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1. Evidence source2. Topic3. Source characteristics [see the Technical Note for more info on each variable]5. Hypotheses - Criminal justice5. Hypotheses - Civil justice5. Hypotheses - International justice5. Hypotheses - Survivor engagement and support5. Hypotheses - Health policy and practice
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Citation #1.1 Publication info (citation) OR full title+authorship info (if unpublished) [free text] - Author [firstname lastname]. Title. Publisher/Journal/Website1.2 Year of publication1.3 Authorship2.1 Claim tested [free text]2.3a Domain [select from list]2.3b Domain 2 (if applicable)2.4a Theme 1 [select from list]2.4b Theme 2 (if applicable)2.4c Theme 3 (if applicable)2.4d Theme 4 (if applicable)2.4e Theme 5 (if applicable)2.2bis - Other theme? [free text]3.1a Type [select from list]3.1b Programme/ Project evaluation3.2 Method [select from list]3.3 Design [select from list]3.4a Scale measure 1 [select from list]3.5a Scale value 1 [free text - insert number]3.4b Scale measure 2 (if applicable) [select from list]3.5b Scale value 2 (if applicable)[free text - insert number]3.4c Scale measure 3 (if applicable) [select from list]3.5c Scale value 3 (if applicable)[free text - insert number]3.6 Geography - which countries does the study address? [free text]5.15.25.35.45.55.65.75.85.95.105.115.125.135.145.155.165.175.185.195.205.215.225.235.245.255.265.275.285.295.305.315.325.335.345.355.36
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Providing modern slavery and human trafficking training to law enforcement and criminal justice actors improves identification, investigation, and prosecution of modern slavery offencesCross-sectoral coordination and collaboration between antislavery actors at all levels improves investigations, arrests, and prosecutionsCreating specialised law enforcement processes to address modern slavery improves the criminal justice responseEnsuring survivors receive appropriate support and criminal justice processes are victim-centred increases victim cooperation with investigations and prosecutions, improving the likelihood of successRobust and specific legislative definitions of modern slavery offences support effective antislavery responsesOver-prioritisation of criminal justice mechanisms and responses impedes effective prevention, identification, and supportLegal and policy frameworks and practice that ensure survivors are not criminalised for offences committed in connection to their experiences of modern slavery are critical to effective protection and identificationOversight and monitoring mechanisms help ensure effective implementation and enforcement of modern slavery laws and policiesShifting investigation and prosecution strategies away from reliance on survivor testimony to alternative forms of evidence would increase success ratesSuccessful prosecution of modern slavery offences acts as a deterrent to offendingBasing policy development on robust evidence improves the effectiveness of antislavery policyPlea bargaining can effectively improve the efficiency of criminal justice processes related to modern slaveryEnsuring access to interpreters during criminal justice processes helps ensure a fair trial and justice in modern slavery casesEnsuring survivors have access to compensation and civil remedies against their perpetrators supports their recovery and reintegration and contributes to deterrenceEnsuring robust labour regulation and access to labour rights and protections for survivors of modern slavery effectively supports prevention and protection effortsTransnational coordination between governments in antislavery legislation and enforcement improves responses to modern slaveryRestrictive immigration policies and strict border controls increase risks of modern slavery and trafficking, reduce likelihood of victim identification, and result in the criminalisation of victimsHarmonisation of national laws and policies addressing modern slavery with other countries and international law would improve responsesLong-term support for modern slavery survivors is necessary to effectively support recovery and reintegrationFinancial and employment support for survivors of modern slavery is necessary to support their recovery and reintegration, and prevent re-traffickingCross-sectoral coordination and collaboration between antislavery actors at all levels improves identification and support for victimsTrauma-informed models of survivor support and engagement are necessary to support recovery and reintegrationFlexible, victim-centred and survivor-informed models of support and engagement with survivors are necessary for recovery and reintegration, and aid preventionChanging conceptions and representations of victimhood would improve identification of victims, reduce risk of criminalisation, and support law enforcement effortsEnsuring free access to legal advice and support is necessary for effective survivor supportEnsuring access to appropriate and safe accommodation is necessary to ensure effective survivor protection, recovery, and reintegrationHolistic, multidisciplinary support for survivors of modern slavery is necessary to support recovery and reintegrationImmediate assistance, including healthcare and material support, is critical to enabling recovery and reintegration for survivors of modern slaveryDevelopment of statutory guidance for modern slavery legislation supports consistent survivor treatment and improves protectionProviding appropriate specialised modern slavery training to service providers and care workers improves quality of care for modern slavery survivorsHaving globally agreed upon definitions of rescue, recover, and reintegration would help aid survivor recovery and create more consistent practicesProviding modern slavery training to healthcare workers would increase identification of victims and provide an opportunity for appropriate interventionEnsuring survivors have access to mental and physical healthcare is necessary to support recovery and reintegrationIntroduction of specialised screening and diagnostic tools in healthcare settings improves identification of potential victims of modern slaveryProviding language support in healthcare settings improves identification and treatment of victims of modern slaveryInternational and regional instruments providing instruction about States’ health care obligations would help ensure survivors have access to the healthcare they need to support their recovery and reintegration
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1Abigail Swenstein and Kate Mogulescu, "Resisting the Carceral: The need to align anti-trafficking efforts with movements for criminal justice reform," Anti-Trafficking Review 6: 118-122 (2016)2016AcademicCombining anti-trafficking efforts with criminal justice reform would ensure that policies are rooted in human and civil rights and prioritise survivor needs.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1USA000101000000000000000010000000000000
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2Adejumo Gbadebo Olubunmi, E Olu-Owolabi Fadeke, and O Fayomi Oluyemi, "Perceived Satisfaction and Effectiveness of Rehabilitation of Victims of Human Trafficking in Nigeria: Implications for Political and Psychological Interventions," British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science 6, 3: 218-226 (2015).2015AcademicSurvivor recovery requires holistic support provision encompassing a range of services provided by different professionals, including social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, sociologists, medical personnel, and legal professionals.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyNoQuantitativeObservationalIndividuals206Countries1Nigeria000000000000000000000000101000001000
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2Adejumo Gbadebo Olubunmi, E Olu-Owolabi Fadeke, and O Fayomi Oluyemi, "Perceived Satisfaction and Effectiveness of Rehabilitation of Victims of Human Trafficking in Nigeria: Implications for Political and Psychological Interventions," British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science 6, 3: 218-226 (2015).2015AcademicImmediate material support for survivors of trafficking (accommodation and food) are critical to recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQuantitativeObservationalIndividuals206Countries1Nigeria000000000000000000000000010100000000
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3Ajwang’ Warria, Hanna Nel and Jean Triegaardt, "Identification and Initial Care Process of Child Victims of Transnational Trafficking: A Social Work Perspective," Social Work (2014).2014AcademicEducating communities as to the dangers and signs of trafficking would increase self-identification.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportEducationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals10Individuals22South Africa000000000000000000000000000000000000
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3Ajwang’ Warria, Hanna Nel and Jean Triegaardt, "Identification and Initial Care Process of Child Victims of Transnational Trafficking: A Social Work Perspective," Social Work (2014).2014AcademicCommunity members are an important aspect of victim identification and source of referrals.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals10Individuals22South Africa000000000000000000000000000000000000
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4Alexandra (Sandi) Pierce, ‘American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies,’ The Journal of the National Centre 19, 1: 37-56 (2012).2012AcademicHarm reduction methods/strategies reduce adolescent American Indian/Alaska Native girls’ risk of commercial sexual exploitation.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportEducationGenderPrimary StudyYesMixed MethodsObservationalCommunities1Countries1United States000000000000000000000000000000000000
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5Alexandra Williams-Woods and Yvonne Mellon, "Irregular Victims: Investigating the Immigration Status Decisions of Post-NRM Victims of Human Trafficking, the Availability of Eligible Benefits and the Related Impact on Victims of Trafficking," Journal of Modern Slavery (2018).2018AcademicBy failing to adequately support non-UK national survivors of human trafficking/modern slavery, the existing legal frameworks in the UK do not meet the UK’s international obligations and subsequently negatively impact upon survivors’ mental health, wellbeing and safety. JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationInternational justiceMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals8Other28UK000000000000000000000000000000000000
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6Alinka Gearon, "Child Trafficking: Young people’s experiences of front-line services in England," British Journal of Criminology 59, 2: 481-500 (2019).2019AcademicNarrow interpretations of what constitutes coercion compound difficulties in being recognised as a ‘victim’ of trafficking abuse, and lead to treating victims as ‘culpable and complicit actors’.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1England000010100000000000000000000000000000
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6Alinka Gearon, "Child Trafficking: Young people’s experiences of front-line services in England," British Journal of Criminology 59, 2: 481-500 (2019).2019AcademicA criminal justice approach to human trafficking fails to respond to child protection concerns, placing young people at further risk.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1England000001000000000000000000000000000000
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6Alinka Gearon, "Child Trafficking: Young people’s experiences of front-line services in England," British Journal of Criminology 59, 2: 481-500 (2019).2019AcademicImmigration-centred discourse places immigration concerns ahead of children’s safeguarding needs, which fails to protect victims and places them at further risk. JusticeCrisisCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1England000000000000000010000000000000000000
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6Alinka Gearon, "Child Trafficking: Young people’s experiences of front-line services in England," British Journal of Criminology 59, 2: 481-500 (2019).2019AcademicAn immigration-centred approach in front-line practice can undermine the ability of children who have been trafficked to disclose the abuse to which they have been subjected.JusticeCrisisCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1England000000000000000010000000000000000000
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7Amber Egyud, Kimberly Stephens, Brenda Swanson-Bierman, Marge DiCuccio, and Kimberly Whiteman, "Implementation of Human Trafficking Education and Treatment Algorithm in the Emergency Department," Journal of Emergency Nursing 43,6: 526-531 (2017).2017AcademicThe addition of screening for sex trafficking and a treatment algorithm in emergency departments improves recognition and rescue of human trafficking victims and increases identification of other forms of abuse.JusticeHealth policy and practiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesQuantitativeQuasi-experimentalOther1 trauma centreIndividuals38 potential victims identifiedUS - Pennsylvania000000000000000000000000000000000100
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7Amber Egyud, Kimberly Stephens, Brenda Swanson-Bierman, Marge DiCuccio, and Kimberly Whiteman, "Implementation of Human Trafficking Education and Treatment Algorithm in the Emergency Department," Journal of Emergency Nursing 43,6: 526-531 (2017).2017AcademicHuman trafficking education and training for emergency department healthcare practitioners improves recognition and rescue of human trafficking victims and increases identification of other forms of abuse.JusticeHealth policy and practiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesQuantitativeQuasi-experimentalOther1 trauma centreIndividuals102 staffUS - Pennsylvania000000000000000000000000000000010000
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8Amy Farrell, Colleen Owens, Jack McDevitt, "New laws but few cases: understanding the challenges to the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases," Journal of Human Trafficking2013AcademicEvidence-based prosecution, as opposed to victim testimony-based prosecution, would make trafficking cases more successful.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Communities12USA001000001000000000000000000000000000
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8Amy Farrell, Colleen Owens, Jack McDevitt, "New laws but few cases: understanding the challenges to the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases," Journal of Human Trafficking2013AcademicLack of specialised services for trafficking victims, particularly safe housing, hinder prosecution efforts.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Communities12USA000100000000000000000000010000000000
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8Amy Farrell, Colleen Owens, Jack McDevitt, "New laws but few cases: understanding the challenges to the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases," Journal of Human Trafficking2013AcademicAmerican counties with comprehensive legislation against trafficking (i.e. legislation plus additional mandates intended to enhance criminal justice responses) will identify more trafficking cases than those with basic legislation against trafficking or no antitrafficking legislation.JusticeCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQuantitativeObservationalCountries1Communities12USA000010000000000000000000000000000000
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9Amy Weatherburn and Yvonne Eloise Mellon, "Child trafficking victims and legal guardians: Exploring the fulfilment of the EU trafficking directive in the context of the UK modern Slavery Act 2015 – Best practice or not fit for purpose?," New Journal of European Criminal Law 10, 2 (2019).2019AcademicThe UK government’s provisions for the protection of child trafficking victims as outlined in the UK’s 2015 Modern Slavery Act is sufficient to fulfil the legal positive obligations imposed by EU Law, however requires further policy efforts to ensure efficiency. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceYesNon-empiricalN/ACountries1UK000000000000000000000000000000000000
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10Amy Weatherburn. Using an integrated human rights-based approach to address modern slavery:the UK experience. European Human Rights Law Review. 2016AcademicAppointing a national rapporteur to evaluate and monitor the UK’s anti-trafficking response ensures good practice in the prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of modern slavery offences and the identification of victims.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1UK000000010000000000000000000000000000
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11Andreas Schloenhardt and Mark Loong, "Return and Reintegration of Human Trafficking Victims from Australia," International Journal of Refugee Law 23, 2: 143-173 (2011)2011AcademicCoordinating repatriation and reintegration between both the sending and receiving states through bilateral agreements can greatly assist in recovery and avoid any further harm to the victim.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Australia000000000000000100000000000000000000
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11Andreas Schloenhardt and Mark Loong, "Return and Reintegration of Human Trafficking Victims from Australia," International Journal of Refugee Law 23, 2: 143-173 (2011)2011AcademicCommissioning an independent agency to formally assist in the physical repatriation of a victim of human trafficking avoids any ambiguity and risk associated with victims approaching political borders and immigration authorities independently.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Australia000000000000000000000000000000000000
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12Andrey Orlean, "Policy Brief: Countering Human Trafficking: Identifying, Returning and Assisting Victims from Ukraine," Prague Process (2020).2020NGOCounter-trafficking measures in Ukraine that ensure both the principle of confidentiality towards trafficking victims and a witness protection system in criminal proceedings would raise the level of trust of trafficking victims towards the competent state institutions, ultimately ensuring an improved response to human trafficking.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceYesNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Ukraine000100000000000000000000000000000000
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12Andrey Orlean, "Policy Brief: Countering Human Trafficking: Identifying, Returning and Assisting Victims from Ukraine," Prague Process (2020).2020NGOCounter-trafficking measures in Ukraine that raise public awareness about the state support and help available to trafficking victims would raise the level of trust of trafficking victims towards the competent state institutions, ultimately ensuring an improved response to human trafficking.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceYesNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Ukraine000000000000000000000000000000000000
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13Anette Brunovskis and May-Len Skilbrei, "Two Birds with One Stone? Implications of Conditional Assistance in Victim Protection and Prosecution of Traffickers," Anti-Trafficking Review 6 (2016).2016AcademicLinking the goals of 'protection' to 'prosecution' in practice can hinder the protection of victims.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1OtherEuropeNorway000001000000000000000000000000000000
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13Anette Brunovskis and May-Len Skilbrei, "Two Birds with One Stone? Implications of Conditional Assistance in Victim Protection and Prosecution of Traffickers," Anti-Trafficking Review 6 (2016).2016AcademicLinking the goals of 'protection' to 'prosecution' in practice can undermine prosecution.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1OtherEuropeNorway000001000000000000000000000000000000
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14Anita Franklin and Lisa Doyle, "Still at risk: A review of support for trafficked children," The Chldren's Society and The Refugee Council (2013).2013NGODevelopment of statutory guidance on conducting lawful age assessments would allow local authorities to ensure a consistent approach and appropriate treatment of children.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSocial policyMixedYesQualitativeObservationalIndividuals17Individuals18UK000000000000000000000000000010000000
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14Anita Franklin and Lisa Doyle, "Still at risk: A review of support for trafficked children," The Chldren's Society and The Refugee Council (2013).2013NGOEffective multi-agency working is essential in providing the right type of support to trafficked children.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSocial policyMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalOrganisations27Individuals18UK000000000000000000001000000000000000
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14Anita Franklin and Lisa Doyle, "Still at risk: A review of support for trafficked children," The Chldren's Society and The Refugee Council (2013).2013NGOLack of awareness, understanding and training leads to some practitioners, legal authorities and the police not identifying trafficked children even in situations where children have sought help.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSocial policyMixedYesQualitativeObservationalIndividuals17UK100000000000000000000000000000000000
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14Anita Franklin and Lisa Doyle, "Still at risk: A review of support for trafficked children," The Chldren's Society and The Refugee Council (2013).2013NGOOne-to-one support and appropriate accommodation will help avoid children returning to their traffickersJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSocial policyMixedYesQualitativeObservationalIndividuals18Individuals17UK000000000000000000000000010000000000
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14Anita Franklin and Lisa Doyle, "Still at risk: A review of support for trafficked children," The Chldren's Society and The Refugee Council (2013).2013NGOA trusted and independent guardian in trafficked children’s’ lives is the most effective mechanism for assisting and guiding them through the challenges of legal processes and reintegration.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSocial policyMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalIndividuals17Individuals18Organisations27UK000000000000000000000000100000000000
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15Ann De Shalit, Robert Heynen and Emily van der Meulen, "Human Trafficking and Media Myths: Federal Funding, Communication Strategies, and Canadian Anti-Trafficking Programs," Canadian Journal of Communication. 39: 385-412 (2014). 2014AcademicDeveloping alternative discourses and media strategies to form more nuanced and evidence-based conceptions of labour and migration would challenge the dominant anti-trafficking tropes and security-based frameworks that dominate Canadian and international policy.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationInternational justiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations18Canada000000000000000000000001000000000000
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16Ann Warner, Kirsten Stoebenau and Allison M. Glinski, "More Power to Her: How Empowering Girls Can Help End Child Marriage," International Centre for Research on Women (2014).2014NGOGirl-focused programming offers girls access to important education and a sense of empowerment which highlights the dangers of and alternatives to child marriage.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderEducationMixedYesMixed MethodsQuasi-experimentalCountries4Organisations4Upper Egypt, Bangladesh, Amhara (Ethiopia), Bihar (India)000000000000000000000010000000000000
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16Ann Warner, Kirsten Stoebenau and Allison M. Glinski, "More Power to Her: How Empowering Girls Can Help End Child Marriage," International Centre for Research on Women (2014).2014NGOProviding girls and parents with safe, viable and socially acceptable alternatives to marriage, may make them more likely to delay marriage until adulthood.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries4Organisations4Upper Egypt, Bangladesh, Amhara (Ethiopia), Bihar (India)000000000000000000000000000000000000
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16Ann Warner, Kirsten Stoebenau and Allison M. Glinski, "More Power to Her: How Empowering Girls Can Help End Child Marriage," International Centre for Research on Women (2014).2014NGOParticipation in girl-focused programming can directly and indirectly increase girls’ influence over their environment and even influence decisions over child marriage.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries4Organisations4Upper Egypt, Bangladesh, Amhara (Ethiopia), Bihar (India)000000000000000000000000000000000000
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17Annie Wilson, "Notes from the Field: Trafficking Risks for Refugees" Societies Without Borders, 7, 1: 100-118 (2012).2012AcademicEnforcement-oriented measures such as border controls unintentionally increase trafficking risks for refugees.CrisisJusticeDisplacementMigrationHumanitarian contextsConflictCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AUSA000000000000000010000000000000000000
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18Antonio Pascual-Leone, Jean Kim, Orrin-Porter Morrison, "Working with Victims of Human Trafficking," Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 47: 51-59 (2017).2016AcademicIntroducing victim-centred, psychological treatment of PTSD for survivors of human trafficking aids the recovery and reintegration process.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AIndividuals1USA000000000000000000000110000000001000
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19Arun Kumar Acharya, Armando Moctezuma Suarez,Francisco de Jesus Gomez Ontiveros, "Trafficking of Women and Children In Mexico: An Asessment of Anti-Trafficking Laws," Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala, 53: 5-21, (2016).2016AcademicOverly broad legislation leads to officials targeting people in prostitution instead of focusing on individuals experiencing force, fraud or coercion.JusticeCriminal justiceGenderSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Mexico000010000000000000000000000000000000
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19Arun Kumar Acharya, Armando Moctezuma Suarez,Francisco de Jesus Gomez Ontiveros, "Trafficking of Women and Children In Mexico: An Asessment of Anti-Trafficking Laws," Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala, 53: 5-21, (2016).2016AcademicA lack of training can lead to re-victimization and conflation of trafficking and smuggling.JusticeCriminal justiceGenderSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Mexico100000000000000000000000000000000000
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20Aziza Ahmed and Meena Seshu, '“We have the right not to be ‘rescued’...”: When Anti-Trafficking Programmes Undermine the Health and Well-Being of Sex Workers,' Anti-Trafficking Review 1 (2012).2012AcademicAnti-trafficking projects that employ a raid, rescue, and rehabilitate model undermine HIV projects at the local level and cause harm to women and girls in the sex industry.JusticeGenderSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations1Individuals1India000001000000000000000000000000000000
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21Beate Andrees, "Defending Rights, Securing Justice: The International Labour Organisation's Work on Forced Labour," Journal of Criminal Justice 14, 2: 343-362 (2016).2016AcademicCriminal justice needs to be embedded within a broader system of labour justice in order to address the systemic root causes of contemporary forced labour and slavery.JusticeCivil justiceCriminal justiceMixedNoNon-empiricalObservationalOther33 regions/countries: Myanmar, South Asia with a particular focus on India, and the Middle East.000001000000001000000000000000000000
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22Beatriz Camargo Magalhães, "Mind the Protection (Policy) Gap: Trafficking and Labor Exploitation in Migrant Domestic Work in Belgium," Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies, 15, 2: 122-139 (2017).2017AcademicLabour and migration policies applying to domestic work interact with anti-trafficking public policy mechanisms in Belgium to create structural vulnerabilities for undocumented migrant workers.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationCivil justiceMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals14Belgium000000000000001010000000000000000000
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22Beatriz Camargo Magalhães, "Mind the Protection (Policy) Gap: Trafficking and Labor Exploitation in Migrant Domestic Work in Belgium," Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies, 15, 2: 122-139 (2017).2017AcademicHaving a more holistic approach which converges labour and migration policies restructured under human rights principles and rethinking welfare policies would help Belgium counter structural factors of vulnerability.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationSocial policyCivil justiceMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals14Belgium000000000000001010000000000000000000
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23Ben Middleton, Georgios A Antonopoulos & Georgios Papanicolaou, "The Financial Investigation of Human Trafficking in the UK: Legal and Practical Perspective", The Journal of Criminal Law, 83,4 (2019).2019AcademicEffective financial investigations into modern slavery in the UK would help authorities identify and seize the assets of traffickers, and compensate victims.JusticeMarketsCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportFinancial policyCivil justiceMixedYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1United Kingdom000000000000010000000000000000000000
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24Benjamin Perrin, "Just Passing Through? International Legal Obligations and Policies of Transit Countries in Combating Trafficking in Persons," European Journal of Criminology 7, 1: 11-17 (2010).2010AcademicIt is worthwhile, in terms of resources used for victim protection and law enforcement against traffickers, for destination countries to support and fund antitrafficking programmes in transit countries.JusticeCrisisCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportInternational justiceMigrationSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AWorldwide000000000000000100000000000000000000
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24Benjamin Perrin, "Just Passing Through? International Legal Obligations and Policies of Transit Countries in Combating Trafficking in Persons," European Journal of Criminology 7, 1: 11-17 (2010).2010AcademicFull and complete investigations carried out by source, transit, and destination countries in tandem disrupt trafficking networks better than investigations by individual countries aiming to prosecute individual perpetrators.JusticeCrisisCriminal justiceMigrationSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AWorldwide000000000000000100000000000000000000
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24Benjamin Perrin, "Just Passing Through? International Legal Obligations and Policies of Transit Countries in Combating Trafficking in Persons," European Journal of Criminology 7, 1: 11-17 (2010).2010AcademicAnticorruption action in transit countries supports maintenance of effective border controls and helps prevent trafficking.JusticeCrisisCriminal justiceMigrationSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AWorldwide000000000000000010000000000000000000
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25Benjamin Perrin, "Just Passing Through? International Legal Obligations and Policies of Transit Countries in Combating Trafficking in Persons," European Journal of Criminology, 7(1), 11-27 (2010).2010AcademicCoordinating legislation and enforcement across countries and borders, including transit countries, ensures a thorough response to human trafficking.JusticeInternational justiceCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AWorldwide010000000000000101000000000000000000
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26Biljana Meshkovska, Nikola Mickovski, Arjan E R Bos, & Melissa Siegel, "Trafficking of Women for Sexual Exploitation in Europe: Prosecution, Trials and Their Impact," Anti-Trafficking Review, 6:71-90.(2016).2016AcademicValuing victim participation in the criminal justice system in several EU states would help the justice system.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportGenderPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries5Individuals40 (7 survivors, 33 service providers)Albania, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Serbia, and the Netherlands000100000000000000000000000000000000
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26Biljana Meshkovska, Nikola Mickovski, Arjan E R Bos, & Melissa Siegel, "Trafficking of Women for Sexual Exploitation in Europe: Prosecution, Trials and Their Impact," Anti-Trafficking Review, 6:71-90.(2016).2016AcademicValuing victim participation in the criminal justice system in several EU states would help survivor recovery.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportGenderPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries5Individuals40 (7 survivors, 33 service providers)Albania, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Serbia, and the Netherlands000000000000000000000010000000000000
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27Biljana Simeunovic-Patic and Sanja Copic, "Protection and Assistance to Victims of Human Trafficking in Serbia: Recent Developments,"European Journal of Criminology (2010). 2010AcademicEstablishing adequate legal aid as well as compensation for damage suffered by trafficked victims (e.g. through the establishment of a fund for victim compensation) would offer support to survivors during the recovery and legal process.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCivil justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Serbia000000000000010000000000100000000000
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27Biljana Simeunovic-Patic and Sanja Copic, "Protection and Assistance to Victims of Human Trafficking in Serbia: Recent Developments,"European Journal of Criminology (2010). 2010AcademicEstablishing and formalising government support and funding for NGOs and survivor support services would offer a clear definition of their mutual obligations and duties and ensure that survivor support is effective and maintained.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Serbia000000000000000000000000000000000000
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27Biljana Simeunovic-Patic and Sanja Copic, "Protection and Assistance to Victims of Human Trafficking in Serbia: Recent Developments,"European Journal of Criminology (2010). 2010AcademicIncreasing the awareness and training of professionals throughout Serbia improves identification of victims.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Serbia100000000000000000000000000000000000
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27Biljana Simeunovic-Patic and Sanja Copic, "Protection and Assistance to Victims of Human Trafficking in Serbia: Recent Developments,"European Journal of Criminology (2010). 2010AcademicDeveloping a sub-system for assistance, protection and support of male victims of trafficking would ensure that all survivors receive support.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Serbia000000000000000000000000000000000000
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28Brittany Warren, "If You Have A Zero-Tolerance Policy, Why Aren't You Doing Anything?": Using the Uniform Code of Military Justice to Combat Human Trafficking Abroad," The George Washington Law Review, 80, 4 (2012).2012AcademicExtending US trafficking legislation to crimes committed by civilian contractors abroad would allow the US government to prosecute private military contractors who engage in human trafficking while accompanying troops in areas of war or contingency operations, increasing prosecution.JusticeCrisisCriminal justiceInternational justiceConflictTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AUnited State of America000010000000000000000000000000000000
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29Carole Murphy, 'A Game of Chance? Long-term Support for Survivors of Modern Slavery," Centre for the Study of Modern Slavery. (2018)"2018AcademicIncreased statutory guidance and consistent policy would help the long-term support of survivors and minimise the risk of re-traumatization and PTSD. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1United Kingdom000000000000000000000000000010000000
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29Carole Murphy, 'A Game of Chance? Long-term Support for Survivors of Modern Slavery," Centre for the Study of Modern Slavery. (2018)"2018AcademicLong-term support for survivors minimises the risk of re-traumatization and PTSD. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1United Kingdom000000000000000000100000000000000000
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29Carole Murphy, 'A Game of Chance? Long-term Support for Survivors of Modern Slavery," Centre for the Study of Modern Slavery. (2018)"2018AcademicMoving away from short-term support (with 45 day limits) in the UK would aid survivors' recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1United Kingdom000000000000000000100000000000000000
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30Carolina Villacampa and Núria Torres, "Human Trafficking for Criminal Exploitation: The Failure to Identify Victim," European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research (2017).2017AcademicIncreased knowledge amongst criminal justice professionals of human trafficking for criminal exploitation would help to identify victims.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals37Spain100000000000000000000000000000000000
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30Carolina Villacampa and Núria Torres, "Human Trafficking for Criminal Exploitation: The Failure to Identify Victim," European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research (2017).2017AcademicIncreased knowledge amongst criminal justice professionals of human trafficking for criminal exploitation would help to ensure victims are not doubly victimised or criminalisedJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals37Spain000000100000000000000000000000000000
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31Carolina Villacampa and Nuria Torres, "Trafficked Women in Prison: The Problem of Double Victimisation," European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research (2014).2014AcademicIncreased knowledge and policies around human trafficking for criminal exploitation will mean that victims of this form of trafficking will not be overlooked by authorities.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceGenderPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals45Spain100000000000000000000000000000000000
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31Carolina Villacampa and Nuria Torres, "Trafficked Women in Prison: The Problem of Double Victimisation," European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research (2014).2014AcademicIncreased knowledge and policies around human trafficking for criminal exploitation will mean that victims of this form of trafficking will not face additional institutional victimisation and incarceration. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceGenderPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals45Spain000000100000000000000000000000000000
64
32Cathy L. Miller, Gloria Duke & Sally Northam, "Child Sex-Trafficking Recognition, Intervention, and Referral: An Educational Framework for the Development of Health-Care-Provider Education Programs", Journal of Human Trafficking 2,3 177-200 (2020).2016AcademicFollowing a new framework grounded in a victim-centred, culturally competent, evidence-based, gender-sensitive, trauma-informed manner would help healthcare provider's education programmes. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceGenderMixedNoMixed MethodsN/ACountries1Individuals33 (23 experts, 10 survivors)United States of America000000000000000000000110000000000000
65
33Cathy L. Miller, Makini Chisolm-Straker, Gloria Duke & Hanni Stoklosa, "A Framework for the Development of Healthcare Provider Education Programs on Human Trafficking Part Three: Recommendations," Journal of Human Trafficking, 6,4: 425-434 (2020).2020AcademicHealthcare providers' increased educational programming from organisations would help ensure that content delivered is evidence-based, trauma-informed, and survivor informed.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsN/ACountries1United States of America (please note this is not clearly established)000000000000000000000100000000010000
66
33Cathy L. Miller, Makini Chisolm-Straker, Gloria Duke & Hanni Stoklosa, "A Framework for the Development of Healthcare Provider Education Programs on Human Trafficking Part Three: Recommendations," Journal of Human Trafficking, 6,4: 425-434 (2020).2020AcademicEnsuring healthcare providers' educational programming is evidence-based helps ensure healthcare providers can respond appropriately to identify and support potential victims of trafficking. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsN/ACountries1United States of America (please note this is not clearly established)000000000000000000000000000000000000
67
33Cathy L. Miller, Makini Chisolm-Straker, Gloria Duke & Hanni Stoklosa, "A Framework for the Development of Healthcare Provider Education Programs on Human Trafficking Part Three: Recommendations," Journal of Human Trafficking, 6,4: 425-434 (2020).2020AcademicEnsuring healthcare providers' educational programming is trauma-informed helps ensure healthcare providers can respond appropriately to identify and support potential victims of trafficking. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsN/ACountries1United States of America (please note this is not clearly established)000000000000000000000100000000000000
68
33Cathy L. Miller, Makini Chisolm-Straker, Gloria Duke & Hanni Stoklosa, "A Framework for the Development of Healthcare Provider Education Programs on Human Trafficking Part Three: Recommendations," Journal of Human Trafficking, 6,4: 425-434 (2020).2020AcademicEnsuring healthcare providers' educational programming is survivor informed helps ensure healthcare providers can respond appropriately to identify and support potential victims of trafficking. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsN/ACountries1United States of America (please note this is not clearly established)000000000000000000000010000000000000
69
34Cathy Zimmerman and Nicola Pocock, "Human Trafficking and Mental Health: 'My Wounds are Inside; They are Not Visible' ", The Brown Journal of World Affairs 19, 2, 265-280 (2013).2013AcademicPrioritising survivor access to healthcare provision over immigration policy would aid survivors’ mental health and recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceInternational justiceCriminal justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsSystematic reviewOther4Worldwide000000000000000010000000000000000000
70
34Cathy Zimmerman and Nicola Pocock, "Human Trafficking and Mental Health: 'My Wounds are Inside; They are Not Visible' ", The Brown Journal of World Affairs 19, 2, 265-280 (2013).2013AcademicPrioritising survivor access to healthcare provision over law enforcement would aid survivors’ mental health and recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceInternational justiceCriminal justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsSystematic reviewOther4Worldwide000001000000000000000000000000000000
71
34Cathy Zimmerman and Nicola Pocock, "Human Trafficking and Mental Health: 'My Wounds are Inside; They are Not Visible' ", The Brown Journal of World Affairs 19, 2, 265-280 (2013).2013AcademicProviding survivors access to healthcare provision aids survivors’ mental health and recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceInternational justiceCriminal justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsSystematic reviewOther4Worldwide000000000000000000000000000000001000
72
34Cathy Zimmerman and Nicola Pocock, "Human Trafficking and Mental Health: 'My Wounds are Inside; They are Not Visible' ", The Brown Journal of World Affairs 19, 2, 265-280 (2013).2013AcademicProviding survivors access to support and care tailored to their particular needs aids survivors’ mental health and recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceInternational justiceCriminal justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsSystematic reviewOther4Worldwide000000000000000000000010000000000000
73
35Chloé Bailey, "Her freedom, her voice: Insights from the Freedom Fund’s work with women and girls", The Freedom Fund (2017).2017NGOCreating alternative forms of employment for women lessens the opportunities for exploitation.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalOther6Other101Worldwide000000000000000000010000000000000000
74
35Chloé Bailey, "Her freedom, her voice: Insights from the Freedom Fund’s work with women and girls", The Freedom Fund (2017).2017NGOEngaging returnee migrants as change agents to speak to community groups about their experiences is an effective method of education and prevention.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportEducationMigrationSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalOther6Other101Worldwide000000000000000000000010000000000000
75
36Christine Anchan, "Protecting the Imperfect Victim: Expanding “Safe Harbors” to Adult Victims of Sex Trafficking," William and Mary Journal of Race, Gender and Social Justice (2016).2016AcademicSafe harbor laws for minors can serve as a framework to offer protection to adult victims of trafficking.JusticeCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1United States000000000000000000000000000000000000
76
37Claire M. Renzetti, Amy Bush, Marissa Castellanos & Gretchen Hunt, "Does training make a difference? An evaluation of a specialized human trafficking training modulefor law enforcement officers," Journal of Crime and Justice 38, 3: 334-350 (2015).2015AcademicProviding specialised training on human trafficking for law enforcement agencies in Kentucky increases awareness of the crime in their jurisdictions.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justicePrimary StudyYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals404Kentucky, USA100000000000000000000000000000000000
77
38Corinne Schwarz and Hannah E Britton, "Queering the Support for Trafficked Persons: LGBTQ Communities and Human Trafficking in the Heartland," Social Inclusion, 3, 1, 63-75 (2015).2015AcademicRegular support for education, jobs training, housing and health care, etc. is necessary to create strong, trafficking-resistant societies.JusticeSocial policyHealth policy and practiceDevelopment policyPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other1 cityOrganisations36US - Kansas City000000000000000000000000000000000000
78
38Corinne Schwarz and Hannah E Britton, "Queering the Support for Trafficked Persons: LGBTQ Communities and Human Trafficking in the Heartland," Social Inclusion, 3, 1, 63-75 (2015).2015AcademicFlexible, survivor-centred models of support focused on individual recovery and protection are required to build resilience against re-victimisation and re-trafficking. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other1 cityOrganisations36US - Kansas City000000000000000000000010000000000000
79
38Corinne Schwarz and Hannah E Britton, "Queering the Support for Trafficked Persons: LGBTQ Communities and Human Trafficking in the Heartland," Social Inclusion, 3, 1, 63-75 (2015).2015AcademicStructural inequalities and stigma must be combatted in order to effectively prevent trafficking.JusticeMarketsSurvivor engagement and supportDevelopment policyPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other1 cityOrganisations36US - Kansas City000000000000000000000000000000000000
80
38Corinne Schwarz and Hannah E Britton, "Queering the Support for Trafficked Persons: LGBTQ Communities and Human Trafficking in the Heartland," Social Inclusion, 3, 1, 63-75 (2015).2015AcademicPrevention is cheaper, more effective, and more ethical than prosecutions in efforts to curb human trafficking.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other1 cityOrganisations36US - Kansas City000000000000000000000000000000000000
81
39Corinne Schwarz, Erik Unruh, Katie Cronin, Sarah Evans-Simpson, Hannah Britton, and Megha Ramaswamy, "Human Trafficking Identification and Service Provision in the Medical and Social Service Sectors," Health and Human Rights Journal 18, 1: 181-192 (2016).2016AcademicDeveloping intervention tools for medical professionals that combine identification and intervention of trafficked persons provides assistance beyond the initial encounter.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Kansas, USA000000000000000000000000000000000100
82
40Daphne Catherine Spyropoulos, Cultural Competence of Western Psychotherapists in Helping Sex Trade Survivors: An Initial Exploration," Journal of Modern Slavery 4, 1 (2018).2018AcademicPractising cultural competency and cultural humility in cross-cultural psychotherapy sessions ensures that therapeutic approaches applied by healthcare professionals are tailored specifically to survivor needs.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AWorldwide000000000000000000000010000000000000
83
41David Okech, Whitney Morreau and Kathleen Benson, "Human trafficking: Improving victim identification and service provision," International Social Work 55,4: 488-503 (2012). 2011AcademicStrengthening inter-agency collaborations between law-enforcement, neighbourhood watches, NGOs, social workers and heath care services and providing thorough, standardized training for all would improve victim identification in the US.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1USA001000000000000000001000000000000000
84
42David Rousseau, "From Passive Victims to Partners in Their Own Reintegration: Civil society’s role in empowering returned Thaifishermen," Anti-Trafficking Review (2018).2018AcademicIntroducing a victim-centred approach to Anti-Trafficking and criminal justice policy provides support to survivors and increases chances of cooperation in prosecutionsJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Thailand000100000000000000000010000000000000
85
42David Rousseau, "From Passive Victims to Partners in Their Own Reintegration: Civil society’s role in empowering returned Thaifishermen," Anti-Trafficking Review (2018).2018AcademicAccess to financial compensation is crucial to survivors’ recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCivil justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Thailand000000000000010000010000000000000000
86
42David Rousseau, "From Passive Victims to Partners in Their Own Reintegration: Civil society’s role in empowering returned Thaifishermen," Anti-Trafficking Review (2018).2018AcademicCreating financial schemes such as Unconditional Cash Transfers (UCTs) offer financial support to victims and allow them to meet their individual needs.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Thailand000000000000000000010000000000000000
87
43David Rousseau, "Review of Models of Care for Trafficking Survivors in Thailand," Winrock International, (2019).2019NGOIntegrating government initiatives with non-governmental services would improve the quantity and quality of survivor care available and encourage self-identification from survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals29Thailand000000000000000000001000000000000000
88
43David Rousseau, "Review of Models of Care for Trafficking Survivors in Thailand," Winrock International, (2019).2019NGOProviding financial support would improve the quantity and quality of survivor care available, encourage self-identification from survivors, and increase survivors’ willingness to participate in prosecution.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals29Thailand000000000000000000010000000000000000
89
43David Rousseau, "Review of Models of Care for Trafficking Survivors in Thailand," Winrock International, (2019).2019NGOIntegrating government initiatives with non-governmental services would increase survivors’ willingness to participate in prosecution.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals29Thailand010000000000000000000000000000000000
90
43David Rousseau, "Review of Models of Care for Trafficking Survivors in Thailand," Winrock International, (2019).2019NGOProviding increased suppor would increase survivors’ willingness to participate in prosecution.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals29Thailand000100000000000000000000000000000000
91
43David Rousseau, "Review of Models of Care for Trafficking Survivors in Thailand," Winrock International, (2019).2019NGOReforming government and NGO shelters in Thailand to provide specific services for LGBTQI and foreign language-speaking survivors would better improve the standards of care for survivors. JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals29Thailand000000000000000000000010000000000000
92
43David Rousseau, "Review of Models of Care for Trafficking Survivors in Thailand," Winrock International, (2019).2019NGOReforming government and NGO shelters in Thailand to provide specific services for mental health support would better improve the standards of care for survivors. JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals29Thailand000000000000000000000000000000001000
93
44David Trees, Vu Pham Thi Nguyen Thanh, Tran Ban Hung, "Assessment Report on Reintegration Support Models for Victims of Trafficking in Vietnam," International Organization for Migration, Mission to Viet Nam (2012).2012IntergovernmentalEstablishing self-help groups in provinces, villages and communes where several trafficked persons are conveniently nearby provides peer-support for trafficked persons, mutual psychosocial support and a group for income-generation activities. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals93Individuals60Vietnam000000000000000000010000000000000000
94
44David Trees, Vu Pham Thi Nguyen Thanh, Tran Ban Hung, "Assessment Report on Reintegration Support Models for Victims of Trafficking in Vietnam," International Organization for Migration, Mission to Viet Nam (2012).2012IntergovernmentalAdapting to specific needs of the trafficked persons would ensure equal and effective support, particularly for ethnic groups where language and customs are different and for disabled persons.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals93Individuals60Vietnam000000000000000000000010000000000000
95
44David Trees, Vu Pham Thi Nguyen Thanh, Tran Ban Hung, "Assessment Report on Reintegration Support Models for Victims of Trafficking in Vietnam," International Organization for Migration, Mission to Viet Nam (2012).2012IntergovernmentalDesigning specific reintegration models for individuals and providing follow-up is essential to ensuring that the recovery process is effective and ongoing and reduces the risk of re-trafficking.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals93Individuals60Vietnam000000000000000000000010000000000000
96
44David Trees, Vu Pham Thi Nguyen Thanh, Tran Ban Hung, "Assessment Report on Reintegration Support Models for Victims of Trafficking in Vietnam," International Organization for Migration, Mission to Viet Nam (2012).2012IntergovernmentalEstablishing strong referral networks through self-help groups across the country ensures equal access to services under current policies and funding mechanisms.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals93Individuals60Vietnam000000000000000000001000000000000000
97
44David Trees, Vu Pham Thi Nguyen Thanh, Tran Ban Hung, "Assessment Report on Reintegration Support Models for Victims of Trafficking in Vietnam," International Organization for Migration, Mission to Viet Nam (2012).2012IntergovernmentalDeveloping ongoing and continuous training for provincial governments and all staff working with trafficked women ensures that privacy, confidentiality and dignity is prioritised, and staff are sensitized to how the trafficking experience affects victims.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals93Individuals60Vietnam000000000000000000000000000001000000
98
45Deanna Davy, "Responding to Child Sex Trafficking: Transnational Advocacy Networks in the Greater Mekong Subregion," Women and Criminal Justice. 23, 4: 304-325 (2013). 2013AcademicTransnational advocacy network anti-trafficking efforts have led to significant progess in the Mekong Subregion by bringing the child trafficking issue onto the global social policy agenda, resulting in new child protection legislation and improved interagency collaboration in the region.JusticeInternational justiceSurvivor engagement and supportSocial policyMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries2Thailand and Cambodia000000000000000100000000000000000000
99
45Deanna Davy, "Responding to Child Sex Trafficking: Transnational Advocacy Networks in the Greater Mekong Subregion," Women and Criminal Justice. 23, 4: 304-325 (2013). 2013AcademicTransnational advocacy networks support efforts to address child trafficking.JusticeInternational justiceMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries2Thailand and Cambodia000000000000000100000000000000000000
100
46Deanna Davy, "Understanding the complexities of responding to child sex trafficking in Thailand and Cambodia," International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 34:793-816 (2014).2014AcademicAddressing forced migration, poverty, gender inequality and demand would support efforts to address child sex trafficking in the GMS.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportInternational justiceMigrationGenderTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries2Thailand and Cambodia000000000000000000000000000000000000
101
46Deanna Davy, "Understanding the complexities of responding to child sex trafficking in Thailand and Cambodia," International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 34:793-816 (2014).2014AcademicReliance on donor funding adversely affects the ability of anti-trafficking organisations to effectively respond to all aspects of the child sex trafficking problem.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries2Thailand and Cambodia000000000000000000000000000000000000
102
47Diego Hernandez and Alexandra Rudolph, "Modern Day Slavery: What drives human trafficking in Europe?," European Journal of Political Economy, 38(C), 118-139 (2015). 2015AcademicSound institutions are necessary for effective policy against human trafficking.CrisisMigrationSecondary StudyNoQuantitativeObservational000000000000000000000000000000000000
103
47Diego Hernandez and Alexandra Rudolph, "Modern Day Slavery: What drives human trafficking in Europe?," European Journal of Political Economy, 38(C), 118-139 (2015). 2015AcademicA focus on the entire trafficking-chain/channel from source to host country is necessary for effective policy against human trafficking.CrisisMigrationSecondary StudyNoQuantitativeObservational000000000000000000000000000000000000
104
48Diya Bose, ‘“There are no victims here”: Ethnography of a reintegration shelter for survivors of trafficking in Bangladesh," Anti-Trafficking Review 10 (2018). 2018AcademicA ‘disciplining desire’ that characterises some rehabilitation/support programs serves to advance gender- and class-normative assimilation, repress victims, and places constraints on opportunities available to trafficking survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations1Bangladesh000000000000000000000000000000000000
105
49Dorothy Neriah Muraya and Deborah Fry, "Aftercare Services for Child Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Policy and Practice," Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 17: 204-220. (2015).2015AcademicFocussing global aftercare services for child victims of sex trafficking on trauma-informed service provision would help provide more stable support.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeSystematic reviewOther15Global - including Switzerland, Ireland, Nepal, USA, Serbia, Cambodia, Germany, Asia, and internationally focussed.000000000000000000000100000000000000
106
49Dorothy Neriah Muraya and Deborah Fry, "Aftercare Services for Child Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Policy and Practice," Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 17: 204-220. (2015).2015AcademicFocussing global aftercare services for child victims of sex trafficking on being founded on children's rights would help provide more stable support.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeSystematic reviewOther15Global - including Switzerland, Ireland, Nepal, USA, Serbia, Cambodia, Germany, Asia, and internationally focussed.000000000000000000000000000000000000
107
49Dorothy Neriah Muraya and Deborah Fry, "Aftercare Services for Child Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Policy and Practice," Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 17: 204-220. (2015).2015AcademicDelivery practices that engage with multidisciplinary, multiagency and multinational coordination would help ensure the child victims benefit fully from services.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeSystematic reviewOther15Global - including Switzerland, Ireland, Nepal, USA, Serbia, Cambodia, Germany, Asia, and internationally focussed.000000000000000000001000000000000000
108
49Dorothy Neriah Muraya and Deborah Fry, "Aftercare Services for Child Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Policy and Practice," Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 17: 204-220. (2015).2015AcademicMultidisciplinary delivery practices help ensure the child victims benefit fully from services.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeSystematic reviewOther15Global - including Switzerland, Ireland, Nepal, USA, Serbia, Cambodia, Germany, Asia, and internationally focussed.000000000000000000000000001000000000
109
49Dorothy Neriah Muraya and Deborah Fry, "Aftercare Services for Child Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Policy and Practice," Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 17: 204-220. (2015).2015AcademicHaving globally agreed upon definitions of rescue, recover, and reintegration would help aid child victims' recovery and create more consistent practices.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeSystematic reviewOther15Global - including Switzerland, Ireland, Nepal, USA, Serbia, Cambodia, Germany, Asia, and internationally focussed.000000000000000000000000000000100000
110
50Elena Shih, "Health and Rights at the Margins: Human trafficking and HIV/AIDS amongst Jingpoethnic communities in Ruili City, China," Anti-Trafficking Review 2 (2013).2013AcademicCoordinating human trafficking and HIV/AIDS policy and viewing them through an intersectional framework ensures that survivors receive access to all available services and that they are attuned to the needs of community development.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1China000000000000000000000000000000000000
111
50Elena Shih, "Health and Rights at the Margins: Human trafficking and HIV/AIDS amongst Jingpoethnic communities in Ruili City, China," Anti-Trafficking Review 2 (2013).2013AcademicShifting anti-trafficking efforts away from prosecution in ethnic minority and border communities ensures that the systemic inequality that lead to trafficking are also tackled.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1China000001000000000000000000000000000000
112
51Emily H Novak, "Vagrants, Vixens, and Victims: Exploring the Limitations of Human Trafficking Victim Recognition Criteria in Texas," Texas Woman’s University (2016).2016AcademicFocusing training on specific, narrow victim-types excludes vulnerable minority groups in Texas such as male, Native American and transgender populations and limits the efficacy of anti-trafficking endeavours.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Other3Texas, USA000000000000000000000000000001000000
113
52Emma George, Darlene McNaughton, George Tsourtos, "An Interpretive Analysis of Australia’s Approach to Human Trafficking and Its Focus on Criminal Justice Over Public Health", Journal Of Human Trafficking 3:2, 81-92, (2017).2017AcademicAdopting a public-health approach would have a stronger focus on supporting all victims of human trafficking over the long term, rather than only those who are prepared to engage with the criminal-justice system as victims of crime.JusticeHealth policy and practiceSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalIndividualsAustralia000000000000000000000000000000000000
114
52Emma George, Darlene McNaughton, George Tsourtos, "An Interpretive Analysis of Australia’s Approach to Human Trafficking and Its Focus on Criminal Justice Over Public Health", Journal Of Human Trafficking 3:2, 81-92, (2017).2017AcademicSupporting all victims of human trafficking over the long term improves protection efforts.JusticeHealth policy and practiceSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalIndividualsAustralia000000000000000000100000000000000000
115
52Emma George, Darlene McNaughton, George Tsourtos, "An Interpretive Analysis of Australia’s Approach to Human Trafficking and Its Focus on Criminal Justice Over Public Health", Journal Of Human Trafficking 3:2, 81-92, (2017).2017AcademicSupporting all victims of human trafficking irrespective of whether they are prepared to engage with the criminal-justice system as victims of crime improves protection efforts.JusticeHealth policy and practiceSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalIndividualsAustralia000001000000000000000000000000000000
116
53Erlend Paasche, May-Len Skilbrei and Sine Plambech, "Vulnerable Here or There? Examining the vulnerability of victims of human trafficking before and after return," Anti-Trafficking Review 10 (2018).2018AcademicGender bias and an overemphasis on sexual exploitation results in disproportionate support provisions for victims of trafficking.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries2Norway, Nigeria000000000000000000000001000000000000
117
53Erlend Paasche, May-Len Skilbrei and Sine Plambech, "Vulnerable Here or There? Examining the vulnerability of victims of human trafficking before and after return," Anti-Trafficking Review 10 (2018).2018AcademicDelays in reintegration support poses challenges to survivors’ recovery and can increase their vulnerabilityJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries2Norway, Nigeria000000000000000000000000000000000000
118
54Evelyn Probst, "Victims’ protection within the context of traffickingin human beings and European Union standards," Academy of European Law (2018).2018AcademicProviding a human rights centred approach to survivors residency status that is not dependant on testifying in court supports survivors’ wellbeing and safety.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Austria000001000000000000000000000000000000
119
54Evelyn Probst, "Victims’ protection within the context of traffickingin human beings and European Union standards," Academy of European Law (2018).2018AcademicEnsuring legal representation for victims of trafficking and assisting him/her throughout the process on a psycho-social level constitutes an important part of victims’ protection.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCivil justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Austria000000000000000000000000100000000000
120
54Evelyn Probst, "Victims’ protection within the context of traffickingin human beings and European Union standards," Academy of European Law (2018).2018AcademicEffective, unconditional protection in the field of trafficking in human beings must include not only the fulfilment of the immediate needs of trafficked persons, but also long-term access to victims’ rights.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Austria000000000000000000100000000000000000
121
55Farhan, Yousaf, "Forced migration, human trafficking and human security," Current Sociology Monograph. 66, 2: 209-225 (2018)2018AcademicDevelopment of policies to address the long-term vulnerabilites of trafficked women and girls in Pakistan would reduce the risk and number of women and girls who are at risk of re-victimisation.CrisisJusticeMigrationGenderSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeObservationalIndividuals50Organisations25Pakistan000000000000000000100000000000000000
122
55Farhan, Yousaf, "Forced migration, human trafficking and human security," Current Sociology Monograph. 66, 2: 209-225 (2018)2018AcademicApplying a human security framework to programmatic work in Pakistan would assist in addressing the root causes and risks associated with the forced displacement of people and trafficking, ultimately resulting in the deterrence of trafficking.CrisisJusticeMigrationGenderSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeObservationalIndividuals50Organisations25Pakistan000000000000000000000000000000000000
123
56Frances Simmons, "Money Matters: Material justice for survivors of slavery and human trafficking," Precedent (2013).2013AcademicEstablishing a national compensation scheme would make it easier for survivors of human trafficking to seek compensation.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceCivil justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Australia000000000000010000000000000000000000
124
57Frances Simmons and Fiona David, 'The Road to Effective Remedies: Pragmatic reasons for treating cases of “sex trafficking” in the Australian sex industry as a form of “labour trafficking,”Anti-Trafficking Review 60-79 (2012) .2012AcademicViewing sex trafficking as a form of labour trafficking ensures that sex industry workers have access to potentially effective prevention interventions and access to civil remedies.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceCivil justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Australia000000000000011000000000000000000000
125
58G.A. Tortolero, "Human Trafficking Victim Identification and Response Within the United States Healthcare System", The International Association for Healthcare Security and Safety Foundation (2020).2020NGOIncreasing and refining the training of healthcare professionals on human trafficking and potential signs to look for would improve identification and intervention with survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalSystematic reviewCountries1Other6USA000000000000000000000000000000010000
126
58G.A. Tortolero, "Human Trafficking Victim Identification and Response Within the United States Healthcare System", The International Association for Healthcare Security and Safety Foundation (2020).2020NGOIn addition to training healthcare professionals, training security and safety staff in healthcare environments increases chances of victim identification and support.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalSystematic reviewCountries1Other6USA000000000000000000000000000000010000
127
58G.A. Tortolero, "Human Trafficking Victim Identification and Response Within the United States Healthcare System", The International Association for Healthcare Security and Safety Foundation (2020).2014AcademicIncreasing government provision for supporting survivors of sex trafficking would remove some of the pressure from NGOs and improve access to support for survivors. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries28Worldwide000000000000000000000000000000000000
128
59Gabriel Fosson, "The Serbian Government's Response to Human Trafficking," European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 19: 183-198 (2011).2011AcademicMedia campaigns aimed at raising awareness of human trafficking amongst the general public increase reporting and identification of victims.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQuantitativeObservationalCountries1Other6 yearsOther13342 hotline callsSerbia000000000000000000000000000000000000
129
60Gary Craig, "The UK’s Modern Slavery Legislation: An Early Assessment of Progress," Social Inclusion 5, 2: 16 (2017).2017AcademicThe UK’s Modern Slavery Acts do not adequately protect trafficking victims.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1United Kingdom000000000000000000000000000000000000
130
60Gary Craig, "The UK’s Modern Slavery Legislation: An Early Assessment of Progress," Social Inclusion 5, 2: 16 (2017).2017AcademicThe National Referral Mechanism in the UK does not effectively protect or support trafficking victims.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1United Kingdom000000000000000000000000000000000000
131
60Gary Craig, "The UK’s Modern Slavery Legislation: An Early Assessment of Progress," Social Inclusion 5, 2: 16 (2017).2017AcademicMore extensive recording and analysis of data (prevalence etc.) in the UK would improve the country's antislavery response.JusticeCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1United Kingdom000000000000000000000000000000000000
132
60Gary Craig, "The UK’s Modern Slavery Legislation: An Early Assessment of Progress," Social Inclusion 5, 2: 16 (2017).2017AcademicTransparency in supply chian provisions without effective compliance monitoring and awareness raising are inadequate to address modern slavery in corporate supply chains.MarketsSupply chainsTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1United Kingdom000000000000000000000000000000000000
133
61Geneva Brown, 'Women and Children Last: The Prosecution of Sex Traffickers and Sex Offenders and the Need for a Sex Trafficker Registry'. Boston College Third World Law Journal (2011).2011AcademicThe creation of an international trafficking registry, modelled on the US sex offender laws/registry, would both increase public support for the prosecution of trafficking offenders and deter sex trafficking on a global scale.JusticeCriminal justiceInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Applies to globalUnited States001000000000000100000000000000000000
134
62Giuliana Belissa Urrelo Huapaya. How United States Immigration Laws Enable Modern Slavery. LUMEN.2018AcademicEnacting the Trafficking Victims Protection Act to the full extent of the law would ensure that victims are protected and not criminalised or deported.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1USA000000100000000000000000000000000000
135
63Hanna Love, Jeanette Hussemann, Lilly Yu, Evelyn McCoy, Colleen Owens, "Justice in Their Own Words: Perceptions and Experiences of (In)Justice among Human Trafficking Survivors," National Insititu of Justice (2018).2018NGOWhere human trafficking survivors face challenges interacting with the criminal justice system, non-criminal justice alternatives can provide effective mechanisms for securing justice for survivors. JusticeCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals80United States000101000000000000000000000000000000
136
64Hanni Stoklosa, Marti MacGibbon, and Joseph Stoklosa, "Human Trafficking, Mental Illness, and Addiction: Avoiding Diagnostic Overshadowing", AMA Journal of Ethics 19, 1, 23-24 (2017).2017AcademicTrauma-informed care is important in identifying victims of human trafficking and avoiding implicit-bias and diagnostic overshadowing with patients suffering from potential mental health or substance abuse disorders.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Other40USA000000000000000000000100000000000000
137
65Hea-Won Kim, Taekyung Park, Stephanie Quiring, and Diana Barrett, "The anti-human trafficking collaboration model and servingvictims: Providers’perspectives on the impact and experience," Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work 15, 2: 186-203 (2018).2018AcademicA coalition model for anti-trafficking response improves collaboration between law enforcement and service providers.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalOther1 cityIndividuals42 respondentsCountries1US - midwestern city010000000000000000000000000000000000
138
65Hea-Won Kim, Taekyung Park, Stephanie Quiring, and Diana Barrett, "The anti-human trafficking collaboration model and servingvictims: Providers’perspectives on the impact and experience," Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work 15, 2: 186-203 (2018).2018AcademicA coalition model for anti-trafficking response improves quality of service provision for survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalOther1 cityIndividuals42 respondentsCountries1US - midwestern city000000000000000000001000000000000000
139
65Hea-Won Kim, Taekyung Park, Stephanie Quiring, and Diana Barrett, "The anti-human trafficking collaboration model and servingvictims: Providers’perspectives on the impact and experience," Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work 15, 2: 186-203 (2018).2018AcademicA coalition model for anti-trafficking response improves outreach.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalOther1 cityIndividuals42 respondentsCountries1US - midwestern city000000000000000000000000000000000000
140
66Henny Nuraeny, "Trafficking of Migrant Workers in Indonesia: A Legal Enforcement and Economic Perspective of Prevention and Protection Efforts," European Research Studies Journal (2017).2017AcademicIn order to effectively combat trafficking of migrants from Indonesia, the government must provide more economic opportunities and skills training to vulnerable communities. MarketsJusticeMigrationEconomic policyDevelopment policyGenderEducationSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Indonesia000000000000000000000000000000000000
141
67Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery. Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development," Institute of Development Studies (2017). 2017NGOAccess to mental and physical health care is a necessary component of support for victims of modern slavery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther8 recordsInternational000000000000000000000000000000001000
142
67Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery. Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development," Institute of Development Studies (2017). 2017NGOAccess to support services for victims of modern slavery is necessary to enable their participation in criminal justice processes.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther4 recordsInternational000100000000000000000000000000000000
143
67Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery. Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development," Institute of Development Studies (2017). 2017NGOAccess to immediate shelter and accommodation is a necessary element of recovery for victims of modern slavery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther4 recordsInternational000000000000000000000000010100000000
144
67Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery. Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development," Institute of Development Studies (2017). 2017NGOSupport to obtain employment is an important element of survivor support that enables recovery and reintegration.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther4 recordsInternational000000000000000000010000000000000000
145
67Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery. Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development," Institute of Development Studies (2017). 2017NGOVictim-centred, holistic (multi-disciplinary) support is necessary for victims of modern slavery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther8 recordsInternational000000000000000000000010001000000000
146
67Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery. Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development," Institute of Development Studies (2017). 2017NGOConflation of victims of trafficking for labour exploitation with illegal immigrants, and other forms of criminalisation of victims, inhibits identification.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther4 recordsInternational000000100000000010000000000000000000
147
67Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery. Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development," Institute of Development Studies (2017). 2017NGOLong-term support for survivors of modern slavery is necessary to support recovery and reintegration.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther4 recordsInternational000000000000000000100000000000000000
148
67Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery. Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development," Institute of Development Studies (2017). 2017NGOAccess to free legal advice and support is necessary to support survivors’ recovery and reintegration.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther4 recordsInternational000000000000000000000000100000000000
149
68International Justice Mission, "Labor Trafficking in Cambodia: A Review of the Public Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2016).2016NGOThe creation of a centralised multi-agency unit in Cambodia (the National Committee for Counter Trafficking) has improved anti-trafficking efforts in the country.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Cambodia011000000000000000001000000000000000
150
68International Justice Mission, "Labor Trafficking in Cambodia: A Review of the Public Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2016).2016NGOVictim-centred approaches within criminal justice processes are critical to effective survivor engagement and testimony.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Cambodia000100000000000000000000000000000000
151
68International Justice Mission, "Labor Trafficking in Cambodia: A Review of the Public Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2016).2016NGOCompensation for victims of trafficking is necessary to support their recovery and reintegration, and avoid re-trafficking.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCivil justiceMixedNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Cambodia000000000000010000000000000000000000
152
68International Justice Mission, "Labor Trafficking in Cambodia: A Review of the Public Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2016).2016NGOCentralised identification guidelines for human trafficking support better understanding of the scope of the problem of labour trafficking and increased access to support for victims.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Cambodia000000000000000000000000000000000000
153
68International Justice Mission, "Labor Trafficking in Cambodia: A Review of the Public Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2016).2016NGOFunding for aftercare services in Cambodia must be increased to ensure effective assistance and support for victims of trafficking.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Cambodia000000000000000000000000000000000000
154
68International Justice Mission, "Labor Trafficking in Cambodia: A Review of the Public Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2016).2016NGOCross-border collaboration is critical to reduce prevalence of trafficking among Cambodian migrants.JusticeCrisisInternational justiceMigrationMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Cambodia000000000000000100000000000000000000
155
68International Justice Mission, "Labor Trafficking in Cambodia: A Review of the Public Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2016).2016NGOOut-of-Court payments and extra-judicial settlements enable exploitation and fail to deter abuses.JusticeCriminal justiceMixedNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Cambodia000000000100000000000000000000000000
156
68International Justice Mission, "Labor Trafficking in Cambodia: A Review of the Public Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2016).2016NGOCollaboration and communication between police, prosecutors, and investigating judges increases the likelihood of success in trafficking prosecutions.JusticeCriminal justiceMixedNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Cambodia010000000000000000000000000000000000
157
68International Justice Mission, "Labor Trafficking in Cambodia: A Review of the Public Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2016).2016NGOThe creation of specialised anti-trafficking police unit in Cambodia has improved identification and the ability of law enforcement to respond to cases and combat the crime.JusticeCriminal justiceMixedNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Cambodia001000000000000000000000000000000000
158
68International Justice Mission, "Labor Trafficking in Cambodia: A Review of the Public Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2016).2016NGOOperational funding for law enforcement in Cambodia must be increased to sustainably and proactively address trafficking crimes.JusticeCriminal justiceMixedNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Cambodia001000000000000000000000000000000000
159
68International Justice Mission, "Labor Trafficking in Cambodia: A Review of the Public Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2016).2016NGOCapturing and tracking accurate trial data supports more effective criminal justice processes and resource allocation.JusticeCriminal justiceMixedNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Cambodia001000000000000000000000000000000000
160
68International Justice Mission, "Labor Trafficking in Cambodia: A Review of the Public Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2016).2016NGOProviding ongoing institutionalised human trafficking training to law enforcement officials strengthens the law enforcement response to trafficking.JusticeCriminal justiceMixedNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Cambodia100000000000000000000000000000000000
161
69International Justice Mission, "Online Sexual Exploitation of Children in the Philippines: A Review of the Criminal Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2018). 2018NGOChild-friendly, trauma-informed trial strategies and courts are necessary to prevent child victims from being re-traumatised.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals121 respondentsPhilippines000100000000000000000100000000000000
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69International Justice Mission, "Online Sexual Exploitation of Children in the Philippines: A Review of the Criminal Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2018). 2018NGOSurvivors of online sexual exploitation require specialised support services tailored to their specific demographics and needs.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals121 respondentsPhilippines000000000000000000000010000000000000
163
69International Justice Mission, "Online Sexual Exploitation of Children in the Philippines: A Review of the Criminal Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2018). 2018NGOStreamlined international governmental cooperation is critical to combatting online sexual exploitation of children.JusticeInternational justiceCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals121 respondentsPhilippines010000000000000100000000000000000000
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69International Justice Mission, "Online Sexual Exploitation of Children in the Philippines: A Review of the Criminal Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2018). 2018NGOIncreased resource allocation for law enforcement efforts to address online sexual exploitation of children is necessary to combat the crime.JusticeCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals121 respondentsPhilippines001000000000000000000000000000000000
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69International Justice Mission, "Online Sexual Exploitation of Children in the Philippines: A Review of the Criminal Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2018). 2018NGOLaw enforcement having access to digital forensic experts is critical to effectively investigate and prosecute online sexual exploitation of children.JusticeCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals121 respondentsPhilippines001000001000000000000000000000000000
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69International Justice Mission, "Online Sexual Exploitation of Children in the Philippines: A Review of the Criminal Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2018). 2018NGOPlea bargaining in human trafficking and online sexual exploitation of children cases improves the efficiency of criminal justice processes.JusticeCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals121 respondentsPhilippines000000000001000000000000000000000000
167
70International Organisation for Migration, "Report on the contribution of the NCATS to the identification and assistance for victims of trafficking," International Organisation for Migration (2010).2010NGOSensitizing the Albanian police, media and public on the ethical and safety issues in handling victims of trafficking and the need for ongoing work would ensure that survivor wellbeing and safety is not threatened and support is maintained.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Organisations5Albania000000000000000000100000000000000000
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70International Organisation for Migration, "Report on the contribution of the NCATS to the identification and assistance for victims of trafficking," International Organisation for Migration (2010).2010NGOProviding specific, government funded accommodation for survivors of trafficking would help to protect vulnerable individuals and aid recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Organisations5Albania000000000000000000000000010000000000
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71Irina Molodikova, "One Step Forward and Two Steps Back: Migration Policy and Human Trafficking in the Russian Federation since the Palermo Protocol of 2020," Journal of Human Trafficking 6, 2: 141-155. (2020).2020AcademicIncreased synergies between national trafficking laws, such as the Palermo Protocol, and other kinds of domestic policies would help reduce vulnerabilities for trafficking in the Russian Federation.JusticeCriminal justiceInternational justiceSecondary StudyYesQualitativeN/ACountries1Russia000000000000000001000000000000000000
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72Iyabode Ogunniran, "Forward Looking or Backward Stepping: Evaluating Child Protection from Sexual Exploitation in Nigeria," Journal of Human Trafficking, 3(3): 167-181 (2017).2017AcademicMultidimensional solutions, including reviewing domestic criminal laws to conform to the changing realities of the modern dimension of child prostitution, child trafficking, and child pornography would contribute to effectively protect children from these crimes in Nigeria.JusticeMarketsCriminal justiceDevelopment policyChildrenSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Other1Nigeria000010000000000000000000000000000000
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72Iyabode Ogunniran, "Forward Looking or Backward Stepping: Evaluating Child Protection from Sexual Exploitation in Nigeria," Journal of Human Trafficking, 3(3): 167-181 (2017).2017AcademicTargeting the root causes of exploitation would contribute to effectively protect children from these crimes in Nigeria.JusticeMarketsCriminal justiceDevelopment policyChildrenSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Other1Nigeria000000000000000000000000000000000000
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73J. Taylor Scott, Alexandra M. Ingram, Shannon L. Nemer, and D. Max Crowley, "Evidence-Based Human Trafficking Policy: Opportunities to Invest in Trauma-Informed Strategies," American Journal of Community Pyschology 64, 3-4: 438-358 (2019).2019AcademicMaking reference to research findings or processes in trauma-responsive policy increases the likelihood of advancing in the policy process.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other1056USA000000000010000000000100000000000000
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74James Sinclair, "Strategic Litigation as a Tool to Combat Modern Slavery," Journal of Modern Slavery 4,2: 47-65 (2018).2018AcademicA failure to prevent provision in the UK’s Modern Slavery Act imposing liability on corporations, enacted in coordination with European and American legislatures to produce a harmonised transnational framework, would result in multinational corporations more effectively policing their supply chains for modern slavery.JusticeMarketsCivil justiceSupply chainsInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalCountries1United Kingdom / transnational000000000000000101000000000000000000
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74James Sinclair, "Strategic Litigation as a Tool to Combat Modern Slavery," Journal of Modern Slavery 4,2: 47-65 (2018).2018AcademicVicarious corporate liability for modern slavery by subsidiaries and sub-contractors would impose additional disbenefits on companies for violations and improve corporate antislavery efforts in global supply chains.JusticeMarketsCivil justiceSupply chainsTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalCountries1United Kingdom / transnational000000000000000000000000000000000000
175
75Jamie Shandro, Makini Chisolm-Straker, Herbert C. Duber, Shannon Lynn Findlay, Jessica Munoz, Gillian Schmitz, Melanie Stanzer, Hanni Stoklosa, Dan E. Wiener, Neil Wingkun, "Human Trafficking: A Guide to Identification and Approach for the Emergency Physician, "Annals of Emergency Medicine (2016).2016AcademicTraining emergency department clinicians on how to recognise victims of trafficking and how to utilise a trauma-informed approach would increase victim identification. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1USA000000000000000000000000000000010000
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76Jasmine Phillips, "Black Girls and the (Im)Possibilities of a Victim Trope: The Intersectional Failures of Legal and Advocacy Interventions in the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Minors in the United States," UCLA Law Review (2015).2015AcademicDiversifying notions of victimhood with regards to sex trafficking and developing intersectional strategies for survivor support would ensure that services can be accessed by all survivors, irrespective of socio-economic backgrounds or race.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1USA000000000000000000000001000000000000
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77Jean Dowling Dols, Diana Beckmann-Mendez, Jessica McDow, Katherine Walker, Michael D. Moon, "Human Trafficking Victim Identification, Assessment and Intervention Strategies in South Texas Emergency Departments", Journal of Emergency Nursing 45, 6: 622-633 (2019).2019AcademicThe failure to recognize human trafficking victims prevents assessment of the victim's status and further delays referral to appropriate resources.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Organisations99United States (Texas)000000000000000000000000000000000000
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78Jennifer E. O’Brien, Brooke Jordan, Nina Honeycutt, Catherine Wilsnack, and Clara Davison. “It’s All about Breaking down Those Barriers...”: Exploring Survivors’ Perspectives on Services and Treatment Needs following Commercial Sexual Exploitation during Childhood," Journal of Evidence-based Social Work 16, 2: 160-177 (2019). 2019AcademicTraining law enforcement in restorative, trauma-informed victim advocacy would avoid the unnecessary criminalisation of victims and instead provide useful support.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals13USA100000100000000000000100000000000000
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78Jennifer E. O’Brien, Brooke Jordan, Nina Honeycutt, Catherine Wilsnack, and Clara Davison. “It’s All about Breaking down Those Barriers...”: Exploring Survivors’ Perspectives on Services and Treatment Needs following Commercial Sexual Exploitation during Childhood," Journal of Evidence-based Social Work 16, 2: 160-177 (2019). 2019AcademicIntegrating identification and after-care services is key to improving the short and long-term outcomes for commercially trafficked minors in the US.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals13USA000000000000000000001000000000000000
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79Jennifer Musto, "Domestic minor sex trafficking and the detention-to-protection pipeline," Dialectical Anthropology, 37: 237-276.(2013).2013AcademicUS anti-trafficking policies have helped increase policing and arrests of victims as a pathway to rehabilitative interventions for sex trade-involved youth.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportGenderMixedYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations30United States of America000000000000000000000000000000000000
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80Jiyoung Song, "Redefining Human Secruity for Vulnerable migrants," East Asia Journal of Human Security 11 (2015).2015AcademicUsing the normative framework of human security to understand current trends of irregular migration (both forced and unauthorised) in East Asia would better inform policy discourse to engage with state and non-state actor and induce state action in prevention of human trafficking.CrisisJusticeDisplacementMigrationCriminal justiceDevelopment policyTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries6North Korea, Cambodia, Banglades, Japan, 000000000000000000000000000000000000
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81Joanne Van Selm, "Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Measures for the Integration of Trafficked Persons," International Organisation for Migration (2013).2013IntergovernmentalEffective integration of survivors in destination societies requires culturally responsive psycho-social assistance for the specific needs of people who have experienced trafficking.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries5Belgium; France; Hungary; Italy; United Kingdom000000000000000000000010000000001000
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81Joanne Van Selm, "Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Measures for the Integration of Trafficked Persons," International Organisation for Migration (2013).2013IntergovernmentalEffective integration of survivors in destination societies requires access to employment (including right to work) and opportunities for language acquisition not tied to participation in criminal justice processes.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries5Belgium; France; Hungary; Italy; United Kingdom000000000000000000010000000000000000
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81Joanne Van Selm, "Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Measures for the Integration of Trafficked Persons," International Organisation for Migration (2013).2013IntergovernmentalAccess to social benefits for victims of trafficking tailored to their individual needs supports integration in destination societies, aids recovery, and helps prevent re-victimisation and re-trafficking.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries5Belgium; France; Hungary; Italy; United Kingdom000000000000000000000010000000000000
185
81Joanne Van Selm, "Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Measures for the Integration of Trafficked Persons," International Organisation for Migration (2013).2013IntergovernmentalEffective integration of survivors in destination societies requires individually appropriate shelter.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries5Belgium; France; Hungary; Italy; United Kingdom000000000000000000000010010000000000
186
81Joanne Van Selm, "Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Measures for the Integration of Trafficked Persons," International Organisation for Migration (2013).2013IntergovernmentalEffective integration of survivors in destination societies requires legal basis to remain in the destination country.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries5Belgium; France; Hungary; Italy; United Kingdom000000000000000000000000000000000000
187
82Jodi L. Williams, "Human Trafficking Survivors, After Care Services, and Institutional Betrayal: A Qualitative Perspective on the Effectiveness of a Victim Advocacy Program," University of Missouri-Columbia (2017).2017AcademicAcknowledging survivors’ experiences of institutional betrayal as part of the recovery process within victim advocacy programs helps to build trust and offer victims a sense of ‘being heard’ that assists recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals5Individuals6Missouri, USA000000000000000000000010000000000000
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82Jodi L. Williams, "Human Trafficking Survivors, After Care Services, and Institutional Betrayal: A Qualitative Perspective on the Effectiveness of a Victim Advocacy Program," University of Missouri-Columbia (2017).2017AcademicProviding survivors with the knowledge and tools to make decisions for themselves encourages independence and confidence.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportEducationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals5Individuals6USA000000000000000000000010000000000000
189
82Jodi L. Williams, "Human Trafficking Survivors, After Care Services, and Institutional Betrayal: A Qualitative Perspective on the Effectiveness of a Victim Advocacy Program," University of Missouri-Columbia (2017).2017AcademicLive-in recovery programmes are more helpful environments for recovery than programs that do not offer live-in accommodation.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals5Individuals6USA000000000000000000000000010000000000
190
83Joelle Mak, Tanya Abramsky, Bandita Sijapati, Ligia Kiss and Cathy Zimmerman, "What is the prevalence of and associations with forced labour experiences among male migrants from Dolakha, Nepal? Findings from a crosssectional study of returnee migrants," BMJ Open 11, 7 (2017).2017AcademicBecause forced labour is prevalent in the migration experiences of male labourers from Nepal, interventions targetting this vulnerable group (for instance whether through providing migrants with guidance on recruitment agencies or offering support and protection in the destination countries) are necessary to address forced labour.MarketsJusticeMigrationEconomic policyDevelopment policySocial policyInternational justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals196Nepal000000000000000000000000000000000000
191
84Johanna Niemi and Jussi Aaltonen, "Tackling Trafficking by Targeting Sex Buyers: Can It Work?," Violence Against Women 13, 10:1228-1248 (2017). 2017NGOImplementing a total ban on sex purchase in Finland would be more efficient in deterring trafficking and more feasible to impose than a partial ban.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Finland000000000000000000000000000000000000
192
84Johanna Niemi and Jussi Aaltonen, "Tackling Trafficking by Targeting Sex Buyers: Can It Work?," Violence Against Women 13, 10:1228-1248 (2017). 2017NGOEducating police, border guards and prosecutors on the realities of sex trafficking and victim experiences assists in identifying and prosecuting sex buyers.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Finland100000000000000000000000000000000000
193
85Jordan J. Steiner, Jamie Kynn, Amanda M. Stylianou & Judy L. Postmus, "Providing services to trafficking survivors: Understanding practices across the globe," Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work 15, 151-169 (2018). 2018AcademicAllowing survivors to individually, dynamically define success of survivor support programmes enhances service provision for survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOrganisations30Individuals30Worldwide000000000000000000000010000000000000
194
85Jordan J. Steiner, Jamie Kynn, Amanda M. Stylianou & Judy L. Postmus, "Providing services to trafficking survivors: Understanding practices across the globe," Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work 15, 151-169 (2018). 2018AcademicInteragency collaboration is needed for effective support for survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOrganisations30Individuals30Worldwide000000000000000000001000000000000000
195
85Jordan J. Steiner, Jamie Kynn, Amanda M. Stylianou & Judy L. Postmus, "Providing services to trafficking survivors: Understanding practices across the globe," Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work 15, 151-169 (2018). 2018AcademicMore expansive, inclusive government definitions of trafficking would allow better support for survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOrganisations30Individuals30Worldwide000000000000000000000000000000000000
196
85Jordan J. Steiner, Jamie Kynn, Amanda M. Stylianou & Judy L. Postmus, "Providing services to trafficking survivors: Understanding practices across the globe," Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work 15, 151-169 (2018). 2018AcademicBetter funding would improve provision for survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOrganisations30Individuals30Worldwide000000000000000000000000000000000000
197
86Julia Muraszkiewicz, "Protecting Victims of Human Trafficking from Liability: An Evaluation of Section 45 of the Modern Slavery Act", The Journal of Criminal Law 83:394-405. (2019).2019AcademicThe non-liability provisions of the UK Modern Slavery Act do not adequately protect victims of human trafficking in England and Wales. JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceYesQualitativeN/ACountries2England and Wales (note that counted as two countries as it is not the UK - does not include Scotland or Northern Ireland)000000100000000000000000000000000000
198
87Julia Smith-Brake, Lim Vanntheary and Nhanh Channtha, "Economic Reintegration of Survivors of Sex Trafficking: Experiences and Expressions of Filial Piety and Financial Anxiety," Chab Dai Coalition (2015).2015NGOAcknowledging cultural contexts, in particular with regards to familial relationships would improve support services for survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals77Cambodia000000000000000000000000000000000000
199
87Julia Smith-Brake, Lim Vanntheary and Nhanh Channtha, "Economic Reintegration of Survivors of Sex Trafficking: Experiences and Expressions of Filial Piety and Financial Anxiety," Chab Dai Coalition (2015).2015NGOAcknowledging familial environments, expectations, assets and associated pressures would assist in developing targeted and useful services for survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals77Cambodia000000000000000000000000000000000000
200
88Julie Kaye and Bethany Hastie, "The Canadian Criminal Code Offence of Trafficking in Persons: Challenges from the Field and within the Law," Social Inclusion 3,1 88-102 (2015).2015AcademicNarrow interpretations and lack of clarity of the Canadian criminal code offence of trafficking results in restricted applicability of the offence, particularly in cases of labour trafficking.JusticeCriminal justiceMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Canada000010000000000000000000000000000000
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89Julie Orme and Fariyal Ross-Sheriff, "Sex Trafficking: Policies, Programs, and Services," Social Work 60, 4: 287-294 (2015).2015AcademicSocial workers are instrumental in identifying and protecting children who are often targeted by sex traffickers.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSocial policyGenderTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1USA000000000000000000000000000000000000
202
90Kanani E. Titchen, Dyani Loo, Elizabeth Berdan, Mary Becker Rysavy, Jessica J. Ng, Iman Sharif, "Domestic Sex Trafficking of Minors: Medical Student and Physician Awareness," North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 30,1:102-108 (2017).2015AcademicIntroducing a standardized trafficking education for physicians, residents, and medical students would equip healthcare professionals to accurately identify and assist suspected victims of domestic sex trafficking.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyNoQuantitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals1648USA000000000000000000000000000000010000
203
91Katarina Schwarz and Jing Geng, "Reasserting Agency: Procedural Justice, Victim-Centricity, and the Right to Remedy for Survivors of Slavery and Related Exploitation," Journal of Modern Slavery 4, 2: 93-120 (2018).2018AcademicEnsuring procedural justice and participation for survivors of slavery and related forms of exploitation in legal processes can aid survivors’ recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceCivil justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000000000000000010000000000000
204
91Katarina Schwarz and Jing Geng, "Reasserting Agency: Procedural Justice, Victim-Centricity, and the Right to Remedy for Survivors of Slavery and Related Exploitation," Journal of Modern Slavery 4, 2: 93-120 (2018).2018AcademicStereotypes of ‘ideal’ trafficking victims inhibit identification, prosecution, and support for victims of slavery and related exploitation.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational100000000000000000000001000000000000
205
91Katarina Schwarz and Jing Geng, "Reasserting Agency: Procedural Justice, Victim-Centricity, and the Right to Remedy for Survivors of Slavery and Related Exploitation," Journal of Modern Slavery 4, 2: 93-120 (2018).2018AcademicOver-prioritisation of criminal justice processes results in failures to meet the needs of victims of slavery and related forms of exploitation.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000001000000000000000000000000000000
206
91Katarina Schwarz and Jing Geng, "Reasserting Agency: Procedural Justice, Victim-Centricity, and the Right to Remedy for Survivors of Slavery and Related Exploitation," Journal of Modern Slavery 4, 2: 93-120 (2018).2018AcademicProcedural justice improves the likelihood of success of criminal justice mechanisms addressing slavery and related exploitation.JusticeCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000100000000000000000000000000000000
207
92Katherine Solits and Rebecca Walters, ‘“What’s in a Name?”: Mislabelling, misidentification, and the US government’s failure to protect human trafficking survivors in the Central American refugee crisis’, Anti- Trafficking Review, (2018). 2018AcademicMisunderstanding and competing and overlapping legal classifications in the United States Immigration system have led to repeated failure of US authorities to identify and protect survivors of human trafficking.CrisisJusticeMigrationDisplacementHumanitarian contextsCriminal justiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalUnted States of America, 000010000000000010000000000000000000
208
93Kathleen Turner, Michelle Anderson and Stefanie Lopez-Howard, "Assessing the Scope and Availability of Services for Human Trafficking Victims Among Georgia’s Victims’ Services Providers," Georgia Criminal Justice Coordinating Council, (2014).2014GovernmentCross-agency collaboration and training, including the introduction of a screening tool, would increase victim identification.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQuantitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations175Organisations206Georgia, USA000000000000000000001000000000000000
209
93Kathleen Turner, Michelle Anderson and Stefanie Lopez-Howard, "Assessing the Scope and Availability of Services for Human Trafficking Victims Among Georgia’s Victims’ Services Providers," Georgia Criminal Justice Coordinating Council, (2014).2014GovernmentCross-agency collaboration and training, including the introduction of a screening tool, would assist in effective data gathering and investigation.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQuantitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations175Organisations206Georgia, USA010000000000000000000000000000000000
210
93Kathleen Turner, Michelle Anderson and Stefanie Lopez-Howard, "Assessing the Scope and Availability of Services for Human Trafficking Victims Among Georgia’s Victims’ Services Providers," Georgia Criminal Justice Coordinating Council, (2014).2014GovernmentIncreased state-wide service provision targeted specifically towards survivors of human trafficking would increase victim identification and improve survivor care.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQuantitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations175Organisations206Georgia, USA000000000000000000000010000000000000
211
94Kathryn Baer, "The Trafficking Protocol and the Anti-Trafficking Framework: Insufficient to Address Exploitation," The Anti-Trafficking Review 4: 167- 172 (2015).2015AcademicThe international prioritisation of criminal justice has unintentionally done a disservice to prevention and protection measures.JusticeCriminal justiceInternational justiceSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Singapore000001000000000000000000000000000000
212
94Kathryn Baer, "The Trafficking Protocol and the Anti-Trafficking Framework: Insufficient to Address Exploitation," The Anti-Trafficking Review 4: 167- 172 (2015).2015AcademicTo effectively prevent human trafficking, the antitrafficking movement should reallocate its discourse and resources to the conditions that underpin exploitationJusticeCriminal justiceInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Singapore000001000000000000000000000000000000
213
95Kelly Richards and Samantha Lyneham, "Help-seeking strategies of victim/survivors of human trafficking involving partner migration," Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice 468 (2014).2014AcademicEducating the community and professionals from a wide range of sectors about human trafficking and the help-seeking strategies of victims/survivors provides the public with the information and tools to identify survivors and refer them to the appropriate services for recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportEducationMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals8Australia000000000000000000000000000000000000
214
95Kelly Richards and Samantha Lyneham, "Help-seeking strategies of victim/survivors of human trafficking involving partner migration," Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice 468 (2014).2014AcademicEnsuring that victims of human trafficking involving partner migration are not misidentified as victims of domestic violence guarantees that they receive the appropriate response and support.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportGenderMigrationMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals8Australia000000000000000000000000000000000000
215
96Ken MacLean, "Lawfare and Impunity in Burma since the 2000 Ban on Forced Labour," Asian Studies Review, 36, 2: 189-206 (2012).2012AcademicActs of "lawfare" shape interactions between Burma and the ILO, and reveal the limits of their complaint mechanism.JusticeInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Burma000000000000000000000000000000000000
216
97Laura C. Palombi, Hannah Van Ochten, and Caroline Patz, "The Pharmacists’ Role in Identifying and Supporting Victims of Human Trafficking" Journal of Human Trafficking 5, 3: 255-266 (2019).2019AcademicPharmacists require appropriate training (that they are not currently receiving) to recognise the signs of human trafficking.JusticeHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalIndividualsPharmacists (no number specified)USA000000000000000000000000000000010000
217
98Laura C. Palombi, Hannah Van Ochten, and Caroline Patz, "The Pharmacists’ Role in Identifying and Supporting Victims of Human Trafficking," Journal of Human Trafficking 5, 3: 255-266 (2019).2018AcademicDeveloping standardized human trafficking education and training in the healthcare sector ensures that correct information, trauma-informed and patient-centred care, and consistent messaging for health-care professionals is available.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1USA000000000000000000000110000000010000
218
98Laura C. Palombi, Hannah Van Ochten, and Caroline Patz, "The Pharmacists’ Role in Identifying and Supporting Victims of Human Trafficking," Journal of Human Trafficking 5, 3: 255-266 (2019).2018AcademicA trauma-informed approach is useful in guiding pharmacists in their goals of identification, questioning, and intervening in a trafficking situation.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1USA000000000000000000000100000000000000
219
98Laura C. Palombi, Hannah Van Ochten, and Caroline Patz, "The Pharmacists’ Role in Identifying and Supporting Victims of Human Trafficking," Journal of Human Trafficking 5, 3: 255-266 (2019).2018AcademicPharmacists are in a good position to identify victims of trafficking because they are accessible and free of charge, and patients can remain completely anonymous while talking with them.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1USA000000000000000000000000000000000000
220
99Laura C. Palombi, Hannah Van Ochten, and Caroline Patz, "The Pharmacists’ Role in Identifying and Supporting Victims of Human Trafficking" Journal of Human Trafficking 5, 3: 255-266 (2019).2019AcademicA standardized education for healthcare professionals will help recognize and assist victims of human trafficking.JusticeHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalIndividualsPharmacists (no number specified)USA000000000000000000000000000000010000
221
100Laura Cordisco Tsai, Ivy Flor Seballos-Llena & Rabia Ann Castellano-Datta, "Participatory Assessment of a Matched Savings Program for Human Trafficking Survivors and their Family Members in the Philippines", Forum: Qualitative Social Research (2017)2017AcademicMoney-saving initiatives like BARUG help survivors of trafficking gain financial independence.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals15Philippines000000000000000000010000000000000000
222
100Laura Cordisco Tsai, Ivy Flor Seballos-Llena & Rabia Ann Castellano-Datta, "Participatory Assessment of a Matched Savings Program for Human Trafficking Survivors and their Family Members in the Philippines", Forum: Qualitative Social Research (2017)2017AcademicProviding an emotionally supportive environment as well as financial advice helps survivors process any financial pressures that they may be experiencing in their families.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals15Philippines000000000000000000010000000000000000
223
100Laura Cordisco Tsai, Ivy Flor Seballos-Llena & Rabia Ann Castellano-Datta, "Participatory Assessment of a Matched Savings Program for Human Trafficking Survivors and their Family Members in the Philippines", Forum: Qualitative Social Research (2017)2017AcademicPhotovoice is an effective method for participatory research with survivors of modern slavery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals15Philippines000000000000000000000000000000000000
224
101Laura Cordisco Tsai, The Process of Managing Family Financial Pressures Upon Community Reentry Among Survivors of Sex Trafficking in the Philippines: A Grounded Theory Study, Journal of Human Trafficking (2017).2017AcademicCulturally appropriate support services help survivors achieve their financial goals while navigating financial pressures from multiple family actors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals22Philippines000000000000000000010000000000000000
225
102Laura Cordisco Tsai, Vanntheary Lim & Channtha Nhanh. "'I Feel Like We Are People Who Have Never Known Each Other Before': The Experiences of Survivors of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation Transitioning From Shelters to Life in the Community", Forum: Qualitative Social Research 21,1 (2020).2020AcademicIncluding survivors in the development of their individual reintegration strategy provides them with a sense of independence and self-determination.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals79Cambodia000000000000000000000010000000000000
226
102Laura Cordisco Tsai, Vanntheary Lim & Channtha Nhanh. "'I Feel Like We Are People Who Have Never Known Each Other Before': The Experiences of Survivors of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation Transitioning From Shelters to Life in the Community", Forum: Qualitative Social Research 21,1 (2020).2020AcademicIncreasing shelters’ long-term support for survivors transitioning back into communities and creating consistency within services would manage survivors’ expectations and ensure fair and equal treatment.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals79Cambodia000000000000000000100000000000000000
227
102Laura Cordisco Tsai, Vanntheary Lim & Channtha Nhanh. "'I Feel Like We Are People Who Have Never Known Each Other Before': The Experiences of Survivors of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation Transitioning From Shelters to Life in the Community", Forum: Qualitative Social Research 21,1 (2020).2020AcademicIncreasing survivors’ involvement and interaction with the community whilst in the shelter program would aid the integration of survivors upon release.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals79Cambodia000000000000000000000000000000000000
228
103Laura Cordisco Tsai, Vanntheary Lim and Channtha Nhanh, "Experiences of trafficked and sexually exploited boys transitioning from shelter programmes into the community: Findings from a longitudinal study," Children and Society 34, 5 (2020).2020AcademicAdopting a rights-based approach and including survivors in the decision of when and how to begin reintegration and reunification with family would help to install a sense of independence and more adequately prepare both the survivor and their family for the process.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals22Cambodia000000000000000000000010000000000000
229
103Laura Cordisco Tsai, Vanntheary Lim and Channtha Nhanh, "Experiences of trafficked and sexually exploited boys transitioning from shelter programmes into the community: Findings from a longitudinal study," Children and Society 34, 5 (2020).2020AcademicDeveloping a clear and consistent framework of support from shelters and community organisations with regards to reintegration would manage survivors’ expectations and ensure equal treatment.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals22Cambodia000000000000000000000000000000000000
230
103Laura Cordisco Tsai, Vanntheary Lim and Channtha Nhanh, "Experiences of trafficked and sexually exploited boys transitioning from shelter programmes into the community: Findings from a longitudinal study," Children and Society 34, 5 (2020).2020AcademicStrengthening family systems and engagement between survivors and their families while clients are within shelters helps the reintegration process.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals22Cambodia000000000000000000000000000000000000
231
104Laura Simich, Lucia Goyen, Andrew Powell and Karen Mallozzi, "Improving Human Trafficking Victim Identification—Validation and Dissemination of a Screening Tool," VERA Institute of Justice (2014).2014NGOBuilding trust, ensuring safety and meeting victims‘ legal, social and health needs are fundamental considerations in victim identification.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceMixedYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations11Other230USA000000000000000000000010100000001000
232
104Laura Simich, Lucia Goyen, Andrew Powell and Karen Mallozzi, "Improving Human Trafficking Victim Identification—Validation and Dissemination of a Screening Tool," VERA Institute of Justice (2014).2014NGOIntroducing a comprehensive screening tool improves victim identification, victim services and law enforcement efforts on a nation-wide scale.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceMixedYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations11Other230USA001000000000000000000000000000000000
233
105Lauren A. McCarthy, "Life after Trafficking in Azerbaijan: Reintegration experiences of survivors," Anti-Trafficking Review 10: 105-122 (2018).2018AcademicDespite short-term successes, focussing on long-term assistance of survivors of sex trafficking in Azerbaijan would help survivors reintegrate into society.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderSecondary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals22Azerbaijan000000000000000000100000000000000000
234
106Lenore Lyons and Michele Ford, "Trafficking Versus Smuggling: Malaysia's Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act"in Human Trafficking in Asia: Forcing Issues, ed. Sallie Yea (London and New York: Routledge, 2014).2014AcademicThe geopolitics of regional border control in Malaysia shape and negatively impact its response to smuggling and trafficking, compounded by weak human rights practices. JusticeCrisisInternational justiceCriminal justiceMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Malaysia000000000000000010000000000000000000
235
107Letizia Palumbo, "Protection of trafficked people in Italy: policies, limits and challenges," Journal of Money Laundering Control 18, 1 (2015).2015AcademicNarrow interpretations of the requirements for the residence permit indicated in Article 18 can deprive of protection a large group of exploited and vulnerable migrants who suffer abuse and are involved in trafficking, but do not meet the thresholds for being identified as victims.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Italy000000000000000010000000000000000000
236
107Letizia Palumbo, "Protection of trafficked people in Italy: policies, limits and challenges," Journal of Money Laundering Control 18, 1 (2015).2015AcademicPrioritising the pursuit of criminal prosecutions over help and protection for victims undermines the effectiveness of anti-trafficking interventions.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Italy000001000000000000000000000000000000
237
107Letizia Palumbo, "Protection of trafficked people in Italy: policies, limits and challenges," Journal of Money Laundering Control 18, 1 (2015).2015AcademicFocusing on immigration and criminalisation results in missed identification opportunities of trafficking victims and creates a sense of distrust in law enforcement.JusticeCrisisCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Italy000001000000000010000000000000000000
238
107Letizia Palumbo, "Protection of trafficked people in Italy: policies, limits and challenges," Journal of Money Laundering Control 18, 1 (2015).2015AcademicCreating a sole, national identification system in Italy would assist in the identification and extraction of victims from slavery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Italy000000000000000000000000000000000000
239
107Letizia Palumbo, "Protection of trafficked people in Italy: policies, limits and challenges," Journal of Money Laundering Control 18, 1 (2015).2015AcademicFocusing identification efforts solely on young female victims of sexual exploitation means that victims who fall outside of those categorises can be missed.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Italy000000000000000000000001000000000000
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108Lillian Chang, "An Education for Mental Health Care Providers: Sex Trafficking Victim Identification" Arizona State University (2018).2018AcademicEducation and training is essential for mental health care providers in order for them to provide effective quality care for sex trafficking victims.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyNoQuantitativeQuasi-experimentalCountries1Individuals9United States (Arizona)000000000000000000000000000001010000
241
109Lilly Yu, Jeanette Hussemann, Hanna Love, Evelyn McCoy, and Colleen Owens, 'Alternative Forms of Justice for Human Trafficking Survivors: Considering Procedural, Restorative, and Transitional Justice,' Urban Institute (2018).2018NGONonpunitive forms of justice are a promising alternative form of resolution for survivors of human trafficking that service provider and criminal justice stakeholders can incorporate into their practises in addition to, or instead of, existing remedies. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justicePrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals80USA000000000000000000000000000000000000
242
110Lin Huff-Corzine, Sarah Ann Sacra, Jay Corzine & Rachel Rados "Florida’s task force approach to combat human trafficking: an analysis of county-level data," 18, 3:245-258 Police Practice and Research (2017).2017AcademicThe presence of a multi-agency antitrafficking task force in a county area increases the rate of trafficking arrests.JusticeCriminal justiceSecondary StudyNoQuantitativeObservationalCountries1Communities1Florida, USA011000000000000000000000000000000000
243
111Lisa R. Muftić, "Attitudes Regarding Criminal Justice Responses to Sex Trafficking among Law Enforcement Officers in Bosnia and Herzegovina," Journal of Criminal Justice and Security, 15, 2: 177-189 (2013).2013AcademicExamining officer's attitudes to those engaged in trafficking (victims, traffickers, customers) would help develop training in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with particular regard to breaking stereotypes and providing factual information.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportGenderPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries2Organisations1Individuals363Bosnia and Herzegovina100000000000000000000001000000000000
244
112Lorena Arocha, "Wrong kind of victim? One year on: an analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons," Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2010). 2010NGOEducating law enforcement on the current definition of human trafficking as outlined in the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings ensures that victims are not falsely criminalised.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceInternational justiceMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1UK100000100000000000000001000000000000
245
112Lorena Arocha, "Wrong kind of victim? One year on: an analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons," Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2010). 2010NGOEmploying a victim-centred approach when considering cases of trafficking avoids potential discrimination and further traumatisation.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1UK000000000000000000000010000000000000
246
112Lorena Arocha, "Wrong kind of victim? One year on: an analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons," Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2010). 2010NGOIntroducing guardians for child victims of trafficking ensures that each child has individual support once identified.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1UK000000000000000000000000000000000000
247
112Lorena Arocha, "Wrong kind of victim? One year on: an analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons," Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2010). 2010NGOIntroducing an independent monitor or a national watchdog would ensure that government anti-trafficking policy is being correctly and effectively enacted.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1UK000000010000000000000000000000000000
248
113Louise Gomez-Mera, "Regime Complexity and Global Governance: The case of trafficking in Persons, European Journal of International Relations 3, 4 :303-326 (2017). 2016AcademicThe UN trafficking Protocol's crime control approach to trafficking with emphases on prosecution, law enforcement and border control has negative human rights externalities.CrisisJusticeMigrationCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AOther2Organisations2Global - The UN000001000000000010000000000000000000
249
113Louise Gomez-Mera, "Regime Complexity and Global Governance: The case of trafficking in Persons, European Journal of International Relations 3, 4 :303-326 (2017). 2016AcademicA rights-based approach is needed to develop legal instruments within the human rights regime that complement the criminal law approach of the UN ProtocolCrisisJusticeMigrationCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AOther2Organisations2Global - The UN000001000000000000000000000000000000
250
113Louise Gomez-Mera, "Regime Complexity and Global Governance: The case of trafficking in Persons, European Journal of International Relations 3, 4 :303-326 (2017). 2015AcademicRestrictive migration policies undermines the goals of global anti-trafficking policy. CrisisJusticeMigrationInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AOther1Organisations1Global - The UN000000000000000010000000000000000000
251
113Louise Gomez-Mera, "Regime Complexity and Global Governance: The case of trafficking in Persons, European Journal of International Relations 3, 4 :303-326 (2017). 2015AcademicWeak cooperation between state actors in the protection of migrant workers undermines the goals of global anti-trafficking policy. CrisisJusticeMigrationInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AOther1Organisations1Global - The UN000000000000000100000000000000000000
252
114Lucrecia Rubio Grundell, "EU Anti-Trafficking Policies and Crime Control to Prevention and Protection," Migration Policy Centre (2015).2015NGOThe root causes of trafficking, including EU migration laws, must be reviewed and addressed across the EU in order to achieve a reduction in trafficking.CrisisJusticeMigrationCriminal justiceInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceYesNon-empiricalObservationalOrganisations1European Union000000000000000000000000000000000000
253
114Lucrecia Rubio Grundell, "EU Anti-Trafficking Policies and Crime Control to Prevention and Protection," Migration Policy Centre (2015).2015NGOA revision of EU anti-trafficking policies to ensure more inclusive decision-making would improve anti-trafficking efforts in the region. CrisisJusticeMigrationCriminal justiceInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceYesNon-empiricalObservationalOrganisations1European Union000000000000000000000000000000000000
254
114Lucrecia Rubio Grundell, "EU Anti-Trafficking Policies and Crime Control to Prevention and Protection," Migration Policy Centre (2015).2015NGOA revision of EU anti-trafficking policies to focus on exploitation and not on the irregular crossing of borders would improve anti-trafficking efforts in the region.CrisisJusticeMigrationCriminal justiceInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceYesNon-empiricalObservationalOrganisations1European Union000000000000000010000000000000000000
255
114Lucrecia Rubio Grundell, "EU Anti-Trafficking Policies and Crime Control to Prevention and Protection," Migration Policy Centre (2015).2015NGOA revision of EU anti-trafficking policies to facilitate harmonisation of penalties between states would improve anti-trafficking efforts in the region. CrisisJusticeMigrationCriminal justiceInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceYesNon-empiricalObservationalOrganisations1European Union000000000000000001000000000000000000
256
114Lucrecia Rubio Grundell, "EU Anti-Trafficking Policies and Crime Control to Prevention and Protection," Migration Policy Centre (2015).2015NGOA revision of EU anti-trafficking policies to guarantee that measures regarding protection are made compulsory, non-discriminatory, unconditional, and adequate would improve domestic practice and protection for victims. CrisisJusticeMigrationCriminal justiceInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceYesNon-empiricalObservationalOrganisations1European Union000000000000000000000000000000000000
257
115Maite Verhoeven & Barbra van Gestel. Human trafficking and criminal investigation strategies in the Amsterdam Red Light District. Trends in Organised Crime. 2011AcademicInvolving community police in criminal investigations increases the chances of identifying victims.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Other4Amsterdam, Netherlands011000000000000000000000000000000000
258
116Margaret Chambeshi, Amanda Eckhardt, Xinyi Wang, Chris Muller, "Heathcare Access for Foreign-National Survivors of Trafficking," Restore NYC (2019).2019NGOIntroducing a trafficking questionnaire administered by healthcare professionals with questions about threats, intimidation, and passport/ID confiscation helps with trafficking identification.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations1Individuals76USA000000000000000000000000000000000100
259
116Margaret Chambeshi, Amanda Eckhardt, Xinyi Wang, Chris Muller, "Heathcare Access for Foreign-National Survivors of Trafficking," Restore NYC (2019).2019NGOProviding language-specific resources in healthcare settings on human trafficking and services is an effective way of getting information to survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations1Individuals76USA000000000000000000000000000000000010
260
116Margaret Chambeshi, Amanda Eckhardt, Xinyi Wang, Chris Muller, "Heathcare Access for Foreign-National Survivors of Trafficking," Restore NYC (2019).2019NGOEmphasising to foreign nationals that they will not be reported to immigration authorities in healthcare settings is essential as it creates trust and promotes greater disclosure of trafficking experience.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations1Individuals76New York, USA000000000000000010000000000000000000
261
116Margaret Chambeshi, Amanda Eckhardt, Xinyi Wang, Chris Muller, "Heathcare Access for Foreign-National Survivors of Trafficking," Restore NYC (2019).2019NGOIntroducing targeted training on human trafficking identification and resource coordination for primary care, OB/GYN, and emergency departments, with emphasis on facilities within ethnic communities, aids identification of victims and improves the referral process.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Organisations1Individuals76New York, USA000000000000000000000000000000010000
262
116Margaret Chambeshi, Amanda Eckhardt, Xinyi Wang, Chris Muller, "Heathcare Access for Foreign-National Survivors of Trafficking," Restore NYC (2019).2015AcademicEstablishing departmental supports within law enforcement, such as a formal human trafficking procedure, protocol, or policy, increases the likelihood that suspected human trafficking cases will be identified and investigated.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justicePrimary StudyYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals404Kentucky, USA001000000000000000000000000000000000
263
117Mariyana Radeva Berke, "Labour exploitation and trafficking for labour exploitation—trends and challenges for policy-making," Academy of European Law (2015).2015AcademicIntroducing a ‘change of imagery’ to prevention and identification campaigns would expand current, limited understandings of trafficking to include victims of labour exploitation.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AEurope000000000000000000000001000000000000
264
117Mariyana Radeva Berke, "Labour exploitation and trafficking for labour exploitation—trends and challenges for policy-making," Academy of European Law (2015).2015AcademicIntroducing a ‘change of imagery’ to the protection of trafficked persons would encourage organisations to develop in order to work with male survivors of trafficking as well as women, and victims of labour exploitation as well sexual, and thus cater and expand their services accordingly.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AEurope000000000000000000000001000000000000
265
117Mariyana Radeva Berke, "Labour exploitation and trafficking for labour exploitation—trends and challenges for policy-making," Academy of European Law (2015).2015AcademicIntroducing a ‘change of imagery’ within the prosecution framework adjusts the image of the perpetrator by recognising the diversity of people who may fall into that category.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AEurope000000000000000000000001000000000000
266
118Marlene Matos and Mariana Gonçalves, "Human trafficking and criminal proceedings in Portugal: discourses of professionals in the justice system,"Trends in Organized Crime 21,4: 370-400 (2018).2018AcademicInsufficient implementation of victim protection hinders Portuguese antitrafficking prosecution. JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations12Individuals18Portugal000100000000000000000000000000000000
267
118Marlene Matos and Mariana Gonçalves, "Human trafficking and criminal proceedings in Portugal: discourses of professionals in the justice system,"Trends in Organized Crime 21,4: 370-400 (2018).2018AcademicInvestigation and prosecution strategies that rely heavily on survivor testimony hinder antitrafficking prosecution in Portugal.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations12Individuals18Portugal000000001000000000000000000000000000
268
118Marlene Matos and Mariana Gonçalves, "Human trafficking and criminal proceedings in Portugal: discourses of professionals in the justice system,"Trends in Organized Crime 21,4: 370-400 (2018).2018AcademicDisaggregation of trafficking crimes in Portuguese legislation impedes effective antitrafficking prosecution.JusticeCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations12Individuals18Portugal000010000000000000000000000000000000
269
118Marlene Matos and Mariana Gonçalves, "Human trafficking and criminal proceedings in Portugal: discourses of professionals in the justice system,"Trends in Organized Crime 21,4: 370-400 (2018).2018AcademicCloser collaboration between Portuguese law enforcement institutions would support effective antitrafficking prosecution. JusticeCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations12Individuals18Portugal010000000000000000000000000000000000
270
118Marlene Matos and Mariana Gonçalves, "Human trafficking and criminal proceedings in Portugal: discourses of professionals in the justice system,"Trends in Organized Crime 21,4: 370-400 (2018).2018AcademicEstablishment and education of specialised, proactive antitrafficking investigators or teams would support effective Portuguese antitrafficking efforts.JusticeCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations12Individuals18Portugal001000000000000000000000000000000000
271
119Marley S. Weiss, "Human Trafficking and Forced Labor: A Primer," ABA Journal of Labor & Employment Law 31,1: 1-52 (2015).2015AcademicU.S. firms can decrease the risk of human trafficking violations by shortening their labour supply chain and where possible, directly employing workers.MarketsJusticeSupply chainsCriminal justiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries1USA000000000000000000000000000000000000
272
119Marley S. Weiss, "Human Trafficking and Forced Labor: A Primer," ABA Journal of Labor & Employment Law 31,1: 1-52 (2015).2015AcademicEstablishing suitable mechanisms for work observation and worker complaint procedures throughout U.S. firms' supply and value chains, including collaboration with trade unions and works councils, may decrease the firms' risk of human trafficking violations.MarketsJusticeSupply chainsCivil justiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries1USA000000000000001000000000000000000000
273
119Marley S. Weiss, "Human Trafficking and Forced Labor: A Primer," ABA Journal of Labor & Employment Law 31,1: 1-52 (2015).2015AcademicNegotiating contractual terms that allow American firms greater control over foreign businesses in their value chains may decrease their risk of human trafficking violations.MarketsJusticeSupply chainsCivil justiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries1USA000000000000000000000000000000000000
274
120Martina Angela Caretta.Casa Rut, "A Multilevel Analysis of a “Good Practice” in the Social Assistance of Sexually Trafficked Nigerian Women," Affilia 30,4 546-559 (2015).2015AcademicCasa Rut’s NewHope vocational training programme is effective at securing short and long-term employment for survivors of sex trafficking.MarketsJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationGenderSocial policyPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries2Individuals15Italy and Nigeria000000000000000000010000000000000000
275
120Martina Angela Caretta.Casa Rut, "A Multilevel Analysis of a “Good Practice” in the Social Assistance of Sexually Trafficked Nigerian Women," Affilia 30,4 546-559 (2015).2015AcademicThe NGO Casa Rut constitutes ‘good practice’ in the effort to combat sex trafficking in Italy.MarketsJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderMigrationPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries2Individuals15Italy and Nigeria000000000000000000000000000000000000
276
121Masja van Meeteren and Ellen Wiering. Labour trafficking in Chinese restaurants in the Netherlands and the role of Dutch immigration policies. A qualitative analysis of investigative case files. Crime, Law and Social Change.2019AcademicIncreasing the robustness of current migration laws in the Netherlands so as to avoid loopholes in policies would ensure that migrants are less vulnerable to exploitation.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Other8Netherlands000000000000000010000000000000000000
277
122Megan E Beck, Megan M Lineer, Marlene Melzer-Lange, Pippa Simpson, Melodee Nugent, Angela Rabbitt, " Medical Providers’ Understanding of Sex Trafficking and Their Experience with At-Risk Patients," Pediatrics, 135, 4: (2015).2015AcademicTraining is crucial for identification of paediatric sex trafficking victims, and to provide appropriate care for their specific needs.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceSocial policyPrimary StudyNoQuantitativeObservationalCountries1United States (Wisconsin)000000000000000000000010000000010000
278
123Meghan A. Camp, John R. Barner and David Okech, "Implications of human trafficking in Asia: a scoping review of aftercare initiatives centered on economic development," Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work 15,2 204-214 (2018).2018AcademicEffective aftercare for survivors of trafficking must include access to economic development opportunities.MarketsJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportEconomic policyDevelopment policyFinancial policySecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries51Other16 articlesAsia (including Australia and New Zealand)000000000000000000010000000000000000
279
124Mia Mahmudur Rahim and Sk Samidul Islam, "‘It isn’t “help,” it’s work’: Legal regulation of domestic work in Bangladesh," Common Law World Review 47, 4: 272-289 (2018).2018AcademicCreating new legislation specifically for domestic workers would ensure protection for the rights of domestic workers in Bangladesh.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCivil justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Bangladesh000000000000001000000000000000000000
280
125Michael Wilson and Erin O’Brien, "Constructing the ideal victim in the United States of America’s annual trafficking in persons reports," Crime, Law and Social Change (2016).2016AcademicComplicating the US Government’s idealised conception of victimisation in their often-one-dimensional depictions of perpetrators and survivors of trafficking would aid victim identification and support and ensure equal treatment.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportInternational justiceSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsN/ACountries1Other361Other25USA000000000000000000000001000000000000
281
126Michelle Madden Dempsey, "Decriminalizing Victims of Sex Trafficking," Villanova Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper Series (2015). 2015AcademicThe “Nordic Model” is the most effective means of achieving decriminalization of sex trafficking victims and reducing sex trafficking.JusticeCriminal justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsN/A000000000000000000000000000000000000
282
126Michelle Madden Dempsey, "Decriminalizing Victims of Sex Trafficking," Villanova Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper Series (2015). 2015AcademicIncomplete safe harbour laws fail as a method of decriminalising sex trafficking victims in the US.JusticeCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/A000000000000000000000000000000000000
283
126Michelle Madden Dempsey, "Decriminalizing Victims of Sex Trafficking," Villanova Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper Series (2015). 2015AcademicScreening and diversion upon arrest is inadequate for decriminalising sex trafficking victims.JusticeCriminal justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsN/A000000000000000000000000000000000000
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126Michelle Madden Dempsey, "Decriminalizing Victims of Sex Trafficking," Villanova Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper Series (2015). 2015AcademicDecriminalising all parties involved in commercial sex does not work as an anti-trafficking method.JusticeCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/A000000000000000000000000000000000000
285
127Miranda Wothen, "Sex Trafficking or Sex Work? Conceptions of trafficking Among Anti-Trafficking Orgnaizations in Nepal," Refugee Survey Quarterly 30, 3: 87-106 (2011).2011AcademicEmployment of a Prostitution Framework by anti-trafficking advocates in Nepal and globally negatively impacts anti-trafficking programming and creates disagreement on why trafficking occurs and how to prevent it, hindering steps to prevent exploitation. CrisisJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationGenderMixedYesQualitativeObservationalIndividuals31000000000000000000000000000000000000
286
128Miriam Potocky, "Effectiveness of Services for Victims of International Human Trafficking: An Exploratory Evaluation," Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 8,4: 359-385.2010AcademicCentring client empowerment in victim support services ensures that victims’ self-efficacy and sense of responsibility are increased.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Organisations1Florida, USA000000000000000000000010000000000000
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128Miriam Potocky, "Effectiveness of Services for Victims of International Human Trafficking: An Exploratory Evaluation," Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 8,4: 359-385.2010AcademicProviding suitable housing for survivors that is separate, but located close together would improve survivors’ recovery and reintegration.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Organisations1Florida, USA000000000000000000000000010000000000
288
129Mogos O Brhane, "Trafficking in persons for Ransom and the Need to Expand the Interpretation of Article 3 of the UN Trafficking Protocol," Anti-Trafficking Review. 4 (2015)
2015AcademicInterpreting article 3 of the UN Trafficking Protocol to include trafficking in persons for ransom would increase the coverage of the provision, improving efforts to adress this practice. JusticeInternational justiceCriminal justiceMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Eritrea000010000000000000000000000000000000
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130Nadejda Bespalova, Juliet Morgan, John Coverdale, "A Pathway to Freedom: An Evaluation of Screening Tools for the Identification of Trafficking Victims," Academic Psychiatry 40, 2: 124-8.2014AcademicThe Polaris Project Medical Assessment Tool is best suited for screening human trafficking victims in the US.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsSystematic reviewCountries1Other9United States000000000000000000000000000000000100
290
131Naomi L. Svensson, "From Inside Prison Walls: Interviews with Incarcerated Brothel Owners and Human Traffickers in Cambodia," International Justice Mission (2011).2011AcademicProviding training to public justice officials ensures that cases are handled in a professional and competent manner.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals57Cambodia100000000000000000000000000000000000
291
131Naomi L. Svensson, "From Inside Prison Walls: Interviews with Incarcerated Brothel Owners and Human Traffickers in Cambodia," International Justice Mission (2011).2011NGOProviding assistance to women in the commercial sex industry regardless of their entry point would ensure that all individuals receive equal access to support and justice.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportGenderPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals57Cambodia000000000000000000000000000000000000
292
131Naomi L. Svensson, "From Inside Prison Walls: Interviews with Incarcerated Brothel Owners and Human Traffickers in Cambodia," International Justice Mission (2011).2011NGOProviding translators during investigation and prosecution would ensure that everyone receives a fair trial and justice is maintained.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals57Cambodia000000000000100000000000000000000000
293
132Naomi M. Twigg, "Comprehensive Care Model for Sex Trafficking Survivors," Journal of Nursing Scholarship (2016).2016AcademicVictims of domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States require ongoing and long-term support from U.S. residential treatment centres.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations5 residential treatment centresIndividuals5USA000000000000000000100000000000000000
294
132Naomi M. Twigg, "Comprehensive Care Model for Sex Trafficking Survivors," Journal of Nursing Scholarship (2016).2016AcademicVictims of domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States require immediate support from U.S. residential treatment centres.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations5 residential treatment centresIndividuals5USA000000000000000000000000000100000000
295
132Naomi M. Twigg, "Comprehensive Care Model for Sex Trafficking Survivors," Journal of Nursing Scholarship (2016).2016AcademicVictims of domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States require healthcare support from U.S. residential treatment centres.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations5 residential treatment centresIndividuals5USA000000000000000000000000000000001000
296
133Neil Howard, "Protecting Children from Trafficking in Benin: In Need of Politics and Participation," Development in Practice 22,4: 460-472 (2012). 2012AcademicAnti-trafficking policies must respond to the needs and perspectives of communities in order to effect change.JusticeMarketsSurvivor engagement and supportDevelopment policyPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCommunities4Individuals171 respondentsCountries1Benin000000000000000000000000000000000000
297
133Neil Howard, "Protecting Children from Trafficking in Benin: In Need of Politics and Participation," Development in Practice 22,4: 460-472 (2012). 2012AcademicProviding individuals with local economic alternatives to labour migration helps protect young people from exploitation and trafficking.MarketsCrisisEconomic policyMigrationDevelopment policyPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCommunities4Individuals170 respondentsCountries1Benin000000000000000000000000000000000000
298
133Neil Howard, "Protecting Children from Trafficking in Benin: In Need of Politics and Participation," Development in Practice 22,4: 460-472 (2012). 2012AcademicMacro-level economic efforts to address the political-economy underpinnings of the lack of money in Benin that fuels labour migration and child labour is necessary to address exploitation.MarketsCrisisEconomic policyMigrationDevelopment policyPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCommunities4Individuals172 respondentsCountries1Benin000000000000000000000000000000000000
299
134Nicolae V. Ostrovschi, Martin J. Prince, Cathy Zimmerman, Mihai A. Hotineanu, Lilia T. Gorceag, Viorel I. Gorceag, Clare Flach and Melanie A. Abas, "Women in post-trafficking services in moldova: diagnostic interviews over two time periods to assess returning women’s mental health, BMC Public Health 11, 232 (2011).2011AcademicPost-trafficking mental health support including mental health assessment and care both in the crisis and the rehabilitation periods help victims with re-integration.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceGenderPrimary StudyYesMixed MethodsObservationalIndividuals120Moldova000000000000000000000000000000001000
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134Nicolae V. Ostrovschi, Martin J. Prince, Cathy Zimmerman, Mihai A. Hotineanu, Lilia T. Gorceag, Viorel I. Gorceag, Clare Flach and Melanie A. Abas, "Women in post-trafficking services in moldova: diagnostic interviews over two time periods to assess returning women’s mental health, BMC Public Health 11, 232 (2011).2011AcademicMental health care for survivors throughout the long-term rehabilitation period helps victims' reintegration.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceGenderPrimary StudyYesMixed MethodsObservationalIndividuals120Moldova000000000000000000100000000000000000
301
135Niklas Jakobsson and Andreas Kotsadam, "The law and economics of international sex slavery: prostitution laws and trafficking for sexual exploitation," European Journal of Law and Economics 35, 1 (2013).2013AcademicCriminalising procuring, or criminalising buying and/or selling sex, may reduce the amount of trafficking to a country by decreasing its profitability.JusticeMarketsCriminal justiceEconomic policySecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries2OtherGlobalSweden and Norway000000000000000000000000000000000000
302
136Nöel Busch-Armendariz, Maura Busch Msonwu, and Laurie Cook Heffron, "A Kaleidoscope: The Role of the Social Work Practitioner and the Strength of Social Work Theories and Practice in Meeting the Complex Needs of People Trafficked and the Professionals that Work with Them," International Social Work 57, 1:7-18 (2014). 2014AcademicCulturally competent and survivor-centred care is necessary in the provision of support for survivors of trafficking.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals55 respondentsOther5 yearsUSA000000000000000000000010000000000000
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136Nöel Busch-Armendariz, Maura Busch Msonwu, and Laurie Cook Heffron, "A Kaleidoscope: The Role of the Social Work Practitioner and the Strength of Social Work Theories and Practice in Meeting the Complex Needs of People Trafficked and the Professionals that Work with Them," International Social Work 57, 1:7-18 (2014). 2014AcademicSocial workers acting as a single point of contact for survivors and coordinating delivery of services improves consistency, efficiency, and effective delivery of services to survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals55 respondentsOther5 yearsUSA000000000000000000001000000000000000
304
136Nöel Busch-Armendariz, Maura Busch Msonwu, and Laurie Cook Heffron, "A Kaleidoscope: The Role of the Social Work Practitioner and the Strength of Social Work Theories and Practice in Meeting the Complex Needs of People Trafficked and the Professionals that Work with Them," International Social Work 57, 1:7-18 (2014). 2014AcademicSocial workers acting as a single point of contact improves trust and collaboration within multi-agency coalitions.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals55 respondentsOther5 yearsUSA000000000000000000000000000000000000
305
137Ntokozo Yingwana, Rebecca Walker, and Alex Etchart, ‘Sex Work, Migration, and Human Trafficking in South Africa: From polarised arguments to potential partnerships’, Anti-Trafficking Review 12: 74-90 (2019)2019AcademicCriminalisation of sex work in South Africa prevents sex workers from coming forward about trafficking abuses and exploitation, preventing the succesful eradication of trafficking.CrisisJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationGenderCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOrganisations2Other22IndividualsSouth Africa000001000000000000000000000000000000
306
137Ntokozo Yingwana, Rebecca Walker, and Alex Etchart, ‘Sex Work, Migration, and Human Trafficking in South Africa: From polarised arguments to potential partnerships’, Anti-Trafficking Review 12: 74-90 (2019)2019AcademicThe developent of a Sex Work, Exploitation, and Migration/Mobility Model, that takes into consideration the complexities of the quotidian experiences of migration and selling sex in South Africa would enable a more effective and productive partnership between sex worker organisations and other stakeholder groups, including anti-trafficking and labour rights organisations, and trade unions, which would enhance protection and improve the rights and well-being of victims of trafficking and sex workers.CrisisJusticeMigrationSurvivor engagement and supportGenderCivil justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOrganisations2Other22 Focus GroupsIndividuals2South Africa000000000000000000001000000000000000
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137Ntokozo Yingwana, Rebecca Walker, and Alex Etchart, ‘Sex Work, Migration, and Human Trafficking in South Africa: From polarised arguments to potential partnerships’, Anti-Trafficking Review 12: 74-90 (2019)2019AcademicThe conflation of sex work and human trafficking in South Africa makes it difficult to effectively identify and deal with cases and creates tension and distrust between sex worker and anti-trafficking activists.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOrganisations2Other22Individuals2South Africa000000000000000000000000000000000000
308
138Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 235 (2019).2019IntergovernmentalLaws and standards prohibiting child labour, regulating standards of work, and establishing minimum ages for employment are essential for taking action against child labour.JusticeCriminal justiceCivil justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000010000000001000000000000000000000
309
138Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 235 (2019).2019IntergovernmentalComprehensive and coordinated child labour monitoring systems are needed to ensure effective implementation and enforcement of laws and ensure effective efforts to address child labour.JusticeCivil justiceCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational001000010000000000000000000000000000
310
138Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 235 (2019).2019IntergovernmentalGovernment mandated corporate child labour due diligence supports the eradication of child labour.MarketsSupply chainsTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000000000000000000000000000000
311
138Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 235 (2019).2019IntergovernmentalA robust knowledge base on child labour trends and the impacts of different policies and interventions is necessary to support effective efforts to combat child labour.MarketsDevelopment policyTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000000000000000000000000000000
312
138Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 235 (2019).2019IntergovernmentalEconomic development decreases child labour.MarketsDevelopment policyEconomic policySocial policySecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalInternational000000000000000000000000000000000000
313
138Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 235 (2019).2019IntergovernmentalDecreasing poverty results in a decrease in child labour.MarketsDevelopment policyEconomic policySocial policySecondary StudyNoQuantitativeObservationalInternational000000000000000000000000000000000000
314
138Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 235 (2019).2019IntergovernmentalStable increases in family and parental income decrease child labour.MarketsDevelopment policySocial policySecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000000000000000000000000000000
315
138Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 235 (2019).2019IntergovernmentalPublic awareness raising and information campaigns are necessary to support the eradication of child labour.MarketsDevelopment policyEducationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000000000000000000000000000000
316
138Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 235 (2019).2019IntergovernmentalAffordable, accessible, high-quality, compulsory education up to the minimum age for employment supports reduction in child labour.MarketsDevelopment policyEducationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000000000000000000000000000000
317
138Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 235 (2019).2019IntergovernmentalImproving financial literacy of poor families contributes to the reduction of child labour.MarketsDevelopment policyEducationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000000000000000000000000000000
318
138Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 235 (2019).2019IntergovernmentalEnsuring social protection rights and support reduces the need for families to secure income through their children, and therefore supports reductions in child labour.MarketsSocial policyDevelopment policyTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000000000000000000000000000000
319
139Pardis Mahdavi, "Gender, labour and the law: the nexus of domestic work, human trafficking and the informal economy in the United Arab Emirates," Global Networks 13, 4: 425-440 (2013)2013AcademicNational and international policies and interventions designed to protect women from sex trafficking paradoxically make them more vulnerable to precarious employment and abuse. MarketsJusticeMigrationGenderEconomic policyDevelopment policyInternational justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals78UAE000000000000000000000000000000000000
320
140Paul Oluwatosin Bello and Adewale A Olutola, "The enforcement of anti-human trafficking law in South Africa: a case of an aircraft without a pilot," Police Practice and Research, 19, 3: 270-283 (2018).2018AcademicThe establishment of a specialised law enforcement agency distinct from the regular police structure with a robust understanding of trafficking is necessary to enforce anti-trafficking legislation in South Africa.JusticeCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals20 focus group membersSouth Africa001000000000000000000000000000000000
321
140Paul Oluwatosin Bello and Adewale A Olutola, "The enforcement of anti-human trafficking law in South Africa: a case of an aircraft without a pilot," Police Practice and Research, 19, 3: 270-283 (2018).2018AcademicThe South African Police Service has not been effective in the enforcement of anti-trafficking law in South Africa.JusticeCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1South Africa000000000000000000000000000000000000
322
141Polaris, "Promising Practices: an Overview of Trauma-Informed Therapeutic Support for Survivors of Human Trafficking," Polaris and Sanar (2015).2015NGOIntegrating individualised, trauma-informed expressive arts therapy into survivor support aids the recovery process and relieves trauma-related symptoms.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Organisations1New Jersey, USA000000000000000000000110000000000000
323
141Polaris, "Promising Practices: an Overview of Trauma-Informed Therapeutic Support for Survivors of Human Trafficking," Polaris and Sanar (2015).2015NGOIntroducing therapeutic and restorative yoga to individual and group counselling decreases trauma related symptoms in survivors of human trafficking.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Organisations1New Jersey, USA000000000000000000000100000000000000
324
141Polaris, "Promising Practices: an Overview of Trauma-Informed Therapeutic Support for Survivors of Human Trafficking," Polaris and Sanar (2015).2015NGOIntegrating sensory-based therapeutic support for survivors aids the processing of trauma-related symptoms.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Organisations1New Jersey, USA000000000000000000000100000000000000
325
142Pranab Dahal, Sunil Kumar Joshi, Katarina Swahnberg, " 'We are looked down upon and rejected socially’: A Qualitative Study of the Experiences of Trafficking Survivors in Nepal," Global Health Action, 8, 1 (2015).2015AcademicAddressing poverty, unemployment, and gender discrimination in Nepal would decrease people's vulnerability to human trafficking. JusticeGenderSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals10Nepal000000000000000000000000000000000000
326
142Pranab Dahal, Sunil Kumar Joshi, Katarina Swahnberg, " 'We are looked down upon and rejected socially’: A Qualitative Study of the Experiences of Trafficking Survivors in Nepal," Global Health Action, 8, 1 (2015).2015AcademicLong-term support, including addressing poverty, illiteracy, lack of opportunities, and social stigma, would help reduce risks of re-entrapment for trafficking survivors.JusticeGenderSurvivor engagement and supportEducationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals10Nepal000000000000000000100000000000000000
327
143Rachel Annison, "Hidden in plain sight: Three years on: updated analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons,"The Anti Trafficking Monitoring Group (2013).2013NGOProviding free and equal legal advice to survivors who wish to challenge their negative NRM decision would ensure that no person is doubly victimised.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCivil justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Other40UK000000000000000000000000100000000000
328
143Rachel Annison, "Hidden in plain sight: Three years on: updated analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons,"The Anti Trafficking Monitoring Group (2013).2013NGOProviding a longer recovery and reflection period ensures that survivors receive thorough and comprehensive care.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Other40United Kingdom000000000000000000100000000000000000
329
143Rachel Annison, "Hidden in plain sight: Three years on: updated analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons,"The Anti Trafficking Monitoring Group (2013).2013NGOIntroducing an NRM in countries increases awareness of human trafficking and encourages services in rural areas.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Other40UK000000000000000000001000000000000000
330
143Rachel Annison, "Hidden in plain sight: Three years on: updated analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons,"The Anti Trafficking Monitoring Group (2013).2013NGOProviding comprehensive and consistent training for first responders and those responsible for identifying victims would improve the identification process and avoid falsely criminalising victimsJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Other40UK000000000000000000000000000001000000
331
143Rachel Annison, "Hidden in plain sight: Three years on: updated analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons,"The Anti Trafficking Monitoring Group (2013).2013NGOProviding comprehensive and consistent training for first responders and those responsible for identifying victims would improve the identification process and avoid falsely criminalising victims.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Other40UK000000100000000000000000000001000000
332
143Rachel Annison, "Hidden in plain sight: Three years on: updated analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons,"The Anti Trafficking Monitoring Group (2013).2013NGOIntroducing quality control for interpreters during the NRM process would avoid bias or unprofessionalism.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Other40UK000000010000000000000000000000000000
333
144Rebecca J. Macy & Natalie Johns, "Aftercare Services for International Sex Trafficking Survivors: Informing U.S. Service and Program Development in an Emerging Practice Area," Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 12, 2: 87-98 (2011).2011AcademicA continuum of aftercare services in the US would help address sexual slavery survivors' changing needs as they transition from initial freedom to recovery and independence.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderSecondary StudyNoQualitativeSystematic reviewCountries1USA000000000000000000100010001000000000
334
145Rebecca M. Lutz, "Human trafficking, education for nurse practitioners: Integration into standard curriculum," Nurse Education Today 61: 66-69 (2018).2018AcademicIntegrating human trafficking education into nurse practitioners' standard curriculum in the United States would help nurses recognise signs of modern slavery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyNoQuantitativeQuasi-experimentalCountries1Organisations1Individuals73United States of America000000000000000000000000000000010000
335
146Rebecca Miller & Sebastian Baumeister, "Managing Migration: Is border control fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti-smuggling interventions?" Anti-Trafficking Review 2, 15-32 (2013).2013AcademicCombining managed migration and strict border controls with the protection of human rights would help reduce levels of trafficking in the current context of globalisation.JusticeCrisisInternational justiceMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AGlobal000000000000000010000000000000000000
336
147Rebecca Surtees, "At Home: Family reintegration of trafficked Indonesian men", Anti-Trafficking Review, 10 (2018)2018AcademicTaking into consideration the families and communities of trafficked Indonesian men helps to provide suitable, comprehensive support for their recovery and reintegration.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals49Indonesia000000000000000000000000000000000000
337
148Rebecca Surtees, "Beyond trafficking. The re/integration of trafficking victims in the Balkans, 2007 to 2014," NEXUS Institute (2015).2015NGOEstablishing a long-term, victim-centred approach to reintegration efforts ensures that survivors receive tailored, sustained supportJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries5Individuals39Individuals46The Balkans000000000000000000100010000000000000
338
148Rebecca Surtees, "Beyond trafficking. The re/integration of trafficking victims in the Balkans, 2007 to 2014," NEXUS Institute (2015).2015NGOOffering long-term, flexible grants to support local NGO efforts alongside building networks ensures that victims of trafficking receive high quality, long-term, comprehensive re/integration assistance.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries5Individuals39Individuals46The Balkans000000000000000000101000000000000000
339
149Rebecca Surtees, "Our Lives: Vulnerability and Resilience Among Indonesian Trafficking Victims", NEXUS (2017).2017AcademicProviding a diverse range of services to support all trafficked persons ensures that the assistance needs of survivors are met.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals108Indonesia000000000000000000000000001000000000
340
149Rebecca Surtees, "Our Lives: Vulnerability and Resilience Among Indonesian Trafficking Victims", NEXUS (2017).2017AcademicProviding support services that respond to the particular assistance needs of individual survivors enables recovery and reintegration. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals108Indonesia000000000000000000000010000000000000
341
149Rebecca Surtees, "Our Lives: Vulnerability and Resilience Among Indonesian Trafficking Victims", NEXUS (2017).2017AcademicEstablishing and funding assistance programs and policies that provide short-and long-term services ensures that support for survivors continues beyond immediate assistance needs.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals108Indonesia000000000000000000100000000000000000
342
149Rebecca Surtees, "Our Lives: Vulnerability and Resilience Among Indonesian Trafficking Victims", NEXUS (2017).2017AcademicInvolving family members when offering support to survivors aids the recovery and reintegration process.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals108Indonesia000000000000000000000000000000000000
343
149Rebecca Surtees, "Our Lives: Vulnerability and Resilience Among Indonesian Trafficking Victims", NEXUS (2017).2017AcademicDeveloping mandatory, accredited and current training to service providers and social workers would ensure equal and effective care for survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals108Indonesia000000000000000000000000000001000000
344
150Rebecca Surtees, "Trapped at Sea: Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers," Groningen Journal of International Law, 1,2: 91-151 (2013).2013AcademicEnsuring legal and regulatory frameworks support payment of compensation from traffickers and ship owners to trafficked fishers and seafarers deters offending in a profit-driven industry.JusticeMarketsCivil justiceSurvivor engagement and supportSupply chainsTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000000010000000000000000000000
345
150Rebecca Surtees, "Trapped at Sea: Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers," Groningen Journal of International Law, 1,2: 91-151 (2013).2013AcademicSupport and assistance for trafficked fishers and seafarers must be designed to meet their specific needs.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000000000000000010000000000000
346
150Rebecca Surtees, "Trapped at Sea: Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers," Groningen Journal of International Law, 1,2: 91-151 (2013).2013AcademicCollaboration between the anti-trafficking community and the seafaring and commercial fishing sectors would improve identification and protection of trafficked fishers and seafarers.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000000000000001000000000000000
347
150Rebecca Surtees, "Trapped at Sea: Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers," Groningen Journal of International Law, 1,2: 91-151 (2013).2013AcademicEffective prosecution of traffickers operating at sea acts as a deterrent to offending.JusticeCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000100000000000000000000000000
348
150Rebecca Surtees, "Trapped at Sea: Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers," Groningen Journal of International Law, 1,2: 91-151 (2013).2013AcademicRobust legislation addressing recruitment practices and enforcement of the legal and regulatory framework is necessary to prevent and address trafficking at sea.JusticeMarketsCivil justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000000001000000000000000000000
349
150Rebecca Surtees, "Trapped at Sea: Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers," Groningen Journal of International Law, 1,2: 91-151 (2013).2013AcademicEnsuring that recruitment fees are borne by employers rather than seafarers and fishers helps alleviate risk of trafficking.JusticeCivil justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalInternational000000000000001000000000000000000000
350
151Retina Rimal and Chris Papadopoulos, "The mental health of sexually trafficked female survivors in Nepal," International Journal of Social Psychiatry 62, 5: 487-495 (2016).2016AcademicIncorporating and prioritising mental health support within survivor support aids the recovery process.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals64Nepal000000000000000000000000000000001000
351
152Ronak B. Patel, Roy Ahn and Thomas F. Burke, "Human Trafficking in the Emergency Department," Western Journal of Emergency Medicine 11, 5: 402-404 (2010).2010AcademicUsing interpreters in healthcare settings assists in victim identification and treatment.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Individuals1USA000000000000000000000000000000000010
352
152Ronak B. Patel, Roy Ahn and Thomas F. Burke, "Human Trafficking in the Emergency Department," Western Journal of Emergency Medicine 11, 5: 402-404 (2010).2010AcademicTreating patients privately without friends or family present provides an opportunity for victims of trafficking to disclose information without the threat of the perpetrator. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Individuals1USA000000000000000000000000000000000000
353
153Ronald Weitzer. Sex Trafficking and the Sex Industry: The Need for Evidence-Based Theory and Legislation. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.2012AcademicEnsuring that future anti-trafficking laws are solidly evidence-based and utilize the best social science data available, would avoid a monolithic and simplistic portrayal of sexual commerce.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AWorldwide000000000010000000000001000000000000
354
154Ryan T. Shields and Elizabeth J. Letourneau, "Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Emergenceof Safe Harbor Legislation: Implications for Policy and Practice," Sexual Disorders (2015).2015AcademicIntroducing legislation such as Safe Harbour laws ensures that minors engaged in sexual exploitation are not criminalised and are treated as victims and given access to relevant support.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1USA000000100000000000000000000000000000
355
155Sallie Yea, "Human Trafficking and Jurisdictional Exceptionalism in the Global Fishing Industry: A Case Study of Singapore," Geopolitics, 2020.2020AcademicThe practice of jurisdictional exceptionalism pursued by governments allows for legal-spatial practices to exist which exclude trafficked migrant fishers from the human and labour rights.CrisisJusticeMigrationCivil justiceGenderCriminal justiceInternational justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalIndividuals32Other7Singapore, Cambodia, Phillippines and Indonesia000000000000001010000000000000000000
356
156Samantha Lyneham and Jacqueline Joudo Larsen, "Exploitation of Indonesian trafficked men, women and children and implications for support," Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice, 450 (2013).2013AcademicTailoring the support available to trafficked men, women and children in Indonesia to individual circumstances would help ensure survivor well-being.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceGenderChildren / minorsSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals3,701Indonesia000000000000000000000010000000000000
357
156Samantha Lyneham and Jacqueline Joudo Larsen, "Exploitation of Indonesian trafficked men, women and children and implications for support," Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice, 450 (2013).2013AcademicGender-based expectations can lead to some groups (commonly men) not getting or seeking the support they need in Indonesia.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals3,701Indonesia000000000000000000000001000000000000
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157Sanjai Bhatt, "Not Made By Children Project: An Impact Assessment Study," Global March Against Child Labour (2013).2013NGOSensitization drives that seek to educate communities on labour laws, worker rights and child labour help to raise awareness about exploitation and identify victims.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportEducationCivil justiceMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Communities3Bangalore, Tirupur and Delhi NCR, India000000000000001000000000000000000000
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157Sanjai Bhatt, "Not Made By Children Project: An Impact Assessment Study," Global March Against Child Labour (2013).2013NGOCreating ‘union stewards’ aids sensitization and education on labour rights, child labour and exploitation.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportEducationCivil justiceMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Communities3Bangalore, Tirupur and Delhi NCR, India000000000000001000000000000000000000
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157Sanjai Bhatt, "Not Made By Children Project: An Impact Assessment Study," Global March Against Child Labour (2013).2013NGOThe Labour Inspectorate is an important mechanism in restoring child labour free garment industry.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCivil justiceMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Communities3Bangalore, Tirupur and Delhi NCR, India000000000000001000000000000000000000
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157Sanjai Bhatt, "Not Made By Children Project: An Impact Assessment Study," Global March Against Child Labour (2013).2013AcademicCreating child labour free hubs lessens the need for child labour.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedYesMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Communities3Bangalore, Tirupur and Delhi NCR, India000000000000000000000000000000000000
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158Sarah Paoletti, Eleanor Taylor-Nicholson, Bandita Sijapati and Bassina Farbenblum, "Migrant Workers' Access to Justice at Home: Nepal," Open Society Foundations (2014).2014AcademicLegal frameworks governing foreign employment that treat migrant workers as rights-holders and ensure accountability of private and government actors involved in the recruitment industry would help remove barriers to accessing justice for migrant workers in Nepal, ultimately enabling migrant workers to effectively exercise their rights.CrisisJusticeMigrationCivil justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Nepal000000000000001010000000000000000000
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159Sarah Warpinski, "Protecting women and girls from human trafficking in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Toward Justice for Victims of Gender-Based Violence," Michigan State University College of Law International Law Review, 21,1 (2013).2013AcademicIncorporating victim-centered approaches in fulfillment of international obligations by the DRC government could help prevent further trafficking in persons, decrease impunity for perpetrators of sexual slavery, and protect victimized women and girls in the DRC.CrisisJusticeConflictHumanitarian contextsGenderSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ADRC000000000000000000000010000000000000
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160Siân Oram, Cathy Zimmerman, Brad Adams, and Joanna Busza, "International law, national policy-making, and the health of trafficked people in the UK," Health and Human Rights (2013).2011AcademicInternational and regional instruments that provide specific or mandated instruction about states’ health care obligations can be effective in furthering the health rights of vulnerable migrant groups.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceInternational justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals46UK000000000000000000000000000000000001
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161Stefano Caneppele and Marina Mancuso, "Are Protection Policies for Human Trafficking Victims Effective? An Analysis of the Italian Case," European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research (2013).2013AcademicThe Italian anti-trafficking legislation is effective at combatting human trafficking and providing assistance to its victims.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceSecondary StudyNoQuantitativeObservationalCountries1Italy000000000000000000000000000000000000
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162Stephanie J. Nawyn, Nur Banu Kavakli, Tuba Demirci-Yılmaz and Vanja Pantic Oflazoğlu, "Human Trafficking and Migration Management in the Global South," International Journal of Sociology 46,3 189-2014 (2016). 2016AcademicTrafficking of migrants in Turkey should be approached from a labour exploitation lens rather than a criminal justice approach because the latter paradoxically makes migrants more vulnerable to exploitation.MarketsJusticeMigrationCivil justiceSurvivor engagement and supportGenderMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals24Other3 citiesTurkey000000000000001000000000000000000000
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163Steven Donahue, Michael Schwien and Danielle La Vallee, "Educating Emergency Department Staff on the Identification and Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims" Journal of Emergency Nursing 45, 1: 16-23 (2019). 2019AcademicWith evidenced-based training, emergency department personnel have a better opportunity to screen persons who are being trafficked and intervene on their behalf.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyYesMixed MethodsQuasi-experimentalCountries1Individuals75United States (Philadelphia)000000000000000000000000000000010000
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164Susan Mapp, Emily Hornung, Madeleine D'Almeida & Jessica Juhnke, "Local Law Enforcement Officers' Knowledge of Human Trafficking: Ability to Define, Identify, and Assist," Journal of Human Trafficking, 2, 4: 329-342 (2016).2016AcademicFormal training of local law enforcement officers and provision of knowledge from law enforcement sources would help to more effectively combat human trafficking in the US.JusticeCriminal justicePrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Organisations7Individuals175United States of America 100000000000000000000000000000000000
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165Thanh Hung Tran, Tien Hoang Le and Thi Phuong Diep Tran, "Support Trafficking Victims through Inter-Agency Cooperation in Vietnam: Achievements and Limitations," Asian Journal of Criminology (2019).2019AcademicGovernment funding is required to support the medical and psychological treatment of survivors during the reintegration process in order to aid recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals15Vietnam000000000000000000000000000000001000
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165Thanh Hung Tran, Tien Hoang Le and Thi Phuong Diep Tran, "Support Trafficking Victims through Inter-Agency Cooperation in Vietnam: Achievements and Limitations," Asian Journal of Criminology (2019).2019AcademicProviding survivors with the tools to manage finances would aid their financial independence and reintegration back into the community.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportEducationMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals15Vietnam000000000000000000010000000000000000
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165Thanh Hung Tran, Tien Hoang Le and Thi Phuong Diep Tran, "Support Trafficking Victims through Inter-Agency Cooperation in Vietnam: Achievements and Limitations," Asian Journal of Criminology (2019).2019AcademicGovernment assistance, including support for essential needs and travelling expenses, reduces difficulties for victims during the rehabilitation stage.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSocial policyMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals15Vietnam000000000000000000010000000000000000
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165Thanh Hung Tran, Tien Hoang Le and Thi Phuong Diep Tran, "Support Trafficking Victims through Inter-Agency Cooperation in Vietnam: Achievements and Limitations," Asian Journal of Criminology (2019).2019AcademicProviding all survivors with legal advice would aid their reintegration and recovery process.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals15Vietnam000000000000000000000000100000000000
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165Thanh Hung Tran, Tien Hoang Le and Thi Phuong Diep Tran, "Support Trafficking Victims through Inter-Agency Cooperation in Vietnam: Achievements and Limitations," Asian Journal of Criminology (2019).2019AcademicEqual recognition of male and female survivors of modern slavery/human trafficking is necessary to support recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals15Vietnam000000000000000000000000000000000000
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166Thanos Maroukis, "Keeping Up Appearances: The British Public Policy Response to the Trafficking of Domestic Workers in a Changing Regime of Social Protection," Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies, 15, 2: 155-170 (2017).2017AcademicA weak regulatory environment intersects with the criminal justice policy to limit efforts to tackle exploitation in the UK.JusticeCrisisCriminal justiceMigrationMixedNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Individuals11United Kingdom000000000000000000000000000000000000
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166Thanos Maroukis, "Keeping Up Appearances: The British Public Policy Response to the Trafficking of Domestic Workers in a Changing Regime of Social Protection," Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies, 15, 2: 155-170 (2017).2017AcademicThe migration, welfare, and labour market environment in the UK has created a working culture within domestic work that leaves workers vulnerable.JusticeCrisisCivil justiceMigrationSocial policyMixedNoQualitativeSystematic reviewCountries1Individuals11United Kingdom000000000000000000000000000000000000
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167Thomas B Hofmann and Yaroslaba Garcia, "Partnership, the Fourth P, Enhances HT Service Efforts in Prevention, Protection and Prosecution Areas," Slavery Today 2,2: 1-15 (2015).2015AcademicCoordination between anti-trafficking actors at all three levels of action (prevention, protection and prosecution) is necessary to ensure effective support for survivors.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceMixedNoQualitativeObservationalOther2 countiesIndividuals16 respondentsCountries1US - Lee and Collier Counties, Florida000000000000000000001000000000000000
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167Thomas B Hofmann and Yaroslaba Garcia, "Partnership, the Fourth P, Enhances HT Service Efforts in Prevention, Protection and Prosecution Areas," Slavery Today 2,2: 1-15 (2015).2015AcademicCoordination between anti-trafficking actors at all three levels of action (prevention, protection and prosecution) would improve prevention efforts.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceMixedNoQualitativeObservationalOther2 countiesIndividuals16 respondentsCountries1US - Lee and Collier Counties, Florida000000000000000000000000000000000000
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167Thomas B Hofmann and Yaroslaba Garcia, "Partnership, the Fourth P, Enhances HT Service Efforts in Prevention, Protection and Prosecution Areas," Slavery Today 2,2: 1-15 (2015).2015AcademicCoordination between anti-trafficking actors at all three levels of action (prevention, protection and prosecution) would improve prosecutions.JusticeCriminal justiceMixedNoQualitativeObservationalOther2 countiesIndividuals16 respondentsCountries1US - Lee and Collier Counties, Florida010000000000000000000000000000000000
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168Toni Schofield, Julie Hepworth, Mairwen Jones and Eugene Schofield, "Health and community services for trafficked women: an exploratory study of policy and practice," Australian Journal Of Social Issues 46, 4: 391-410 (2016).2011AcademicAmending migration laws provides victims of trafficking easier access to health and community services.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceMigrationSocial policyPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations7Greater Sydney, Australia000000000000000010000000000000001000
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168Toni Schofield, Julie Hepworth, Mairwen Jones and Eugene Schofield, "Health and community services for trafficked women: an exploratory study of policy and practice," Australian Journal Of Social Issues 46, 4: 391-410 (2016).2011AcademicCoordinating government and NGO service provision for survivor support ensures that responsibilities for each party are clearly defined and implemented.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations7Australia000000000000000000000000000000000000
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168Toni Schofield, Julie Hepworth, Mairwen Jones and Eugene Schofield, "Health and community services for trafficked women: an exploratory study of policy and practice," Australian Journal Of Social Issues 46, 4: 391-410 (2016).2011AcademicEnsuring that government and non-governmental services are culturally sensitive and appropriate guarantees effective support for victims and establishes rapport.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations7Australia000000000000000000000000000000000000
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169Tuesday Reitano. "A Perilous but Profitable Crossing: The Changing Nature of Migrant Smuggling through sub-Saharan Africa to Europe and EU Migration Policy (2012-2015),"The European Review of Organised Crime2015AcademicStricter EU Border security in response to increased migration has inreased the likelihood of criminal groups becoming involved in facilitating passage, increasing chances of trafficking. CrisisJusticeHumanitarian contextsConflictDisplacementMigrationCriminal justiceMixedYesQualitativeObservationalEurope, Syria, Eritrea000000000000000010000000000000000000
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170United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), "Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Trafficking in Persons," UNODC (2020).2020IntergovernmentalEmbedding consideration of deeply entrenched inequalities in the economic development model that feed marginalization, gender-based violence, exploitation and trafficking in persons in COVID-19 response measures would improve efforts to address these practices longer-term. CrisisHumanitarian contextsDevelopment policyGenderUnclearNoQualitativeN/A000000000000000000000000000000000000
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171Vicky Brotherton, "Time to Deliver: "Considering pregnancy and parenthood in the UK’s response to human trafficking," The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2016).2016NGOProviding survivors with immediate access to health care, regardless of whether they have identification documents, would assist in their recovery process JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other15Other21UK000000000000000000000000000100000000
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171Vicky Brotherton, "Time to Deliver: "Considering pregnancy and parenthood in the UK’s response to human trafficking," The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2016).2016NGOProviding survivors with access to health care assists in their recovery process.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other15Other21UK000000000000000000000000000000001000
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171Vicky Brotherton, "Time to Deliver: "Considering pregnancy and parenthood in the UK’s response to human trafficking," The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2016).2016NGOProviding mandatory, accredited and up-to-date training on human trafficking to all NHS staff would assist in the identification and support of trafficked personsJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other15Other21UK000000000000000000000000000000010000
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171Vicky Brotherton, "Time to Deliver: "Considering pregnancy and parenthood in the UK’s response to human trafficking," The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2016).2016NGOIncluding a specific question relating to pregnancy and parenthood on referral forms would help identification, improve data gathering, and ensure that survivors’ specific needs are metJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other15Other21UK000000000000000000000010000000000000
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171Vicky Brotherton, "Time to Deliver: "Considering pregnancy and parenthood in the UK’s response to human trafficking," The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2016).2016NGODeveloping protocols for the allocation of NRM accommodation and length of stay based on an individual’s needs and risk-assessment, including their status as parent or pregnant, would aid the recovery process.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other15Other21UK000000000000000000000010010000000000
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171Vicky Brotherton, "Time to Deliver: "Considering pregnancy and parenthood in the UK’s response to human trafficking," The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2016).2016NGOEnsuring that the support and accommodation provided for families or pregnant women after the recovery and reflection period is suitable and takes their specific needs into account would ensure their long-term stabilisation and integration.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportGenderMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other15Other21UK000000000000000000000010010000000000
390
171Vicky Brotherton, "Time to Deliver: "Considering pregnancy and parenthood in the UK’s response to human trafficking," The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2016).2016NGOProviding access to consistent childcare for survivors within the NRM would aid the recovery and reintegration process.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other15Other21UK000000000000000000000010000000000000
391
171Vicky Brotherton, "Time to Deliver: "Considering pregnancy and parenthood in the UK’s response to human trafficking," The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (2016).2016NGOAdhering to the ‘presumption of age principle’ which ensures that a survivor is treated as a child until it is conclusively proved otherwise ensures appropriate support to aid recovery.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other15Other21UK000000000000000000000000000000000000
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172Victor Boutros and John Cotton Richmond, "Investments in Human Trafficking Prosecutions are Indispensable," Anti-Trafficking Review 6:107-110 (2016).2016AcademicEffective prosecution of traffickers is a necessary component of any long-term effort to substantially reduce the prevalence of trafficking.JusticeCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AInternational000000000100000000000000000000000000
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173Victoria A. Greenfield, Letizia Paoli, Andries Zoutendijk, "The harms of human trafficking: demonstrating the applicability and value of a new framework for systematic, empirical analysis, " Global Crime 17, 2: 152-180 (2016).2016AcademicSystematically and empirically assessing the harms of crime can yield policy-relevant results, helping to inform good anti-trafficking policy.JusticeCriminal justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Belgium000000000010000000000000000000000000
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174Victoria Rietig, 'Prevent, Protect, and Prosecute Human Trafficking in Mexico-Policy and Practical Recommendations," International Migration 53, 4: 9-24 (2014).2015AcademicAddressing corruption and violence and increasing the rule of law in Mexico would help to effectively prevent, protect, and prosecute human trafficking in Mexico.JusticeCriminal justiceSocial policyPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Mexico000000000000000000000000000000000000
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174Victoria Rietig, 'Prevent, Protect, and Prosecute Human Trafficking in Mexico-Policy and Practical Recommendations," International Migration 53, 4: 9-24 (2014).2015AcademicIncreasing cooperation between anti-trafficking actors would help to effectively prevent, protect, and prosecute human trafficking in Mexico.JusticeCriminal justiceSocial policyPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Mexico010000000000000000001000000000000000
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174Victoria Rietig, 'Prevent, Protect, and Prosecute Human Trafficking in Mexico-Policy and Practical Recommendations," International Migration 53, 4: 9-24 (2014).2015AcademicIncreasing anti-trafficking funding would help to effectively prevent, protect, and prosecute human trafficking in Mexico.JusticeCriminal justiceSocial policyPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Mexico000000000000000000000000000000000000
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174Victoria Rietig, 'Prevent, Protect, and Prosecute Human Trafficking in Mexico-Policy and Practical Recommendations," International Migration 53, 4: 9-24 (2014).2015AcademicIncreasing reliable and comparable data would help to effectively prevent, protect, and prosecute human trafficking in Mexico.JusticeCriminal justiceSocial policyPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Mexico000000000000000000000000000000000000
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175Vladislava Stoyanova, "The Crisis of a Definition: Human Trafficking in Bulgarian Law," Amsterdam Law Forum 5, 1: 64-79 (2013).2013AcademicEffective domestic criminalisation of human trafficking requires states introduce more specificity in the definition at the domestic level than exists in the international definition.JusticeCriminal justiceInternational justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalCountries1Bulgaria000010000000000001000000000000000000
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175Vladislava Stoyanova, "The Crisis of a Definition: Human Trafficking in Bulgarian Law," Amsterdam Law Forum 5, 1: 64-79 (2013).2013AcademicLegislation creating criminal offences of slavery, servitude, and forced labour, as well as human trafficking, are necessary to ensure effective investigation and prosecution of the full range of modern slavery offences.JusticeCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalCountries1Bulgaria000010000000000000000000000000000000
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175Vladislava Stoyanova, "The Crisis of a Definition: Human Trafficking in Bulgarian Law," Amsterdam Law Forum 5, 1: 64-79 (2013).2013AcademicOverly inclusive national definitions of human trafficking impede efforts to assess and address trafficking.JusticeCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalObservationalCountries1Bulgaria000010000000000000000000000000000000
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176Walk Free. Protecting Peope in A Pandemic. Walk Free Foundation (2020).2020NGOBusinesses and government leaders acting urgently and collaboratively to ensure migrant workers have access to support services mitigates the negative effects of Covid-19 on vulnerable workers.CrisisJusticeHumanitarian contextsSocial policyMigrationSurvivor engagement and supportMixedNoQualitativeN/A000000000000000000001000000000000000
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177Wayne J. Pitts, Kelle Barrick, Sheldon X. Zhang & Pamela K, "Estimating Labor Trafficking Among Farmworkers An Inverse Sampling Strategy Based on Reliable Housing Predictions"Journal of Human Trafficking 1,2 117-135 (2015).2015AcademicImproved data collection would improve governments' ability to address labour trafficking and idedntify the areas in which it is occurring.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMixedYesMixed MethodsExperimentalCommunitiesNorth Carolina000000000000000000000000000000000000
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178Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos, "Human Trafficking: The Role of Medicine in Interrupting the Cycle of Abuse and Violence," Annals of Internal Medicine 165:582-588 (2016).2016AcademicHaving healthcare responses to victims of trafficking in the USA be trauma-informed would help the recovery of victims. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1United States of America 000000000000000000000100000000000000
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178Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos, "Human Trafficking: The Role of Medicine in Interrupting the Cycle of Abuse and Violence," Annals of Internal Medicine 165:582-588 (2016).2016AcademicEducating and training of healthcare providers to recognise and respond to symptoms of trafficking would help interrupt the cycle of abuse for victims in the USA.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1United States of America 000000000000000000000000000000010000
405
Dr. Robin Haarr, Ph.D, 'Evaluation of the Program to Combat Sex Trafficking of Children in the Philippines: 2003-2015"2017NGO The evaluation supported the Theory of Change of IJM's programs: "improving enforcement of anti-sex trafficking laws would increase the prosecution and conviction of traffickers, leading to an increased deterrence towards child sex trafficking and resulting in reduced prevalence of child sex trafficking."JusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticePrimary StudyYesMixed MethodObservational Country1Project areas 3Phillipines001000000100000000000000000000000000
406
Dr. Robin Haarr, 'External Evaluat'on of IJM’s Program to Combat Sex Trafficking of Children in Cambodia, 2004-2014'2015NGOThe Justice System Transformation Programming Model which includes collaborative casework and targeted justice system reform initiatives in the law enforcement and aftercare sectors result in 1) increased performance of the Cambodia’s National Anti-Human Trafficking and Juvenile Protection Police (AHTJP Police) to identify and rescue victims, arrest suspects, and treat victims appropriately; and 2) increased performance of the Department of Social Affairs, Veterans, and Youth Rehabilitation (DoSVY)1and the private aftercare network to refer victims and provide quality aftercare services.JusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportPrimary StudyYesMixed MethodObservational Country1Communities3Cambodia111100000000000000000000000000000000
407
Thinyane, H., Sassetti, F. Junio, D.R., Gallo, M., Mera, S. (2020) Use of New Technologies for Consistent and Proactive Screening of Vulnerable Populations. United Nations University. ISBN: 978-92-808-9112-62020AcademicA lack of communication between workers and frontline responders, based on the different languages spoken and understood by stakeholders effects responses to trafficking and prevents successful interventions JusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportPrimary StudyYesMixed MethodsObservational Country1Communites1540Thailand000000000000000000001100000001000010
408
Thinyane, H., Sassetti, F. Junio, D.R., Gallo, M., Mera, S. (2020) Use of New Technologies for Consistent and Proactive Screening of Vulnerable Populations. United Nations University. ISBN: 978-92-808-9112-62020AcademicDigitial technology has the potentional to support FLRs and workers in the intial screening phase of of workiers in vulnerable situations which would help victim identificationJusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportPrimary StudyYesMixed MethodsObservational Country1Communites1540Thailand000000000000000000001100000001000010
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Thinyane, H., Sassetti, F. Junio, D.R., Gallo, M., Mera, S. (2020) Use of New Technologies for Consistent and Proactive Screening of Vulnerable Populations. United Nations University. ISBN: 978-92-808-9112-62020AcademicThere is a lack of understanding of basic indicators of labour exploitation and human trafficking that can be used to rapidly screen and identify potential victimsJusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportPrimary StudyYesMixed MethodsObservational Country1Communites1540Thailand0000100000000000000110000000100011
410
Thinyane, H., Sassetti, F. Junio, D.R., Gallo, M., Mera, S. (2020) Use of New Technologies for Consistent and Proactive Screening of Vulnerable Populations. United Nations University. 2020AcademicThe use of evidence might enable government to be more effective in influencing transparency and accountability within victim identificationJusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportPrimary StudyYesMixed MethodsObservational Country1Communites1540Thailand0000100000000000000110000000100011
411
Albright, K, Greenbaum, J, Edwards, SA, Tsai C. Systematic review of facilitators of, barriers to, and recommendations for healthcare services for child survivors of human trafficking globally. Child Abuse & Neglect2019AcademicSystematic review based on the assumption that medical and psychological services for trafficked children are poorly accessible in many areas of the world, despite economic status. Challenges exist in service availability, accessibility, acceptability, affordability and accommodation.JusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportHealth PolicySocial PolicySecodary Study NoMixed MethodSystematic ReviewCambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Nepal, India, US, UK, El Salvador, Brazil, Ireland, Antigua; Barbuda, Belize, Costa Rica, Egypt, Guyana, Jordan, Moldava, Ukraine, Italy, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Belgium 000000000000000000000100000000001000
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Albright, K, Greenbaum, J, Edwards, SA, Tsai C. Systematic review of facilitators of, barriers to, and recommendations for healthcare services for child survivors of human trafficking globally. Child Abuse & Neglect2019AcademicSystematic review based on the hypothesis that existing research identifies facilitators and recommendations for improving medical and psychological services for trafficked childrenJusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportHealth PolicySocial PolicySecodary Study NoMixed MethodSystematic ReviewCambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Nepal, India, US, UK, El Salvador, Brazil, Ireland, Antigua; Barbuda, Belize, Costa Rica, Egypt, Guyana, Jordan, Moldava, Ukraine, Italy, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Belgium 000000000000000000000100000000001000
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Vincent Lo,Duane Bland, Xylona Bibal, Bahman Chavoshan, Willard Chung, Pamela M. Davis, Gregory R. Lewis, Terrie Mendelson, Heidi Millard, Benjamin Oldach, La Donna R. Porter, John Paik-Tesch,V. Jordan Greenbaum & Ronald Chambers, 'Training Residents on Understanding Trafficked Humans' Journal of Human Trafficking2020AcademicTraining residents improves their knowledge, attitudes and competence in regards to providing care for patients who are victims of human traffickingJusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportHealth PolicyPrimary StudyMiced MethodObservational Country1Sites 8Individuals 107Unite States00000000000000000000000000000001010
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Burns, D.; Oosterhoff, P.; Chandrasekharan, A.and Nanda, R. 'Evaluation Report on the Results of the Interventions to Reduce the Prevalence of Bonded Labour in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh'2020AcademicThe hotspot model used by Freedom Fund, which entails investing in community-based NGOs in high-prevalence communities, is effective at reducing the prevalence of bonded labour in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.JusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportHealth PolicyPrimary Study YesMixed MethodsObservational India010000000000000000000000001000000000
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Sex Trafficking, Law Enforcement and Perpetrator Accountability. Holly Burkhalter. Anti-Trafficking Review2012NGOThe involvement of law enforcement is necessary to combat sex trafficking, especially that involving children, provided that local police receive the proper training to adequately address the issue and not imperil the well-being of consenual adult sex workers. JusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportHealth PolicySecondary Study YesQualitativeQuasi-experimentalHouseholds2572India10000000000000000000000000000000000
416
Andrew Jones, Rhonda Schlangen and Rhodora Bucoy. An Evaluation of the International Justice
Mission’s “Project Lantern”
Assessment of Five-year Impact and Change in
the Public Justice System. International Justice Mission.
2010NGOThe International Justice Mission's law enforcement-based Project Lantern effectively reduced the prevalence of sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children in Cebu, thus demonstrating the importance of law enforcement and policing in efforts to combat sex trafficking and exploitation of children.JusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportHealth PolicyPrimary Study YesQualitativeObservational Individuals70Nepal001000000000000000000000000000000000
417
University of Hong Kong & The Freedom Fund. Pathways for children to exit commercial sexual exploitation in Kathmandu2018AcademicProvision of accessible support services which are congnsiscant of restrictions placed on workers in exploitative situations and provide a dual focus on building economic skills and restoring emontianal health in Khatmandu would improve standards of care for victims of modern slavery and human trafficking JusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportHealth PolicyPrimary studyYesQualitativeObservational Individuals 110Nepal000000000000000000000000001000000000
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Bhaba et al. When we raise our voice: The challenge of eradicating labor exploitation.2016NGOImplementing community based empowerment models, such as MSVMS's model, could have a demonstrable, positive impact on critical aspects of the targeted communities’ circumstances including reducing indebtedness and threats of violence, improving wage levels and generating a sense of collective efficacy, a strong effect on food security, access to medical care, civic participation and take up of government programs thereby reducing vulnerabilty to modern slavery and trafficking.JusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportHealth PolicyPrimary studyYesMixed MethodsQuasi-experimentalHouseholds 2475India000000000000000000000000001000000000
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Progress Inc. Evaluation of the Central Nepal hotspot project using the process tracing methodology.2020NGIOContinuation of the Freedom Funds hotspot model in Khatmandu, which has already been successfull in impacting local systems inclduing, changes in the law, changed behaviours amongst local law enforcement, an anti-trafficking movement in Kathmandu d and a Community of Practice established amongst NGOs would lead to a greater reduction of young women and girls who are exploited in the CSEC industry. JusticeCriminal JusticeInternational JusticeSurvivor Engagement and SupportHealth PolicyProject EvaluationQualitativeObservationalIndividuals70Nepal01000000000000000000000000000000000
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The Freedom Fund. Literature review: Behaviour change communications campaigns targeting the demand-side of exploitation.2019NGIOBehaviour change campaigns, that: adequailtiy focus on injuctivie, rathern than dscrptive norms, enagage with a vareity of mediums and embed evaluation at the onset can be effective in targeting the demand-side of exploitation JusticeGenderSocial Policy Secondary StudyQualitiative Systematic ReviewGlobal000000000000000000000001000000000
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