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1. Evidence source2. Topic3. Source characteristics [see the Technical Note for more info on each variable]5. Hypotheses
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Citation #1.1 Publication info1.2 Year of publication1.3 Authorship2.1 Claim tested [free text]2.3a Domain [select from list]2.3b Domain 2 (if applicable)2.4a Theme 1 [select from list]2.4b Theme 2 (if applicable)2.4c Theme 3 (if applicable)2.4d Theme 4 (if applicable)2.4e Theme 5 (if applicable)3.1a Type [select from list]Primary StudySecondary StudyTheoretical or Conceptual SourceMixedUnclear3.1b Programme/ Project evaluationYesNoUnclear3.2 Method [select from list]QuantitativeQualitativeMixed MethodsNon-empirical3.3 Design [select from list]ExperimentalQuasi-experimentalObservationalSystematic reviewN/A3.4a Scale measure 1 [select from list]3.5a Scale value 1 [free text - insert number]3.4b Scale measure 2 (if applicable) [select from list]3.5b Scale value 2 (if applicable) [free text - insert number]3.4c Scale measure 3 (if applicable) [select from list]3.5c Scale value 3 (if applicable) [free text - insert number]3.6 Geography - which countries does the study address? [free text]5.15.25.35.45.55.65.75.85.95.105.115.125.135.145.15
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Open trade across borders increases economic opportunities and stability, resulting in a decrease in forced and child labourCooperation with civil society organisations improves business efforts to address forced labour and human trafficking in their business operationsCollaboration with Government improves private sector efforts to eradicate forced labour and human traffickingUltimate buying firms working in collaboration with other buyers and suppliers in their supply chains improves the effectiveness of efforts to reduce forced labour and human trafficking in supply chainsGovernment enforced, mandatory corporate reporting on modern slavery helps to tackle forced labourIncreased corporate liability provisions and/or financial penalties or incentives improve the private sector’s engagement in anti-slavery activityCorporate disclosure requirements on supply chains and supply chain risk are effective in improving the private sector’s approach to tackling modern slaveryAccess to fair employment in the labour market and/or related skills training is effective in preventing forced labour and human trafficking or reducing the risk of survivors being re-traffickedThere is a positive relationship between the economic health of a state and the reduction/prevention of forced labour and human traffickingData on the scale of forced labour and human trafficking and the effectiveness of existing interventions would improve private sector action on forced labour and human traffickingIncreased state regulation of the labour market would help eliminate forced labour and human traffickingFirms at the top of a supply chain applying more scrutiny to, and taking responsibility for, the recruitment practices within their produce/ services/ supply chains would help reduce risks of forced labour and human trafficking down the supply chainGrievance mechanisms to identify forced labour when it occurs and compensation initiatives to remediate workers as a result (in addition to prevention policies) support holistic efforts to address forced labour in the workplaceEngagement of Union/Worker Associations and/or an increased focus on worker voice mechanisms result in better identification and prevention of forced labour in the workplaceTreating forced labour, human trafficking, and child labour as an issue in silo from other socio-economic issues risks causing unintended negative consequences upon other socio-economic issues and does not tackle the issue in a sustainable way
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1Andrew Crane, Genevieve LeBaron, Jean Allain and Laya Behbahani, "Governance gaps in eradicating forced labor: From global to domestic supply chains," Regulation & Governance 13: 86-106 (2019)2019AcademicConcentrating domestic supply chains producing products for domestic consumption within national borders creates risks of forced labour.MarketsSupply chainsTrade policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Individuals28UK100000000000000
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2Anti-Slavery International and Volunteers for Social Justice, "Slavery in India’s Brick Kilns & the Payment System: way forward in the fight for fair wages, decent work and eradication of slavery," Anti-Slavery International (2017).2017NGOA time-based payment system within the brick kiln sector would ensure women and men are paid higher rates, and individually for their work, meaning child labour would be less critical to family welfare and therefore less likely to occur.MarketsFinancial policyEconomic policyDevelopment policySupply chainsPrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Quasi-experimental01000Countries1Individuals3383India000000000000000
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2Anti-Slavery International and Volunteers for Social Justice, "Slavery in India’s Brick Kilns & the Payment System: way forward in the fight for fair wages, decent work and eradication of slavery," Anti-Slavery International (2017).2017NGOImplementation of effective changes against pervasive modern slavery in the brick kiln industry of India requires key stakeholders in government, brick kiln owners and associations, unions and worker representative bodies, and NGOs to change recruitment and payment practices drastically. MarketsFinancial policyTrade policySocial policySupply chainsPrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Quasi-experimental01000Countries1Individuals3383India011000000011010
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2Anti-Slavery International and Volunteers for Social Justice, "Slavery in India’s Brick Kilns & the Payment System: way forward in the fight for fair wages, decent work and eradication of slavery," Anti-Slavery International (2017).2017NGOMeasures requiring valid operating licences and complete worker records in Indian brick kilns would instil a positive culture of transparency and accountability in kilns and support compliance with the law that requires monthly payments to workers.MarketsJusticeFinancial policyTrade policyDevelopment policyCriminal justicePrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Quasi-experimental01000Countries1Individuals3383India000000000010000
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3Augendra Bhukuth, Jérôme Ballet and Nicolas Sirven, "Bonded Labour or What Else? A Case Study in Tamil Nadu, India," Journal of International Development 30: 745-759 (2018).2018AcademicAnti-bonded labour interventions in contexts of limited employment opportunities must be attentive to the full range of risks facing communities, particularly those that might be considered 'worse' than bonded labour, to ensure that workers are not pushed to 'voluntarily choose' a situation of debt bondage. MarketsEconomic policyDevelopment policyFinancial policySocial policyPrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1Communities10Other210 familiesIndia000000001000001
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4Ben Middleton, Georgios A Antonopoulos and Georgios Papanicolaou, "The Financial Investigation of Human Trafficking in the UK: Legal and Practical Perspective," The Journal of Criminal Law 83: 284-293 (2019).2019AcademicEffective financial investigations into modern slavery in the UK would help authorities identify and seize the assets of traffickers and compensate victims.JusticeMarketsCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportFinancial policyMixed00010No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1United Kingdom000001000000100
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5Bethany Jackson, Jessica L. Decker Sparks, Chloe Brown and Doreen S. Boyd, "Understanding the co-occurrence of tree loss and modern slavery to improve efficacy of conservation actions and policies," Conservation Science and Practice 2 (2020).2020AcademicThere is a positive relationship between modern slavery and tree loss as those who participate in illegal logging and land are also fuelling vulnerabilities to exploitative work.MarketsDevelopment policyClimate/environmentSecondary Study01000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Countries4Brazil, Ghana, Indonesia, and Mozambique000000000000001
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6BITC, "An Opportunity to Build Back Better: The Responsible Business Tracker® 2019/20 Insights Report," Business in the Community (2020)2020NGOResponsible supply chain management, such as responsible use of purchasing power and supply chain risk mapping, can be used to make a positive impact on human rights related risks. MarketsSupply chainsDevelopment policySecondary Study01000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Organisations94United Kingdom000000100000000
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7Bjorn Harald Nordtveit, "Discourses of education protection and child labor: case studies of Benin Namibia and Swaziland," Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 31: 699-712 (2010).2010AcademicFraming interventions to eradicate child labour and youth employment in favour of education in response to what local communities perceive the child (as an income-generating individual) rather than assuming the international interpretation (an individual with a right to education) improves the likelihood of success of these interventions. MarketsDevelopment policyEducationSocial policyPrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries3Benin, Namibiaand and Swaziland000000000000000
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8Caroline Emberson, "Tackling slavery in supply chains: lessons from Brazilian-UK beef and timber," University of Nottingham Rights Lab (2019)2019AcademicBusinesses mapping modern slavery risks in their supply chains and taking action internally and externally to prevent or mitigate those risks would decrease incidences of modern slavery in these supply chains. MarketsTrade policySupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries2Organisations10United Kingdom, Brazil000000000001000
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8Caroline Emberson, "Tackling slavery in supply chains: lessons from Brazilian-UK beef and timber," University of Nottingham Rights Lab (2019)2019AcademicBusinesses implementing capacity building measures for suppliers, especially for SMEs, who lack the capacity and resources to mitigate the risks of modern slavery would decrease incidences of modern slavery in supply chains.MarketsSupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries3Organisations11United Kingdom, Brazil000100000000000
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9Caroline Theoharides, "The Unintended Consequences of Migration Policy on Origin-Country Labor Market Decisions," Journal of Development Economics 142 (2020).2020AcademicThe Japanese policy to restrict Filipino migrants coming to work in the Overseas Performing Arts (OPA) due to fear of increased trafficking reduced remittances and resulted in closure of recruitment agencies which supported other types of non-OPA overseas work, producing an overall negative impact on vulnerable populations in the Philippines.MarketsCrisisDevelopment policyMigrationGenderSecondary Study01000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Countries1Japan000000000000001
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10Christina Stringer, Steve Hughes, D Hugh Whittaker, Nigel Haworth and Glenn Simmons, "Labour standards and regulation in global value chains: The case of the New Zealand Fishing Industry," Environment and Planning 48: 1910-1927 (2016).2016AcademicDirect pressure from exploited migrants and buyer and supplier firms in the GVC can lead to state policy change and proper governance.MarketsSupply chainsPrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1OrganisationsUnsure Individuals293New Zealand001100000000010
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11Daniel Murphy, "Hidden Chains: Rights Abuses and Forced Labor in Thailand's Fishing Industry," Human Rights Watch (2018).2018NGOThe strengthening of Thai migration policies has a negative impact on migrant's ability to travel freely and safely, leading to a higher risk of trafficking.CrisisMarketsMigrationEconomic policySupply chainsPrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1Individuals248Thailand000000000000001
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12David K. Androff, "The problem of contemporary slavery: An international human rights challenge for social work," Journal of International Social Work 54: 209-222 (2010).2010AcademicPolicies related to changing economic structures, improving social services, and implementing and enforcing existing laws and treaties need to be developed in parallel in order to combat slavery effectively.MarketsEconomic policyTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100CountriesOrganisations - NGO'sAll001000000000000
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13Debbie Beadle and Leah Davison, "Precarious Journeys: Mapping Vulnerabilities of Victims of Trafficking from Vietnam to Europe," Anti-Slavery International, ECPAT UK and Pacific Links Foundation (2019).2019NGOThe UK and other European countries implementing effective financial intelligence sharing measures in response to human trafficking would help them identify and seize assets gained by traffickers. MarketsDevelopment policyFinancial policyPrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries10Vietnam, Poland, Czech Republic, France, Netherlands, UK, Ukraine, Belgium, Germany 001001000000000
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14Dita Vogel, "The concept of demand in the context of trafficking in human beings," Psychosociological Issues in Human Resource Management 5 (2017).2017AcademicAmbiguity in use of the term ''demand'' in relation to trafficking hinders better economic understanding of trafficking.MarketsTrade policyEconomic policySupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100000000000000000
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15Douglas Guilfoyle, "Transnational Criminal Law as a Governance Strategy in the Global Labour Marker: Criminalizing Globalisation from Below," Refugee Survey Quarterly 29: 185-205 (2010).2010AcademicIrregular migration is a trade-in-labour issue that requires integrating development policy into labour migration policy to combat human trafficking.CrisisMarketsMigrationDisplacementConflictTrade policyCriminal justiceSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Other2Countries10Spain, Italy, US, Greece, Australia, Senegal, Mauritania, Cape Verde, Gambia, Lybia 000000000000001
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15Douglas Guilfoyle, "Transnational Criminal Law as a Governance Strategy in the Global Labour Marker: Criminalizing Globalisation from Below," Refugee Survey Quarterly 29: 185-205 (2010).2010AcademicThe suppression and criminalisation of irregular migration has negative consequences for individual migrants and accrues unearned benefits to host economies.CrisisMarketsMigrationDisplacementConflictTrade policyCriminal justiceSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Other2Countries10Spain, Italy, US, Greece, Australia, Senegal, Mauritania, Cape Verde, Gambia, Lybia 000000000000001
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16Dursun Peksen, Shannon Lindsey Blanton and Robert G. Blanton, "Neoliberal Policies and Human Trafficking for Labor: Free markets, Unfree workers?," Political Research Quarterly 70 :673-686 (2017).2017AcademicPolicies that promote market deregulation, reduced state size, and global economic openness are positively related to trafficking of child and forced labor.MarketsDevelopment policyTrade policyEconomic policyPrimary Study10000No010Quantitative1000Quasi-experimental01000Countries129All100000001000000
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16Dursun Peksen, Shannon Lindsey Blanton and Robert G. Blanton, "Neoliberal Policies and Human Trafficking for Labor: Free markets, Unfree workers?," Political Research Quarterly 70 :673-686 (2017).2017AcademicMarket-friendly business and labor regulations correlate with an increase in labor trafficking whereas more stringently regulated labor markets correlate with a reduction in labor trafficking.MarketsEconomic policyTrade policyPrimary Study10000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Countries129Global000000000010000
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16Dursun Peksen, Shannon Lindsey Blanton and Robert G. Blanton, "Neoliberal Policies and Human Trafficking for Labor: Free markets, Unfree workers?," Political Research Quarterly 70 :673-686 (2017).2017AcademicPolicies that promote economic openness correlate with an increase labor trafficking, whereas increased restrictions to foreign trade and investment reduce incidences of labor trafficking.MarketsEconomic policyTrade policyPrimary Study10000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Countries129Global100000000000000
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16Dursun Peksen, Shannon Lindsey Blanton and Robert G. Blanton, "Neoliberal Policies and Human Trafficking for Labor: Free markets, Unfree workers?," Political Research Quarterly 70 :673-686 (2017).2017AcademicNeoliberal policies as a whole correlate with an increase in labor trafficking, whereas moving away from such policies may reduce labor trafficking.MarketsEconomic policyTrade policySocial policyPrimary Study10000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Countries129Global100000000000000
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16Dursun Peksen, Shannon Lindsey Blanton and Robert G. Blanton, "Neoliberal Policies and Human Trafficking for Labor: Free markets, Unfree workers?," Political Research Quarterly 70 :673-686 (2017).2017AcademicReduced government size correlates with an increase in labor trafficking, whereas larger governments hinder labor trafficking more effectively.MarketsEconomic policySocial policyPrimary Study10000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Countries129Global000000000000000
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17Ellen Boccuzzi, "Migrant and Child Labor in Thailand's Shrimp and Other Seafood Supply Chains: Labor Conditions and the Decision to Study or Work ," The Asia Foundation and International Labour Organization (2015)2015IntergovernmentalIn the case of shrimp farming, efforts to tighten and consolidate the shrimp supply chain (looking to the canned tuna sector as a model) would reduce the available number of workplaces for unregistered entities, encourage undocumented migrants to register, enable better oversight of these businesses, and counter the challenges of regulatory oversight.MarketsSupply chainsDevelopment policyTrade policyPrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Systematic review00010Countries1Individuals35Thailand000100000001000
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17Ellen Boccuzzi, "Migrant and Child Labor in Thailand's Shrimp and Other Seafood Supply Chains: Labor Conditions and the Decision to Study or Work ," The Asia Foundation and International Labour Organization (2015)2015IntergovernmentalA regional forum including government, the private sector (producers as well as domestic and international buyers), international organizations, and NGOs would provide a platform for the discussion of best practices in management and oversight and support improved labor conditions across the value chain. MarketsSupply chainsDevelopment policyTrade policyPrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1Individuals35Thailand011000000000000
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17Ellen Boccuzzi, "Migrant and Child Labor in Thailand's Shrimp and Other Seafood Supply Chains: Labor Conditions and the Decision to Study or Work ," The Asia Foundation and International Labour Organization (2015)2015IntergovernmentalGovernment, NGO, and private sector stakeholders collaborating to establish a multi-stakeholder platform to address challenges related to migrant education linked to their vulnerability towards becoming a victim of modern slavery would help improve efforts to address exploitation of migrant workers. MarketsSupply chainsDevelopment policyEducationPrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1Individuals35Thailand011000000000000
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18Erin O'Brien, "Human Trafficking Heroes and Villains: Representing the Problem in Anti-Trafficking Awareness Campaigns," Social and Legal Studies 25: 205-224 (2016).2016AcademicA more balanced portrayal of who is responsible for trafficking, including the general public as consumers, would encourage ethical consumerism, reducing demand for slave-made products.MarketsSupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Organisations18Global000000000000000
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19FLEX and Josh Stride, "Shaky Foundations: Labour Exploitation in London's Construction Sector," Focus On Labour Exploitation (2018)2018NGOIncreasing the remit of, and resource assigned to, the Employment Agency Standards Inspectorate so that it is relevant to more companies and other intermediaries in the supply chain would result in labour exploitation be more easily identified and reduced.MarketsSupply chainsDevelopment policySecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1United Kingdom000000000010000
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20FLEX, "Risky Business: Tackling Exploitation in the UK Labour Market," Focus on Labour Exploitation (2017) 2017NGOLimits on the number of tiers in labour supply chains, within high risk UK employment sectors would reduce the risk of exploitation occurring.MarketsSupply chainsDevelopment policyTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001N/A00001Countries1United Kingdom000000000010000
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21Free the Slaves and Deloitte, "Operationalizing the movement behind SDG 8.7: A study for the Freedom from Slavery Forum 2018," Deloitte Development LLC (2018)2018NGODriving local, grassroots change by targeting both small, growing businesses and major brands would alleviate some of the major challenges experienced by NGOs and civil society when trying to prevent modern slavery.MarketsDevelopment policySurvivor engagement and supportPrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Organisations23Global000000000000000
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22Free The Slaves, Nordic Consulting Group, Participatory Development Associates, International Needs Ghana and U.S. State Department, "Trafficking's Footprint: Two-Phase Baseline Study of Child Trafficking in 34 Communities in 6 Districts in Ghana," Free The Slaves (2018)2018NGOBy linking survivors and their families to apprenticeships and vocational training programs, individuals are less likely to be retrafficked. MarketsDevelopment policySurvivor engagement and supportPrimary Study10000Yes100Qualitative0100Quasi-experimental01000Countries1Ghana000000010000000
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22Free The Slaves, Nordic Consulting Group, Participatory Development Associates, International Needs Ghana and U.S. State Department, "Trafficking's Footprint: Two-Phase Baseline Study of Child Trafficking in 34 Communities in 6 Districts in Ghana," Free The Slaves (2018)2018NGOProviding the parents of survivors and at-risk children with business development and financial management training reduces the risk of trafficking.MarketsDevelopment policySurvivor engagement and supportPrimary Study10000Yes100Qualitative0100Quasi-experimental01000Countries1Ghana000000010000000
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22Free The Slaves, Nordic Consulting Group, Participatory Development Associates, International Needs Ghana and U.S. State Department, "Trafficking's Footprint: Two-Phase Baseline Study of Child Trafficking in 34 Communities in 6 Districts in Ghana," Free The Slaves (2018)2018NGOBy introducing the parents of survivors and at-risk children to alternative occupations and supporting them to find and create new sources of income, the risk of trafficking is decreased.MarketsDevelopment policySurvivor engagement and supportPrimary Study10000Yes100Qualitative0100Quasi-experimental01000Countries1Ghana000000010000000
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23Gary Craig, "The UK’s Modern Slavery Legislation: An Early Assessment of Progress," Social Inclusion 5: 16-27 (2017).2017AcademicTransparency in supply chain provisions without effective compliance monitoring and awareness raising (such as section 54 of the UK's Modern Slavery Act) are inadequate to address modern slavery in corporate supply chainsMarketsJusticeCriminal justiceSupply chainsTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100Countries1United Kingdom000010000000000
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23Gary Craig, "The UK’s Modern Slavery Legislation: An Early Assessment of Progress," Social Inclusion 5: 16-27 (2017).2017AcademicThe UK’s Modern Slavery Act does not adequately protect trafficking victims.JusticeCriminal justiceCivil justiceTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100Countries1United Kingdom000010000000000
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24Gary Geref_x001F_, Penny Bamber and Karina Fernandez-Stark, "Promoting Decent Work in Global Supply Chains in Latin America and the Caribbean: Key Issues, Good Practices, Lessons Learned and Policy Insights," International Labour Organization (2016)2016IntergovernmentalSkills development initiatives play a critical role in improving labour gains and economic upgradation. MarketsDevelopment policySupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries20Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Haiti, Nicaragua, Peru, Costa Rica, Guyana, Honduras, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Jamaica, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago and Guatemala000000010000000
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25Genevieve LeBaron and Ellie Gore, "Gender and Forced Labour: Understanding the Links in Global Cocoa Supply Chains," The Journal of Development Studies 56: 1095-1117 (2020).2020AcademicEfforts to address labour exploitation in the Ghanain cocoa industry must be gender responsive to address the fact that women working in the industry are more vulnerable to labour exploitation (than men) due to unequal family relations, responsibility for reproductive labour, and social property relations. MarketsSupply chainsGenderPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Communities74Individuals60 and 497Ghana 000000000000001
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25Genevieve LeBaron and Ellie Gore, "Gender and Forced Labour: Understanding the Links in Global Cocoa Supply Chains," The Journal of Development Studies 56: 1095-1117 (2020).2020AcademicBusiness models within the Ghanaian cocoa industry that rely on and reinforce labour exploitation and unequal gender power relations must be reformed to effectively address labour exploitation in the industry.MarketsSupply chainsGenderPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Communities74Individuals60 and 497Ghana 000000000000000
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26Hannah E. Britton and Laura A. Dean, "Policy Responses to Human Trafficking in Southern Africa: Domesticating International Norms," Human Rights Review 15: 305-328 (2014)2014AcademicEfforts to address modern slavery in Southern Africa must target the prevalent situation of victims of exploitation finding themselves trapped in forced labour after accepting what appeared to be a legitimate job offer in order to reduce exploitation. MarketsDevelopment policySecondary Study01000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries15Southern Africa000000010010000
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27Henny Nuraeny, "Trafficking of Migrant Workers in Indonesia: A Legal Enforcement and Economic Perspective of Prevention and Protection Efforts," European Research Studies Journal XX: 16-26 (2017).2017AcademicIn order to effectively combat trafficking of migrants from Indonesia, the government must provide more economic opportunities and skills training to vulnerable communities. MarketsJusticeMigrationEconomic policyDevelopment policyGenderEducationSecondary Study01000No010Mixed Methods0010N/A00001Countries1Indonesia000000010000000
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28Ian Turner, "Human Rights, Positive Obligations, and Measures to Prevent Human Trafficking in the United Kingdom," Journal of Human Trafficking 1: 296-317 (2015).2015AcademicEnactment of the UK's Modern Slavery Act must be coupled with successful reform of the NRM and implementation of all measures including provisions around perpetrator convictions and corporate reporting requirements in order to be 'world-leading'. MarketsJusticeTrade policyCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100Countries1UK000010000000000
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29Ingrid Palmary and Thea de Gruchy, "The globalisation of trafficking and its impact on the South African counter-trafficking legislation," Critical Social Policy 40: 50-68 (2020).2020AcademicThe fact that the South African Trafficking in Persons Act (TiP Act) was not formulated in isolation at the national level, but was constrained by international influences (namely the global system for the governance of trafficking, the globalisation of knowledge around trafficking, and the nature of diplomatic relations) made it less effective in truly protecting individuals at risk of exploitation in it's local context.MarketsCrisisDevelopment policyMigrationPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Individuals22South Africa000000000000000
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30James Sinclair, "Strategic Litigation as a Tool to Combat Modern Slavery," Journal of Modern Slavery 4: 47-65 (2018).2018AcademicVicarious corporate liability for modern slavery by subsidiaries and sub-contractors would impose additional disbenefits on companies for violations and improve corporate antislavery efforts in global supply chains.JusticeMarketsCivil justiceSupply chainsTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100Countries1United Kingdom / transnational000001000001000
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30James Sinclair, "Strategic Litigation as a Tool to Combat Modern Slavery," Journal of Modern Slavery 4: 47-65 (2018).2018AcademicA 'failure to prevent' provision in the UK’s Modern Slavery Act imposing liability on corporations, enacted in coordination with European and American legislatures to produce a harmonised transnational framework, would result in multinational corporations more effectively policing their supply chains for modern slavery.JusticeMarketsCivil justiceSupply chainsTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100Countries1United Kingdom / transnational000011000000000
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31Jennifer Gordon, "Regulating the Human Supply Chain," Iowa Law Review 102 (2017).2017AcademicFull-chain liability would incentivise lead firms, brands, and large retailers not to contract with labour intermediaries who exploit their workers.MarketsSupply chainsTrade policySecondary Study01000No010Non-empirical0001N/A00001Global000101000001000
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32Jérôme Ballet, Augendra Bhukuth and Aurélie Carimentrand, "Child Labor and Responsible Consumers: From Boycotts to Social Labels, Illustrated by the Indian Hand-Knotted Carpet Industry," Business & Society, 53: 71-104 (2014).2011AcademicLabels by social certification schemes are limited in their effects to combat child labour in the hand-knotted carpet industry in India.MarketsSupply chainsTrade policyEconomic policySocial policyTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100Countries1Other4 labelsIndia000000000000000
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33Jewel Gausman, Miriam Chernoff, Angela Duger, Jacqueline Bhabha and Hillary Chu, "When We Raise Our Voice: The Challenge of Eradicating Labour Exploitation," The FXB Centre for Health and Human Rights at Harvard University (2016) 2016AcademicCommunity empowerment models are effective at preventing and eradicating labour exploitation when they include developing education opportunities, generating alternative labour training in new skill sets, increasing an understanding of legal rights and providing legal support, and linking these groups together to achieve changes across a wider area.MarketsDevelopment policySocial policyEducationPrimary Study10000Yes100Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1India000000000000000
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34Joelle Mak, Tanya Abramsky, Bandita Sijapati, Ligia Kiss and Cathy Zimmerman, "What is the prevalence of and associations with forced labour experiences among male migrants from Dolakha, Nepal? Findings from a crosssectional study of returnee migrants," BMJ Open 7 (2017).2017AcademicForced labour is prevalent in the migration experiences of male labourers from Nepal thus indexing the necessity of interventions targetting this vulnerable group whether through providing migrants with guidance on recruitment agencies or offering support and protection in the destination countries. MarketsJusticeMigrationEconomic policyDevelopment policySocial policyInternational justiceMixed00010No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1Individuals196Nepal000000000000000
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35Justine Nolan and Gregory Bott, "Global supply chains and human rights: spotlight on forced labour and modern slavery practices," Australian Journal of Human Rights 24: 44-69 (2018).2018AcademicHuman rights due diligence improves the effectiveness of legislative disclosure regimes for regulating modern slavery in supply chains.MarketsSupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Global000010100000000
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35Justine Nolan and Gregory Bott, "Global supply chains and human rights: spotlight on forced labour and modern slavery practices," Australian Journal of Human Rights 24: 44-69 (2018).2018AcademicDetailed disclosure requirements improve the effectiveness of legislative disclosure regimes for regulating modern slavery in supply chains.MarketsSupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Global000010100000000
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35Justine Nolan and Gregory Bott, "Global supply chains and human rights: spotlight on forced labour and modern slavery practices," Australian Journal of Human Rights 24: 44-69 (2018).2018AcademicConsequences for failure to comply improve the effectiveness of legislative disclosure regimes for regulating modern slavery in supply chains.MarketsSupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Global000011000000000
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35Justine Nolan and Gregory Bott, "Global supply chains and human rights: spotlight on forced labour and modern slavery practices," Australian Journal of Human Rights 24: 44-69 (2018).2018AcademicAnti-slavery legislative disclosure regimes that use the leverage of all stakeholders are more effective at eradicating exploitative practices from supply chains.MarketsSupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Global011010000000000
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36Kate Hardy, "Incorporating Sex Workers into the Argentine Labor Movement," International Labor and Working-Class History 77: 89-108 (2010).2010AcademicThe Argentinian examples of sex workers being allowed to organise and participate in workers unions to contribute to political action addressing worker rights reduces their vulnerabilities and helps progress the role trade unions can play in addressing more serious issues like exploitation (as opposed to more linear workplace rights).MarketsDevelopment policySecondary Study01000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1IndividualsUnsure Argentina000000000000010
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37Katharine Bryant and Todd Landman, "Combatting Human Trafficking since Palermo: What Do We Know about What Works?," Journal of Human Trafficking 6: 119-140 (2020)2020AcademicRobust analysis and identification of common lessons regarding what works from interventions and organizations involved in the fight against modern slavery since the ratification of the UN Trafficking Protocol supprots improved interventions.MarketsDevelopment policySecondary Study01000No010Quantitative1000Systematic review00010CountriesAllOtherPrograms - evaluating 90 All000000000100000
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38Katherine Leanne Christ, Kathyayini Kathy Rao and Roger Leonard Burritt, "Accounting for modern slavery: an analysis of Australian listed company disclosures," Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 32: 836-865 (2019).2019AcademicLegislation requiring large Australian companies to disclose slavery in their supply chains would increase the number of companies that make disclosures and the quality of statements, improving corporate efforts to address modern slavery.  MarketsSupply chainsSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Organisations100Australia000010100000000
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39Laura A. Dean, "Criminalizing human trafficking in Latvia: the evolution and implications of human trafficking policies," Journal of Baltic Studies 49: 129-155 (2018)2018AcademicLaws and policies to address human trafficking resulting from economic disparities in Latvia would help prevent human trafficking connected to economic disparities from continuing to increase.MarketsJusticeDevelopment policyCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1Individuals31Latvia000000001000000
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40Lauren R. Heller, Robert A. Lawson, Ryan H. Murphy and Claudia R. Williamson, "Is human trafficking the dark side of economic freedom?," Defence and Peace Economics 29: 355-382 (2018).2018AcademicFree markets attenuate the incidence of human trafficking as they are more likely to enact and enforce policies to fight human trafficking.MarketsEconomic policySecondary Study01000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100CountriesAll100000000000000
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41Letizia Palumbo, "Protection of trafficked people in Italy: policies, limits and challenges," Journal of Money Laundering Control 18: 52-65 (2015).2015AcademicThe poor implementation of Italy's Article 18 of the “Consolidated Act of Measures Governing Immigration and Norms on the Condition of Foreign Citizens” to protect trafficked people in Italy, means that victims are not as protected as they could be, due to: the absence of a clear and appropriate victim identification procedure; the lack of adequate training in trafficking among professionals; the incomplete application of a procedure called the “social path” for the issuing of the residence permit; the narrow interpretation by competent authorities of the requirements for the residence permit granted to victims; the long lapse of time for the issuing of the residence permit; difficulties in the conversion of the residency permit granted to victims into a work permit; and the scarcity of economic resources.MarketsJusticeFinancial policyDevelopment policySurvivor engagement and supportSecondary Study01000No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100Countries1Italy000000000000000
63
42Liva Sreedharan and Aarti Kapoor, "Sitting on pins and needles: A rapid assessment of labour conditions in Vietnam's garment sector," Anti-Slavery International (2018)2018NGOThe EU, and other governments, implementating incentives for international trade would bring better value to workers and stakeholders throughout the supply chain.MarketsSupply chainsTrade policyDevelopment policyEconomic policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Individuals21Vietnam100000000000000
64
42Liva Sreedharan and Aarti Kapoor, "Sitting on pins and needles: A rapid assessment of labour conditions in Vietnam's garment sector," Anti-Slavery International (2018)2018NGOLabour monitoring standards that include effective worker voice tools being promoted as crucial elements of international trade agreements would improve national efforts to address labour exploitation. MarketsSupply chainsTrade policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Individuals21Vietnam100000000010010
65
42Liva Sreedharan and Aarti Kapoor, "Sitting on pins and needles: A rapid assessment of labour conditions in Vietnam's garment sector," Anti-Slavery International (2018)2018NGOApparel brands and suppliers ensuring the sustainability of labour standards by creating a fundamental shift from a fear-driven compliance approach towards one based on accountability and transparency in collaboration with suppliers, would help better manage to risk of modern slavery occurring.MarketsSupply chainsPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Individuals21Vietnam000100000001000
66
42Liva Sreedharan and Aarti Kapoor, "Sitting on pins and needles: A rapid assessment of labour conditions in Vietnam's garment sector," Anti-Slavery International (2018)2018NGOApparel brands and buying corporations reviewing their purchasing practices to ensure they discourage low labour costs and tight delivery deadlines that have adverse impacts on workers, especially in the extended tiers of the supply chain where the risk of labour exploitation is much higher and the workers are more vulnerable due to higher levels of poverty, would help address labour exploitation risks in these supply chains. MarketsSupply chainsPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Individuals21Vietnam000000000001000
67
42Liva Sreedharan and Aarti Kapoor, "Sitting on pins and needles: A rapid assessment of labour conditions in Vietnam's garment sector," Anti-Slavery International (2018)2018NGOThe Vietnamese Government urgently developing more effective mechanisms for monitoring existing labour standards, including worker rights awareness campaigns, and imposing sanctions for companies that are found to breach the fundamental rights of workers would help decrease and address instances of labour exploitation. MarketsSupply chainsPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Individuals21Vietnam000000000000000
68
43Lukas Olynyk, "Meneshachin Scoping Study: A global synthesis and analysis of responsible recruitment initiatives targeting low-wage, migrant workers," The Freedom Fund (2020).2020NGOResearch into anti-trafficking policies and programmes that evaluates their efficacy would help recommending effective approaches to protect low-wage cross-border migrant workersCrisisMarketsMigrationDevelopment policyMixed00010No010Mixed Methods0010Systematic review00010OtherInternational000000000100000
69
44Maite Verhoeven and Barbra van Gestel, "Between Visibility and Invisibility: Sex Workers and Informal Services in Amsterdam," Feminist Economics 23: 110-133 (2017).2016AcademicThe Dutch government provisioning formal and regulated alternatives to the informal services offered to sex workers would help safeguard them from exploitation.MarketsGenderSocial policyMixed00010No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Other12 criminal investigationsNetherlands000000000000000
70
45Marilyn Croser and William Meade, "Who Made Our Uniforms? UK Public Sector Apparel Procurement: Ensuring Transparency and Respect for Human Rights," CORE AND The International Corporate Accountability Roundtable (2018)2018NGOThe UK Government requiring all businesses falling under the ambit of the Modern Slavery Act to disclose details on their corporate structure and any subsidiaries, sites of production (including name and full address of manufacturing facilities), and supply chains, paying particular attention to known high-risk areas would improve corporate responses to modern slavery risk. MarketsSupply chainsTrade policyMixed00010No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Organisations30United Kingdom000010100000000
71
46Marley S. Weiss, "Human Trafficking and Forced Labor: A Primer," ABA Journal of Labor & Employment Law 31: 1-52 (2015).2015AcademicEstablishing suitable mechanisms for work observation and worker complaint procedures throughout U.S. firms' supply and value chains, including collaboration with trade unions and works councils, may decrease the firms' risk of human trafficking violations.MarketsJusticeSupply chainsCriminal justiceInternational justiceSecondary Study01000No010Non-empirical0001N/A00001Countries1USA000100000001110
72
46Marley S. Weiss, "Human Trafficking and Forced Labor: A Primer," ABA Journal of Labor & Employment Law 31: 1-52 (2015).2015AcademicNegotiating contractual terms that allow American firms greater control over foreign businesses in their value chains may decrease their risk of human trafficking violations.MarketsJusticeSupply chainsCriminal justiceInternational justiceSecondary Study01000No010Non-empirical0001N/A00001Countries1USA100100000001000
73
46Marley S. Weiss, "Human Trafficking and Forced Labor: A Primer," ABA Journal of Labor & Employment Law 31: 1-52 (2015).2015AcademicU.S. firms shortening their labour supply chain and, where possible, directly employing workers can decrease the risk of human trafficking violations.MarketsJusticeSupply chainsCriminal justiceInternational justiceSecondary Study01000No010Non-empirical0001N/A00001Countries1USA000100000001000
74
47Martina Angela Caretta, "Casa Rut: A Multilevel Analysis of a “Good Practice” in the Social Assistance of Sexually Trafficked Nigerian Women," Affilia 30 :546-559 (2015).2015AcademicCasa Rut’s NewHope vocational training programme is effective at securing short and long-term employment for survivors of sex trafficking.MarketsJusticeDevelopment policySurvivor engagement and supportMigrationGenderSocial policyPrimary Study10000Yes100Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries2Individuals15Italy and Nigeria000000010000000
75
48Martina Ucnikova, "OECD and Modern Slavery: How much aid money is spent to tackle the issue?," Anti-Trafficking Review 3 (2014).2014AcademicGovernments increasing ODA spending on modern slavery, combined with private sector investment in antislavery efforts, proportionate to the scale of the problem would better support the global effort to eradicate modern slavery. MarketsDevelopment policyEconomic policySecondary Study01000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries12Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK and the US001000000000000
76
49Meghan A. Camp, John R. Barner and David Okech, "Implications of human trafficking in Asia: a scoping review of aftercare initiatives centered on economic development," Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work 15: 204-214 (2018).2018AcademicIncluding support for, and access to, economic development opportunities in aftercare for survivors of trafficking improves the likelihood of sustainable recovery.MarketsJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportEconomic policyDevelopment policyFinancial policySecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100N/A00001Countries51Other16 articlesAsia (including Australia and New Zealand)001000010000000
77
50Monti Narayan Datta and Kevin Bales, "Slavery is Bad for Business: Analyzing the Impact of Slavery on National Economies," The Brown Journal of World Affairs 19: 205-224 (2013).2013AcademicImproving access to financial services and economic equality reduces slavery prevalence. MarketsEconomic policyFinancial policySecondary Study01000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Countries193Other6 regionsAll countries000000001000001
78
50Monti Narayan Datta and Kevin Bales, "Slavery is Bad for Business: Analyzing the Impact of Slavery on National Economies," The Brown Journal of World Affairs 19: 205-224 (2013).2013AcademicBecause slavery impacts countries' economic development and growth (higher levels of slavery prevalence are related to lower levels of GDP and lower HDI scores), economic solutions (and not solely moral or social solutions) would improve antislavery efforts.MarketsEconomic policySecondary Study01000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Countries193Other6 regionsAll countries000000001000001
79
51Neil Howard, "Protecting Children from Trafficking in Benin: In Need of Politics and Participation," Development in Practice 22: 460-472 (2012).2012AcademicMacro-level economic efforts to address the political-economy underpinnings of the lack of money in Benin that fuels labour migration and child labour are necessary to address exploitation.MarketsCrisisEconomic policyMigrationDevelopment policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Communities4Individuals172 respondentsCountries1Benin000000001000001
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51Neil Howard, "Protecting Children from Trafficking in Benin: In Need of Politics and Participation," Development in Practice 22: 460-472 (2012).2012AcademicProviding individuals with local economic alternatives to labour migration helps protect young people from exploitation and trafficking.MarketsCrisisEconomic policyMigrationDevelopment policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Communities4Individuals170 respondentsCountries1Benin000000010000001
81
52Nicole Fleury, "Offering a Carrot to Complement the Stick: Providing Positive Incentives in Public Procurement Frameworks to Combat Human Trafficking," Public Contract Law Journal 48: 397-421 (2019).2019AcademicPositive incentives for American public contract offerors who ensure their supply chains are free of exploitation would help the U.S. government avoid purchasing goods and services produced by trafficked people.MarketsSupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100N/A00001Countries1USA000101000000000
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53Niklas Jakobsson and Andreas Kotsadam, "The law and economics of international sex slavery: prostitution laws and trafficking for sexual exploitation," European Journal of Law and Economics 35: 87-107 (2013).
2011AcademicIn European countries, criminalising procuring for prostitution, or going further and criminalising buying and/or selling sex, may decrease the profitability of trafficking to a country and diminish its prevalence.MarketsJusticeEconomic policyCriminal justicePrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries39Europe000000000000000
83
54Niklas Potrafke, "Policies against human trafficking: the role of religion and political instituions," Economics of Governance 17: 353–386 (2016).2016AcademicGovernments in countries with Christian majorities implement stricter anti-trafficking policies than governments in countries with Muslim majoritiesMarketsDevelopment policySocial policySecondary Study01000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Countries175All000000000000000
84
55Nkirote Laiboni, "A Job at Any Cost: Experiences of African Women Migrant Domestic Workers in the Middle East," Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (2020)2020NGOPartnerships among stakeholders in countries of origin and destination of domestic migrant workers, in order to increase information-sharing and collaboration, enhance the protection of the rights of migrant workers. MarketsDevelopment policyMigrationPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries6Ghana, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zanzibar and Kenya010100000000000
85
55Nkirote Laiboni, "A Job at Any Cost: Experiences of African Women Migrant Domestic Workers in the Middle East," Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (2020)2020NGOWhen signing bilateral agreements on migrant domestic workers, African and Middle Eastern governments creating frameworks to monitor and review their implementation supports efforts to ensure compliance and respect for migrant workers’ rights by all parties.MarketsTrade policyMigrationPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries6Ghana, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zanzibar and Kenya000000000000000
86
55Nkirote Laiboni, "A Job at Any Cost: Experiences of African Women Migrant Domestic Workers in the Middle East," Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (2020)2020NGO The involvement of stakeholders such as trade unions and CSOs when drafting and negotiating bilateral agreements with Middle Eastern countries about migrant domestic workers helps ensure that the interests of African migrant domestic workers are represented, and strengthen the agreements in place to reduce trafficking.MarketsTrade policyMigrationPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries6Ghana, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zanzibar and Kenya000000000000000
87
56Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019).2019IntergovernmentalLaws and standards prohibiting child labour, regulating standards of work, and establishing minimum ages for employment are essential for taking action against child labour.JusticeMarketsCriminal justiceCivil justiceSupply chainsTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100International000000000010000
88
56Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019).2019IntergovernmentalGovernment mandated corporate child labour due diligence supports the eradication of child labour.MarketsSupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100International000010000000000
89
56Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019).2019IntergovernmentalEconomic development decreases child labour.MarketsDevelopment policyEconomic policySocial policySecondary Study01000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100International000000001000000
90
56Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019).2019IntergovernmentalEnsuring social protection rights and support reduces the need for families to secure income through their children, and therefore supports reductions in child labour.MarketsSocial policyDevelopment policySecondary Study01000No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100International000000000000001
91
56Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019).2019IntergovernmentalA robust knowledge base on child labour trends and the impacts of different policies and interventions is necessary to support effective efforts to combat child labour.MarketsDevelopment policySecondary Study01000No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100International000000000100000
92
56Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019).2019IntergovernmentalPublic awareness raising and information campaigns are necessary to support the eradication of child labour.MarketsDevelopment policyEducationSecondary Study01000No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100International000000000100000
93
56Olivier Thévenon and Eric Edmonds, "Child labour: Causes, Consequences and Policies to Tackle It," Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019).2019IntergovernmentalStable increases in family and parental income decrease child labour.MarketsDevelopment policySocial policySecondary Study01000No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100International000000011000000
94
57Olubukola S. Adesina, "Modern day slavery: poverty and child trafficking in Nigeria," African Identities 12: 165-179 (2014)2014AcademicAnti-trafficking efforts that target women and children from vulnerable communities that experience poverty and the need to look for work would help address exploitation, as these groups are most likely to be exploited and experience forced labour as a result of trafficking. MarketsTrade policyDevelopment policyFinancial policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Communities2Individuals90Nigeria000000000000001
95
58Pardis Mahdavi, "Gender, labour and the law: the nexus of domestic work, human trafficking and the informal economy in the United Arab Emirates," Global Networks 13: 425-440 (2013).2013AcademicNational and international policies and interventions designed to protect women from sex trafficking that don't address root socio-economic vulnerabilities, furnish women with alternative means of legitimate employment, and overlook abuse and exploitation of female migrant workers in non-sex work sectors paradoxically make them more vulnerable to precarious employment and abuse. MarketsJusticeMigrationGenderEconomic policyDevelopment policyInternational justicePrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Individuals78UAE000000000000001
96
59Pooja Theresa Stanlas, "Transborder Human Trafficking in Malaysian Waters: Addressing the Root Causes," Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce 41: 595-606 (2010).2010AcademicImproved regular immigration policies in Malaysia would make legal immigration easier and more affordable than illicit routes, making human trafficking and smuggling less profitable.MarketsCrisisSupply chainsEconomic policyMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001N/A00001Countries1Malaysia000000000010000
97
59Pooja Theresa Stanlas, "Transborder Human Trafficking in Malaysian Waters: Addressing the Root Causes," Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce 41: 595-606 (2010).2010AcademicMalaysian investment in neighbouring trafficking source countries would generate employment and improved economic stability there, reducing vulnerability to trafficking.MarketsCrisisEconomic policyDevelopment policyMigrationSocial policySecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100N/A00001Countries1Malaysia100000001000000
98
59Pooja Theresa Stanlas, "Transborder Human Trafficking in Malaysian Waters: Addressing the Root Causes," Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce 41: 595-606 (2010).2010AcademicAddressing the systematic structural factors that give rise to exploitative labour practices, combined with a better migration framework to allow easy legal entry of migrants, will help stemming human trafficking, ultimately addressing human vulnerability and improving human security.CrisisMarketsMigrationSecondary Study01000No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100Countries1Malaysia000000000000001
99
60Prashant Bharadwaj, Leah K. Lakdawala, and Nicholas Li, "Perverse Consequences of Well Intentioned Regulation: Evidence from India’s Child Labor Ban," Journal of the European Economic Association 18: 1158–1195 (2020).2020AcademicBanning exploitative labour practices such as child labour may have unpredictable effects on the motives of stakeholders and even increase the prevalence of practices such as child labour.MarketsEconomic policyDevelopment policySecondary Study01000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Countries1India000000000010001
100
61Quintin Lake, Jamie MacAlister, Cindy Berman, Matthew Gitsham and Nadine Page, "Corporate approaches to addressing modern slavery in supply chains: A snapshot of current practice," Ethical Trading Initiative and The Ashridge Centre for Business and Sustainability at Hult International Business School (2015).2015AcademicBuying business working with suppliers to build their capacity to tackle modern slavery and ensure they have effective HR management systems helps them reduce the risk of modern slavery occurring.MarketsSupply chainsDevelopment policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Organisations51United Kingdom000100000001000
101
61Quintin Lake, Jamie MacAlister, Cindy Berman, Matthew Gitsham and Nadine Page, "Corporate approaches to addressing modern slavery in supply chains: A snapshot of current practice," Ethical Trading Initiative and The Ashridge Centre for Business and Sustainability at Hult International Business School (2015).2015AcademicEthical Sourcing departments being provided with adequate financial and HR resources so systems and processes can be aligned with purchasing practices, encourages long-term strategic relationships with suppliers and reduces the risk of modern slavery.MarketsSupply chainsDevelopment policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Organisations51United Kingdom000100000000000
102
61Quintin Lake, Jamie MacAlister, Cindy Berman, Matthew Gitsham and Nadine Page, "Corporate approaches to addressing modern slavery in supply chains: A snapshot of current practice," Ethical Trading Initiative and The Ashridge Centre for Business and Sustainability at Hult International Business School (2015).2015AcademicSenior Executives owning and implementing the desire of the business to eradicate modern slavery from supply chains, and communicating this strategy effectively to different departments of the business, improves corporate responses to modern slavery. MarketsSupply chainsDevelopment policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Organisations51United Kingdom000000000000000
103
61Quintin Lake, Jamie MacAlister, Cindy Berman, Matthew Gitsham and Nadine Page, "Corporate approaches to addressing modern slavery in supply chains: A snapshot of current practice," Ethical Trading Initiative and The Ashridge Centre for Business and Sustainability at Hult International Business School (2015).2015NGOBusinesses comprehensively mapping their supply chain and understanding the high risk areas in the extended tiers through colleagues collecting data on the ground improves their understanding, and ability to respond to, the risk of modern slavery they face.MarketsSupply chainsEconomic policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Organisations51United Kingdom000000000001000
104
62Quintin Lake, Jamie MacAlister, Cindy Berman, Matthew Gitsham and Nadine Page, "Corporate Leadership on Modern Slavery: How have companies responded to the UK Modern Slavery Act one year on?," Hult International Business School and The Ethical Trading Initiative (2016).2016AcademicCorporate engagement and action in partnership with governments, NGOs and charities, and other local stakeholders is critical for adressing modern slaveryMarketsSupply chainsDevelopment policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Organisations71United Kingdom, US, Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and New Zealand011000000000000
105
63Rachel N. Birkey, Ronald P. Guidry, Mohammad Azizul Islam and Dennis M. Patten, "Mandated Social Disclosure: An Analysis of the Response to the Californian Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010," Journal of Business Ethics 152: 827-841 (2018).2018AcademicThe requirement to publicly disclose information under the Californian Transparency in Supply Chains Act has made companies act more ethically.MarketsSupply chainsFinancial policyPrimary Study10000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Organisations105USA - California 000010100000000
106
64Rebecca Surtees, "Trapped at Sea: Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers," Groningen Journal of International Law 1: 91-151 (2013).2013AcademicCollaboration between the anti-trafficking community and the seafaring and commercial fishing sectors would improve identification and protection of trafficked fishers and seafarersJusticeMarketsSurvivor engagement and supportDevelopment policySupply chainsTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100International010000000000000
107
64Rebecca Surtees, "Trapped at Sea: Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers," Groningen Journal of International Law 1: 91-151 (2013).2013AcademicEnsuring legal and regulatory frameworks support payment of compensation from traffickers and ship owners to trafficked fishers and seafarers deters offending in a profit-driven industry.JusticeMarketsCivil justiceSurvivor engagement and supportSupply chainsTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100International000000000010100
108
64Rebecca Surtees, "Trapped at Sea: Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers," Groningen Journal of International Law 1: 91-151 (2013).2013AcademicRobust legislation addressing recruitment practices and enforcement of the legal and regulatory framework is necessary to prevent and address trafficking at sea.JusticeMarketsInternational justiceCivil justiceSupply chainsTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100International000000000010000
109
64Rebecca Surtees, "Trapped at Sea: Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers," Groningen Journal of International Law 1: 91-151 (2013).2013AcademicEnsuring that recruitment fees are borne by employers rather than seafarers and fishers helps alleviate risk of trafficking.JusticeInternational justiceCivil justiceTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100International000000000011000
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65Rossazana Ab-Rahim and Bilal Tariq, "The Impact of Trade on Child Labor: Evidence From Selected Saarc and ASEAN Countries," Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business 32: 1-18 (2017).2017AcademicTrade liberalisation across borders in Asia increses the consumption of imported goods and decreases the need for domestic production, reducing the child labour market.MarketsTrade policySupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Countries9Asia100000000000000
111
66Rutvica Andrijasevic and Tonia Novitz, "Supply Chains and Unfree Labor: Regulatory Failure in the Case of Samsung Electronics in Slovakia," Journal of Human Trafficking 6: 195-208 (2020).2020AcademicLack of binding international and European labour standards disperses responsibility in corporate supply chains, reducing incentives and efforts to prevent and redress labour abuses and trafficking within supply chains.MarketsTrade policySupply chainsMixed00010No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1Communities1Slovakia000001000010000
112
66Rutvica Andrijasevic and Tonia Novitz, "Supply Chains and Unfree Labor: Regulatory Failure in the Case of Samsung Electronics in Slovakia," Journal of Human Trafficking 6: 195-208 (2020).2020AcademicLack of labour protections for temporary migrant workers within the EU exposes them to risk of labour exploitation and trafficking.MarketsCrisisTrade policyMigrationSupply chainsMixed00010No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1Communities1Slovakia000000000010000
113
67Salamata Ouédrago Cheikhou, "Lessons learned from socio-economic interventions in Mauritania,"Anti-Slavery International (2019).2019NGOLocal figures (volunteers or activists in the fight to eradicate slavery, State authorities, or religious and traditional groups, being involved in the implementation of Income-Generating Activities (IGAs) supporting employees to reduce their vulnerability through structures like micro-financing initiatives helps ensure long-term support.MarketsJusticeDevelopment policyFinancial policySurvivor engagement and supportPrimary Study10000Yes100Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Individuals180Mauritania010000010000000
114
67Salamata Ouédrago Cheikhou, "Lessons learned from socio-economic interventions in Mauritania,"Anti-Slavery International (2019).2019NGOEmployers providing a solid grounding in financial education, professional skills, and literacy helps ensure lasting impact of socio-economic initiatives for worker, because lasting impact depends on the capacity of participants to take charge of their own future without additional support. MarketsDevelopment policyPrimary Study10000Yes100Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Individuals180Mauritania000000010000000
115
68Samantha Goethals, Joe Bardwell, Mariam Bhacker and Bahaa Ezzelarab, "Business Human Rights Responsibility for Refugees and Migrant Workers: Turning Policies into Practice in the Middle East," Business and Human Rights Journal 2: 335-342 (2017).2017AcademicIndustry-wide transparency in business models and supply chains, and development of agreed-upon standards and good practice would improve efforts to address labour trafficking of migrant workers in the Middle East.CrisisMarketsMigrationSupply chainsMixed00010No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries4Other2Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Syria, Turkey000100000000000
116
69Sandya Hewamanne, "Surveillance by Another Name: The Modern Slavery Act, Global Factory Workers and Part-time Sex Work in Sri Lanka," Journal of Women in Culture and Society 45: 653-677 (2020).2020AcademicThe Modern Slavery Act introduced by the UK government impacted negatively on the Industrial Zone in Sri Lanka as many female sex workers were fired from their jobs in the factories due to this part-time workMarketsEconomic policySupply chainsSocial policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Individuals39 plus two focus groups and didn't say how many participated in themSri Lanka000010000000001
117
70Sheldon X. Zhang, Michael W. Spiller, Brian Karl Finch and Yang Qin, "Estimating Labor Trafficking among Unauthorized Migrant Workers in San Diego," The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 653: 65-86 (2014).2014AcademicReliable estimates of labour trafficking prevalence are necessary to guide effective policymaking.MarketsMigrationEconomic policyPrimary Study10000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Individuals826Other1 citySan Diego, CA, USA000000000100000
118
71Stephanie J. Nawyn and Nur Banu Kavakli Birdal, "Counter-Trafficking Policy and Immigrant Rights in Turkey," Insight Turkey 16: 77-85 (2014).2014AcademicAdopting counter-trafficking policies in Turkey, that do not focus on law enforcement-only, would better address human trafficking, ultimately decreasing immigrants’ vulnerability to human traffickingCrisisMarketsMigrationMixed00010No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Other1Turkey000000000000000
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72Stephanie L. Mace, Donald L. Venneberg, and James W. Amell, "Human Trafficking: Integrating Human Resource Development Toward a Solution," Advances in Developing Human Resources 14: 333-344 (2012).2012AcademicA Human Resources Development framework, which includes for example training and development for communities and first responders as well as educational materials for outreach and awareness purposes, would be useful in making people less vulnerable to trafficking.MarketsDevelopment policyEducationTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001N/A00001000000010000000
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73Stephen John New, "Modern slavery and the supply chain: the limits of corporate social responsibility?," Supply Chain Management 20: 697-707 (2015).2015AcademicRequiring greater levels of detailed and specific data from companies about the provenance of their goods would help drive them to rid their supply chains of modern slavery.MarketsSupply chainsTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100Global000010100100000
121
74Stuart N. Hodkinson, Hannah Lewis, Louise Waite and Peter Dwyer, "Fighting or fuelling forced labour? The Modern Slavery Act 2015, irregular migrants and the vulnerabilising role of the UK's hostile environment," Critical Social Policy (2020).2020AcademicThe UK's Modern Slavery Act will be ineffective in tackling exploitative labour within the UK economy, as long as it operates alongside the 'hostile environment' towards migrants, also advocated for from within the Government.MarketsEconomic policySurvivor engagement and supportPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Individuals23UK - Yorkshire and the Humber000000000000001
122
75Stuart Rosewarne, "Temporary International Labor Migration and Development in South and Southeast Asia," Feminist Economics 18: 63-90 (2012).2012AcademicPolicies of the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia consciously and actively promoting the recruitment of women workers for overseas domestic work (due to the economic value of remittances the practice generates) without considering the vulnerabilities still faced by female migrant workers exacerbate risks of exploitation for these women.MarketsCrisisDevelopment policyGenderMigrationPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries6Organisations27Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia000000001000000
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76Tonisha R. Jones and Faith E. Lutze, "Anti-Human Trafficking Interagency Collaboration in the State of Michigan: An Exploratory Study," Journal of Human Trafficking 2: 156-174 (2016).2016AcademicPublic, private and nongovernmental agencies working together improves anti-trafficking efforts.MarketsEconomic policySocial policyPrimary Study10000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100OrganisationsUnsureIndividuals296United States - Michigan011000000000000
124
77Utami Dewi Anggia and Rezasyah Teuku, "Indonesian Migrant Domestic Workers and Sustainable Development Goals: Feasible Policy and Practices," E3S Web of Conferences, 73 (2018)2018AcademicThe Indonesian government's policy of zero migrant workers (in most cases referring to women travelling abroad for domestic work) which intends to protect the dignity of Indonesian people by removing the risk of falling victim to trafficking and exploitative work abroad, is detrimental to the local economy, which without remittances is more likely to experience poverty and unemployment.MarketsCrisisDevelopment policySocial policyGendermigrationSecondary Study01000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1IndividualsUnsure Indonesia000000001000001
125
77Utami Dewi Anggia and Rezasyah Teuku, "Indonesian Migrant Domestic Workers and Sustainable Development Goals: Feasible Policy and Practices," E3S Web of Conferences, 73 (2018)2018AcademicThe Indonesian government's policy of zero migrant workers (in most cases referring to women travelling abroad for domestic work) violates an individual's right to economic empowerment and is more likely to lead to illegal movement and more informal job offer being taken, thereby increasing the likelihood of exploitation occurring.MarketsCrisisDevelopment policySocial policyGendermigrationSecondary Study01000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1IndividualsUnsure Indonesia000000000000001
126
78Vanessa Bouché and Dana E. Wittmer, "Gendered diffusion on gendered issues: the case of human trafficking," Journal of Public Policy 35: 1-33 (2015)2015AcademicThe higher the proportion of neighbouring states that criminalise human trafficking, the more the public and private sector learn about the causes and effects of the phenomenom and the more likely the state is to pass comprehensive human trafficking legislation to prevent it.MarketsJusticeDevelopment policyCriminal justicePrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Observational00100Countries1United States000000000000000
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79Venera Bekteshi, Eglantina Gjermeni and Mary Van Hook, "Modern day slavery: sex trafficking in Albania," International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 32: 480-494 (2012)2012AcademicPoor socio-economic policies and initially ignoring the issue have made the Albanian government's response to human trafficking inadaquate.MarketsDevelopment policySocial policyGenderEducationSecondary Study01000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Communities2Albania000000001000000
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80Vivek Soundararajan and Jill A. Brown, "Voluntary Governance Mechanisms in Global Supply Chains: Beyond CSR to a Stakeholder Utility Perspective," Journal of Business Ethics 134: 83–102 (2016).2014AcademicIn developing countries, conventional voluntary governance mechanisms like CSR/SCM are not effective at inducing suppliers and manufacturers to avoid forced labour.MarketsSupply chainsDevelopment policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Communities1India000001000000000
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80Vivek Soundararajan and Jill A. Brown, "Voluntary Governance Mechanisms in Global Supply Chains: Beyond CSR to a Stakeholder Utility Perspective," Journal of Business Ethics 134: 83–102 (2016).2014AcademicBetter understanding by global buyers of the suppliers’ perspective in developing countries would help maximise utility among stakeholders, making voluntary governance mechanisms more effective at addressing and reducing modern slavery.MarketsSupply chainsDevelopment policyPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Communities1India000100000000000
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81Vivek Soundararajan, Zaheer Khan and Shlomo Yedidia Tarba, "Beyond brokering: Sourcing agents, boundary work and working conditions in global supply chains," Human Relations 71: 481-509 (2018).2018AcademicEngaging local sourcing agents in the Indian garment sector to facilitate improvements in working conditions helps address labour exploitation in global supply chains.
MarketsSupply chainsPrimary Study10000No010Qualitative0100Observational00100Countries1Organisations17 - Sourcing Agent Individuals17India000100000001000
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82Xiaoying Li and Richard B. Freeman, "How Does China's New Labour Contract Law Affect Floating Workers?," British Journal of Industrial Relations 53: 711-735 (2014)2014AcademicChina’s Labor Contract Law (implemented in 2008) which required firms to give migrant workers written contracts, strengthened labor protections for workers and contained penalties for firms that did not follow the labor code, increased the percentage of migrant workers with written contracts, which in turn raised social insurance coverage, reduced the likelihood of wage arrears, and raised the likelihood that the workers had a union at their workplace.MarketsCrisisDevelopment policyMigrationPrimary Study10000No010Mixed Methods0010Quasi-experimental01000Countries1Communities9China000000000010010
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83Yoon Jin Ma, Hyun‐Hwa Lee and Kylie Goerlitz, "Transparency of Global Apparel Supply Chains: Quantitative Analysis of Corporate Disclosures," Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 23: 308-318 (2016).2016AcademicThe California Transparency in Supply Chains Act (2012)'s requirement to disclose supply chain information publically means that even though a proportion of businesses do not comply consumer pressure can be applied on noncompliant firms after seeing the content from those that do, consequently increasing supply chain disclosure and accountability.MarketsSupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Quantitative1000Observational00100Countries1Organisations204USA - California 000010100000000
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83Yoon Jin Ma, Hyun‐Hwa Lee and Kylie Goerlitz, "Transparency of Global Apparel Supply Chains: Quantitative Analysis of Corporate Disclosures," Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 23: 308-318 (2016).2016AcademicThe introduction of a financial penalty to ensure companies comply with the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act is necessary to make it wholly effective at reducing modern slavery in corporate supply chains. MarketsSupply chainsSecondary Study01000No010Quantitative1000Systematic review00010Countries1Organisations204USA - California 000011000000000
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84Yvon Dandurand, "Human trafficking and police governance," Police Practice and Research 18: 322-336 (2017)2017AcademicUnder-reporting by relevant stakeholders and those that have intelligence on trafficking or suspected trafficking creates a gap between law enforcement and the reality of labor trafficking, reducing the ability of law enforcement to effectively address trafficking. MarketsJusticeFinancial policyDevelopment policyCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual Source00100No010Non-empirical0001Observational00100All000000000100000