Learn the meaning of common forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour terms.

Asylum Seeker – A person who seeks safety from persecution or serious harm in a country other than his or her own and awaits a decision on the application for refugee status under relevant international and national instruments. In case of a negative decision, the person must leave the country and may be expelled, as may any non-national in an irregular or unlawful situation, unless permission to stay is provided on humanitarian or other related grounds. (Source)

Child Labour – Work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. Child labour refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children and interferes with their schooling. (Source)

Child Marriage – A marriage in which one or both spouses are under 18 years old. (Source)

Child Soldier – The 1977 Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions prohibit the recruitment and participation in hostilities of children under the age of 15. In international armed conflicts, the first Additional Protocol also requires military recruitment of 15 to 18 year olds to prioritize the oldest. (Source)

Coercion – The action or practice of persuading someone to do something by using force or threats. (Source)

Commercial Sex Act – Any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any person. (Source)

Debt Bondage/Bonded Labour – People enter the status or condition of debt bondage when their labour, or the labour of a third party under their control, is demanded as repayment of a loan or of money given in advance, and the value of their labour is not applied towards the liquidation of the debt or the length of the service is not limited and/or the nature of the service is not defined. (Source)

Displacement – A forced removal of a person from their home or country, often due to armed conflict or natural disasters. (Source)

Exploitation – Any actual or attempted abuse of position of vulnerability, differential power or trust, for one’s benefit. (Source)

Forced Labour – Any work or service a person is forced to do against their will through the use of violence or under other forms of intimidation. (Source)

Forced Marriage – A marriage where one or both people do not consent to the marriage and pressure or abuse is used. (Source)

Fraud – Wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial or personal gain. (Source)

Grooming – When someone builds an emotional connection with a person to gain their trust for the purposes of abuse, exploitation or trafficking. (Source)

Human Trafficking/Trafficking in Persons – The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. (Source)

Internally Displaced Person – A person or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border. (Source)

Irregular Migration – Movement that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries. There is no clear or universally accepted definition of irregular migration. (Source)

Labour Trafficking – The recruitment, harbouring, transportation, provision or obtaining of a person for labour or services, through the use of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery. (Source)

Migrant – Any person who is moving or has moved across an international border or within a State away from his/her habitual place of residence, regardless of the person’s legal status; whether the movement is voluntary or involuntary; what the causes for the movement are; or what the length of the stay is. (Source)

Modern Slavery – An umbrella term used to refer to a range of exploitative practices including human trafficking, slavery, forced labour, child labour, removal of organs and slavery-like practices. (Source, source)

Official Development Assistance – Monetary assistance provided by official agencies, including state and local governments, with the main objective of promoting the economic development and welfare of developing countries. If ODA is given if the form of a loan it must be granted on concessional terms, meaning at a more favourable rate than the market rate, with a grant element of at least 25 per cent. (Source)

Palermo Protocol – Adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2000, the Protocol—one of the three Palermo Protocols—sets out a definition of human trafficking and commits ratifying states to prevent and fight human trafficking, protect and assist victims, and promote international cooperation in investigating and prosecuting human trafficking cases. (Source)

People Smuggling – The procurement, for financial or material gain, of illegal entry into a state of which a person is neither a citizen nor a permanent resident. (Source)

Prevention – The action of stopping something from happening or arising. (Source)

Prosecution – The institution and conducting of legal proceedings against someone in respect of a criminal charge. (Source)

Protection – A legal or other formal measure intended to preserve civil liberties and rights. (Source)

Sex Trafficking – The use of violence, threats, lies, debt bondage, and other forms of coercion to compel adults and children to engage in commercial sex acts against their will. (Source)

Slavery – Is identified by an element of ownership or control over another’s life, coercion and the restriction of movement and by the fact that someone is not free to leave or to change an employer. (Source)

Social Protections – All public and private initiatives that provide income or consumption transfers to the poor, protect the vulnerable against livelihood risks and enhance the social status and rights of the marginalized with the overall objective of reducing the economic and social vulnerability of poor, vulnerable and marginalized groups. (Source)

Supply Chain – All activities, resources and people involved in the production and distribution of a product or service from supplier to customer. (Source)

Survivor – A person who has experienced modern slavery, human trafficking, forced labour or another form of exploitation. (Source)

Trauma-Informed Care – Realizes the widespread impact of trauma and understands potential paths for recovery; Recognizes the signs and symptoms of trauma in clients, families, staff, and others involved with the system; responds by fully integrating knowledge about trauma into policies, procedures, and practices; and seeks to actively resist re-traumatization. (Source)

Victim – A person who is, or has been, exploited or abused. (Source)

Worst Forms of Child Labour – All forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom and forced or compulsory labour, including forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict; the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution, for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances; the use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities, in particular for the production and trafficking of drugs as defined in the relevant international treaties; work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children. (Source)

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