person, means any work—

(a) which is likely to jeopardise or interfere with the education of that child or young person;
(b) involving contact with any hazardous substance, article or process, including ionising radiation;
(c) involving underground mining;
(d) that exposes a child or young person to electronically-powered hand- tools, cutting or grinding blades
(e) that exposes a child or young person to extreme heat, cold, noise or whole body vibration;
( f ) that is night shift work;”

Children’s Protection and Adoption Act (No. 22 of 1971) amend. 2001

Human Trafficking

Trafficking in Persons Act, 2014

“3 Crime of trafficking in persons
(I) Any person who~
(a) trafficks any individual by transporting him or her into, outside or within Zimbabwe~

(i) involutarily, that is to say by any of the following means~

A. force, violence or threats thereof; or
B. administering drugs to subdue the victim or causing the victim to be addicted to drugs: or
C. abduction or detention of the victim; or
D. fraud, extortion or deception; or
E. the abuse of power or trust over the victim; or
F. the giving of inducements to the victim or a person having control over the victim for the purpose of facilitating the transportation of the victim; or

(ii) voluntarily, for an unlawful purpose; or

(b) knowingly does any of the following acts-

(i) recruits, transfers, harbours or receives another person that he or she knows or suspects is being or is likely to be trafficked; or
(ii) attempts, assists, abets, conceals, procures, incites, solicits, connives at, or conspires with others for, the commission of the crime of trafficking; or
(iii) leases or subleases or allows the use of any premises or land which belongs to him or her or over which he or she has control for the purpose of trafficking; or
(iv) advertises or assists in the advertising, printing, publication, broadcasting ordistributiou by any means, any material that pmmotes trafficking in persons; or
(v) being an internet service provider operating in Zimbabwe, is aware of any site on its server that contains information in contravention of subparagraph (iv); or
(vi) for the purpose of trafficking assists any other person to obtain false identity or travel documents or tampers with identity or travel documents; or
(vii) facilitates in any way the cross-border transportation of victims in contravention of paragraph (a); or
(viii) benefits either directly or indirectly from the proceeds of trafficking; or
(ix) for the purpose of trafficking confiscates, destroys or conceals the identity or travel documents of an individual in order to unlawfully deny such individual his or her freedom of movement, or access to any public services;
shall he guilty of the crime of trafficking in persons.”

Slavery

Constitution, 2013

“54 Freedom from slavery or servitude
No person may be subjected to slavery or servitude”

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1998

ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029, Ratification 2019

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1998

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2000 (minimum age specified: 14 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2000

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Not signed

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Succession 1998

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Accession 2013

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratification 1990

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Accession 2013

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Accession 2012

National Action Plans, National Strategies

National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor

Strengthens understanding of child labor issues and creates an entity to coordinate responses to the findings of this analysis. Consists of three focus areas: education assistance, poverty assistance through a cash transfer scheme, and health assistance. (9) Research could not determine whether actions were taken during the year.

Trafficking in Persons National Plan of Action (2016–2018)

Aims to implement the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons through the development of strategies to combat human trafficking, with emphasis on prevention, protection, prosecution, and partnership. The plan was developed with technical support from IOM, UNODC, and the Southern African Development Community, and officially launched in July 2016. During the implementation of the plan, victims received medical assistance, and there were awareness-raising campaigns.

Zimbabwe UN Development Assistance Framework (2016–2020)

Integrates child labor prevention strategies in the Education for All campaign headed by the UN. Promotes gender equality, reduction of HIV/AIDs prevalence, and allocates social resources to address child labor. Research could not determine whether actions were taken during the year.

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victims Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Children’s Act, 1972

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Trafficking in Persons Act, 2014

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Labour Relations Act, 1984

“4A Prohibition of forced labour
(1) Subject to subsection (2), no person shall be required to perform forced labour.
(2) For the purposes of subsection (1) “forced labour” does not include—

(a) any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court; or
(b) labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained which, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court—

(i) is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance or management of the place at which he is detained; or
(ii) is permitted in terms of any other enactment; or

(c) any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or any labour required of any person by virtue of an enactment in place of service as a member of any such force; or
(d) any labour required by way of parental discipline; or
(e) any labour required by virtue of an enactment during a period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or disaster that threatens the life or well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or disaster, for the purpose of dealing with that situation.

(3) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding level seven or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding two years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Relations Act, 1984 amend. Labour Amendment Act, 2015

“11 Employment of young persons
(1) Subject to subsection (3), no employer shall employ any person in any occupation—

(a) as an apprentice who is under the age of sixteen years;
(b) otherwise than as an apprentice who is under the age of sixteen years.

(2) Any contract of employment entered in contravention of subsection (1), and any contract of apprenticeship with an apprentice below the age of eighteen years which was entered into without the assistance of the apprentice’s guardian, shall be void and unenforceable against the person purportedly employed under such contract, whether or not (in the case of a contravention of paragraph (b) of subsection (1)) such person was assisted by his guardian, or was married or other wise tacitly or expressly emancipated, but such person may enforce any rights that have accrued to him by or under such contract.
(3) A person under the age of eighteen years but not younger than sixteen years may—

(a) perform work other than work referred to in subsection (4) at a school or technical or vocational institution that is carried out as an integral part of a course of training or technical or vocational education for which the school or institution is primarily responsible;
(b) perform work in an undertaking, other than work referred to in subsection (4), that is carried out in conjunction with a course of technical or vocational education.

(4) No employer shall cause any person under the age of eighteen years to perform any work which is likely to jeopardise that person’s health, safety or morals, which work shall include but not be limited to work involving such activities as may be prescribed.
(5) Any employer who employs any person in contravention of subsection (1) or (4) shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding level seven or to imprisonment not exceeding two years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.”

Children’s Act, 1972

“10 Begging and public entertainment
(1) Any parent or guardian of a child or young person who allows that child or young person or any person who causes any child or young person—

(a) to beg; or
(b) to accompany him or any other person while he begs; or
(c) to induce or to endeavour to induce the giving of alms; or
(d) to perform or be exhibited in any way for public entertainment in a
manner likely to be detrimental to the child’s or young person’s health, morals, mind or body;
shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding level six or to
imprisonment for a period not exceeding one year or to both such fine and such imprisonment.

(2) Where a child or young person has acted in a manner described in subsection (1), the parent or guardian of the child or young person shall be deemed to have allowed such action unless he proves that he did not allow it and that he could not have prevented it.
(3) A police officer or probation officer may at all reasonable times enter and inspect any premises in which a child or young person performs or is exhibited for any consideration at a public entertainment, and may attend any such entertainment free of charge.
(4) Any person who obstructs or hinders any police officer or probation officer in the performance of his duties in terms of subsection (3) shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding level five or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding six months or to both such fine and such imprisonment.”

“10A Restriction on employment of children and young persons.
(1) Except in such circumstances as may be prescribed, no—

(a) parent or guardian of a child or young person of school-going age shall knowingly cause or permit the child or young person to absent himself from school in order to engage in employment for gain or reward;
(b) person shall employ for gain or reward a child or young person of school-going age at a time when the child or young person might reasonably be expected to attend school.

(2) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding two thousand five hundred dollars or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding six months or to both such fine and such imprisonment. (3) It shall be a defence to a charge under paragraph (b) of subsection (1) for the accused person to prove that he believed on reasonable grounds that the child or young person whom he employed was not of school-going age.
(4) Subject to the Labour Relations Act [Chapter 28:01], no parent or guardian of a child or young person shall permit such child or young person to engage in hazardous labour.”

“13 Conducing to commission of offence by child or young person
(1) Any person who conduces to the commission of an offence by a child or young person shall be guilty of an offence and liable to any penalty that may be imposed on a person convicted of the offence committed by the child or young person.
(2) Any parent or guardian of a child or young person who fails to take reasonable steps to ensure that that child or young person does not commit an offence is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of two thousand five hundred dollars or six months imprisonment.
(3) Where a person has been convicted of an offence in terms of subsection (1) the court may, in addition to any penalty which may be imposed therefor, order the person convicted to pay to any party who has been caused damage or loss by the commission of the offence concerned by the child or young person compensation for that damage or loss, whether the injured party makes any claim therefor or not.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Trafficking in Persons Act, 2014

“3 Crime of trafficking in persons
(I) Any person who~

(a) trafficks any individual by transporting him or her into, outside or within Zimbabwe~

(i) involuntarily, that is to say by any of the following means~

A. force, violence or threats thereof; or
B. administering drugs to subdue the victim or causing the victim to be addicted to drugs: or
C. abduction or detention of the victim; or
D. fraud, extortion or deception; or
E. the abuse of power or trust over the victim; or
F. the giving of inducements to the victim or a person having control over the victim for the purpose of facilitating the transportation of the victim; or

(ii) voluntarily, for an unlawful purpose; or

(b) knowingly does any of the following acts-

(i) recruits, transfers, harbours or receives another person that he or she knows or suspects is being or is likely to be trafficked; or
(ii) attempts, assists, abets ,conceals, procures, incites, solicits, connives at, or conspires with others for, the commission of the crime of trafficking; or
(iii) leases or subleases or allows the use of any premises or land which belongs to him or her or over which he or she has control for the purpose of trafficking; or
(iv) advertises or assists in the advertising, printing, publication, broadcasting distributions by any means, any material that promotes trafficking in persons; or
(v) being an internet service provider operating in Zimbabwe, is aware of any site on its server that contains information in contravention of subparagraph (iv); or
(vi) for the purpose of trafficking assists any other person to obtain false identity or travel documents or tampers with identity or travel documents; or
(vii) facilitates in any way the cross-border transportation of victims in contravention of paragraph (a); or
(viii) benefits either directly or indirectly from the proceeds of trafficking; or
(ix) for the purpose of trafficking confiscates, destroys or conceals the identity or travel documents of an individual in order to unlawfully deny such individual his or her freedom of movement, or access to any public services;
shall be guilty of the crime of trafficking in persons.

(2) Any person who commits the crime of trafficking in persons- (a) in a case described in –
(i) subsection (l)(a); or
(ii) subsection (l)(b) that is committed in any of the aggravating
circumstances described in subsection (3);
shall be liable to imprisonment for life or any definite period of imprisonment
of not less than ten years; or
(b) in a case described in-
(i) subsection (1)(a) where special circumstances in terms of subsection (5) are found to apply; or
(ii) subsection (l)(b) that is not committed in any of the aggravating circumstances described in subsection (3) or, if committed in such circumstances, where special circumstances in terms of subsection (5) are found to apply;
shall be liable to a fine not exceeding level fourteen or imprisonment not exceeding ten years or both such fine and such imprisonment.”

“(3) The crime of trafficking in persons shall be considered to be conmitted in
aggravating circumstances if –

(a) the trafficked person is a child or disabled person; or
(b) the child adoption laws of any country or territory are abused to facilitate the trafficking of a child; or
(c) the crime is committed by an organized criminal group; or
(d) the offender is an ascendant, parent, sibling, guardian or a person who exercises parental authority over the victim; or
(e) the offender is a member of a law enforcement agency or the leader of a religious body or group that purports to be a religious body; or
(f) by reason or on the occasion of the act of trafficking, the victim dies, becomes insane, suffers mutilation or is infected with the Human Immune Virus (HIV), Acquired lmmuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) , a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or any other disease; or
(g) the transportation of the victim was, to the knowledge of the offender, procured by any of the means specified in subsection (l)(a).

(4) If a victim was trafficked for the purposes of adult or child pornography or prostitution, or for any purpose or in any circumstances involving the breach of the immigration or labour laws of Zimbabwe or of any country or territory, that victim shall not be charged with any crime whose essential clements include adult or child pornography, prostitution or the breach of the immigration or labour laws in question.
(5) If the person accused of trafficking in persons in contravention of subsection (2)(a) satisfies the court that there are special circum5tances in the case, which circumstances shall be recorded by the court, why the penalty provided under subsection (2)(a) should not be imposed, the person on conviction shall be liable to the penalty provided under subsection (2)(b).
(6) No portion of a sentence imposed in terms of subsection (2)(a) shall be suspended by the court if the effect of such suspension is that the convicted person will serve less than ten years imprisonment.
(7) It shall not be a defence to a charge of trafficking in persons for an offender to prove that…·

(a) a victim consented to any act constituting the offence; or
(b) the victim had previously engaged in prostitution or pornography or has been convicted of any criminal offence; or
(c) where the victim is a child, that the victim, or the parent, guardian or other person who has parental authority over the victim, consented to any act constituting the offence; or
(d) the purpose for which the offence was committed was not fulfilled; or
(e) any act constituting an essential element of the crime of trafficking in persons is a customary or religious practice.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

 

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

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