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1. Evidence source2. Topic3. Source characteristics [see the Technical Note for more information on each variable]5. Hypotheses
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Reference #1.1 Publication info (citation) OR full title+authorship info (if unpublished) [free text] - Author [firstname lastname]. Title. Publisher/Journal/Website1.2 Year of publication1.3 Authorship2.1 Claim tested [free text]2.3a Domain [select from list]2.3b Secondary domain (if applicable)2.4a Theme 1 [select from list]2.4b Theme 2 (if applicable)2.4c Theme 3 (if applicable)2.4d Theme 4 (if applicable)2.4e Theme 5 (if applicable)2.2bis - Other theme? [free text]3.1a Type [select from list]3.1b Programme/ Project evaluation3.2 Method [select from list]3.3 Design [select from list]3.4a Scale measure 1 [select from list]3.5a Scale value 1 [free text - insert number]3.4b Scale measure 2 (if applicable) [select from list]3.5b Scale value 2 (if applicable)[free text - insert number]3.4c Scale measure 3 (if applicable) [select from list]3.5b Scale value 3 (if applicable)[free text - insert number]3.6 Geography - which countries does the study address? [free text]5.15.25.35.45.55.65.75.85.95.105.115.125.135.145.155.165.175.185.195.205.215.225.235.24
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Addressing the root causes of modern slavery vulnerability reduces re-victimisation in crisis situationsCommunity-based awareness raising helps to reduce human trafficking risks in crisis situationsEstablishing dedicated national anti-trafficking in persons task forces within the police helps to reduce trafficking in persons in crisis situationsAccess to economic and livelihood opportunities reduces trafficking in persons risks in crisis situations and normal timesThe establishment of transparent and fair recruitment practices prevents the trafficking of overseas migrant workersLong term support for slavery survivors leads to effective and sustained recoveryEnsuring that migrant workers have labour rights reduces the exploitation of migrant workers and improves their access to justiceProviding support services to people on the move in crisis situations helps to reduce trafficking in personsEmbedding counter-trafficking activities into wider labour programming strengthens the prevention of trafficking in persons in crisis situationsWitness protection in criminal proceedings strengthens the response to human traffickingAgreement on definitions related to modern slavery is central to achieving a coherent and coordinated response to modern slaveryThe alignment of national legislation with key international instruments strengthens the response to trafficking in persons during crisis situationsDe-conflating sex work from sex trafficking strengthens responses to preventing trafficking for sexual exploitation and extends protections to sex workers and trafficking victimsDe-criminalisation of sex work strengthens the prevention of trafficking for sexual exploitation and the protection of sex workersDismantling border controls and restrictive migration legislation improves migrant protection, particularly during times of crisisAmending policy that restricts the foreign migration of women is prevents irregular migration and the trafficking of women and girls Adopting a human rights based approach strengthens the prevention of human trafficking during crisis situations and strengthens the protection of vulnerable personsGender-based approaches to programming in crisis situations prevent gender-based violence and traffickingA human security approach to understanding migration in crisis situations leads to effective anti-trafficking policy developmentA holistic approach to development – that incorporates the rule of law and community-based action - reduces crime in conflict areasMulti-agency coordination within States and in regional contexts strengthens the response to modern slavery during crisis situationsIncreased financial and human resources for anti-slavery programmingCapitalising on the use of technology during disasters improves the coordination of crisis relief efforts and the protection of vulnerable personsA strengthened response to trafficking in persons requires that frontline staff receive regular training on identifying and protecting victims and investigating trafficking crimes
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1Alexandra Seltzer, "Human trafficking: the case of Burmese refugees in Thailand," International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 37, 4: 279-293 (2013).2013AcademicProtecting refugee camps and ensuring that the camps are well-resourced will aid in the prevention of the trafficking of refugees living in the camps. CrisisDisplacementHumanitarian contextsRefugees; preventionTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AThailand000001000000000000000000
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2Alexandra Williams-Woods and Yvonne Mellon, "Irregular Victims: Investigating the Immigration Status Decisions of Post-NRM Victims of Human Trafficking,the Availability of Eligible Benefits and the Related Impact on Victims of Trafficking," Journal of Modern Slavery 4, 2: 66-92 (2018).2018AcademicBy failing to adequately support non-UK national survivors of human trafficking/modern slavery, the existing legal frameworks in the UK do not meet the UK’s international obligations and subsequently negatively impact upon survivors’ mental health, wellbeing and safety. JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationInternational justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals8Other28UK000001000000000000000000
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3Alinka Gearon, "Child Trafficking: Young people’s experiences of front-line services in England," The British Journal of Criminology 59, 2: 481–500 (2019).2019AcademicImmigration-centred discourse places immigration concerns ahead of children’s safeguarding needs, which fails to protect victims and places them at further risk. JusticeCrisisCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1England000000000000001000000000
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3Alinka Gearon, "Child Trafficking: Young people’s experiences of front-line services in England," The British Journal of Criminology 59, 2: 481–500 (2019).2019AcademicAn immigration-centred approach in front-line practice can undermine the ability of children who have been trafficked to disclose the abuse to which they have been subjected.JusticeCrisisCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1England000000000000000010000000
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3Alinka Gearon, "Child Trafficking: Young people’s experiences of front-line services in England," The British Journal of Criminology 59, 2: 481–500 (2019).2019AcademicNarrow interpretations of what constitutes coercion compound difficulties in being recognised as a ‘victim’ of trafficking abuse, and lead to treating victims as ‘culpable and complicit actors’.JusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1England000000000010000000000000
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3Alinka Gearon, "Child Trafficking: Young people’s experiences of front-line services in England," The British Journal of Criminology 59, 2: 481–500 (2019).2019AcademicA criminal justice approach to human trafficking fails to respond to child protection concerns, placing young people at further riskJusticeCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1England000001000000000000000000
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4Amber Peterman, Alina Potts, Megan O'Donnell, Kelly Thompson, Niyati Shah, Sabine Oertelt-Prigione and Nicole van Gelder, "Pandemics and Violence Against Women and Children," Centre for Global Development Working Paper 528 (2020).2020AcademicDeveloping community-driven responses to combating child trafficking and child commercial sexual exploitation in the Solomon Islands will reduce the risks of child exploitation. CrisisHumanitarian contextsGenderIntersectoral gender and feminist informed pandemic responses; ChildrenSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/AOther2100000000000000000000000
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5Andreas Schloenhardt and Mark Loong, "Return and Reintegration of Human Trafficking Victims from Australia," International Journal of Refugee Law 23, 2: 143–173 (2011).2011AcademicCoordinating repatriation and reintegration between both the sending and receiving states through bilateral agreements assists in recovery and avoids any further harm to the victimJusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationInternational justiceSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Australia000000000000000000001000
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5Andreas Schloenhardt and Mark Loong, "Return and Reintegration of Human Trafficking Victims from Australia," International Journal of Refugee Law 23, 2: 143–173 (2011).2011AcademicCommissioning an independent agency to formally assist in the physical repatriation of a victim of human trafficking avoids any ambiguity and risk associated with victims approaching political borders and immigration authorities independently.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Australia000000000000000000000100
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6Andrey Orlean, "Policy Brief: Countering Human Trafficking: Identifying, Returning and Assisting Victims from Ukraine," Prague Process (2020).2020IntergovernmentalCounter-trafficking measures in Ukraine that ensure both the principle of confidentiality towards trafficking victims and a witness protection system in criminal proceedings coupled with raising public awareness about the state support and help available to trafficking victims raise the level of trust of trafficking victims towards the competent state institutions, ultimately ensuring an improved response to human trafficking.CrisisJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceCivil justiceVictim confidentiality; witness protectionSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Ukraine000000000100000000000000
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7Ann De Shalit, Robert Heynen and Emily van der Meulen, "Human Trafficking and Media Myths: Federal Funding, Communication Strategies, and Canadian Anti-Trafficking Programs," Canadian Journal of Communication 39, 3 (2014). 2014AcademicDeveloping alternative discourses and media strategies to form more nuanced and evidence-based conceptions of labour and migration would challenge the dominant anti-trafficking tropes and security-based frameworks that dominate Canadian and international policyJusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Organisations18Canada000000000010000000000000
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8Anne T Gallagher, "Trafficking in Persons and Armed Conflict," Selected Works (2015).2015AcademicAligning national legislation with international legislation improves the response to slavery in conflict situationsCrisisJusticeConflictMigrationGenderCriminal justiceSocial policyConflict situationsSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries47Organisations2Colombia, Uganda, Afghanistan, Iraq, Ukraine, Syria, Congo, Nigeria, Myanmar, Chechnya, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Central African Republic, Sudan, South Sudan, Korea, China, Rwanda, Former Yugoslavia , Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Mali, Somalia, Bangladesh, India, the Philippines, Nepal, Bulgaria, Fiji, Ukraine, Yemen, Eritrea, Lebanon, Turkey, Moldova, Russia, Kosovo, Egypt, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, East Timor, Liberia, Mozambique, Albania 000000000001000000000000
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9Annie Wilson, "Notes from the Field Trafficking Risks for Refugees," Societies Without Borders 7, 1: 100-118 (2012).2012AcademicEnforcement-oriented measures such as border controls lead to increased trafficking risks for refugees.CrisisJusticeDisplacementMigrationHumanitarian contextsConflictBorder controlsTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/A000000000000001000000000
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10Barbara Grossman-Thompson, "Protection and Paternalism: Narratives of Nepali Women Migrants and the Gender Politics of Discriminatory Labour Migration Policy," Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees 32, 3: 40-48 (2016).2016AcademicEnding age and gender discriminatory migration laws in Nepal reduces women's irregular migration and vulnerability to traffickingCrisisMigrationSocial policyGenderMigration laws and policiesPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsQuasi-experimentalCountries1Organisations1Nepal000000000000000100000000
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11Beatriz Camargo Magalhães, "Mind the Protection (Policy) Gap: Trafficking and Labor Exploitation in Migrant Domestic Work in Belgium," Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies 15, 2: 122-139 (2017).2017AcademicLabour and migration policies applying to domestic work negatively interact with anti-trafficking public policy mechanism in Belgium to create structural vulnerabilities for undocumented migrant workers.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals14Belgium000000100000000000000000
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11Beatriz Camargo Magalhães, "Mind the Protection (Policy) Gap: Trafficking and Labor Exploitation in Migrant Domestic Work in Belgium," Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies 15, 2: 122-139 (2017).2017AcademicHaving a more holistic approach which converges labour / migration policies restructured under human rights principles / rethinking welfare policies would help Belgium counter structural factors of vulnerability JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationSocial policyMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals14Belgium000000000000000010000000
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12Benjamin Perrin, "Just Passing Through? International Legal Obligations and Policies of Transit Countries in Combating Trafficking in Persons," European Journal of Criminology 7, 1: 11-27 (2010).2010AcademicAnticorruption action in transit countries would support maintenance of effective border controls and help prevent trafficking.JusticeCrisisCriminal justiceMigrationSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AWorldwide000000000000001000000000
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12Benjamin Perrin, "Just Passing Through? International Legal Obligations and Policies of Transit Countries in Combating Trafficking in Persons," European Journal of Criminology 7, 1: 11-27 (2010).2010Academic'Full and complete investigations'' carried out by source, transit, and destination countries in tandem would disrupt trafficking networks better than investigations by individual countries aiming to prosecute individual perpetrators.JusticeCriminal justiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AWorldwide001000000000000000000000
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12Benjamin Perrin, "Just Passing Through? International Legal Obligations and Policies of Transit Countries in Combating Trafficking in Persons," European Journal of Criminology 7, 1: 11-27 (2010).2010AcademicIt is worthwhile, in terms of resources used for victim protection and law enforcement against traffickers, for destination countries to support and fund antitrafficking programmes in transit countries.JusticeCriminal justiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AWorldwide000000000000000000000100
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13Bishal Gyawali, June Keeling, and Per Kallestrup, "Human Trafficking in Nepal: Post-Earthquake Rish and Repsonse, Diasater Medicine and Public Health Preparedness," Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 11, 2: 153-154 (2017).2017AcademicAnti-trafficking measures included in relief and rehabilitation measures at the national level by stakeholders to coordinate disaster relief response help to identify and rescue victimsCrisisHumanitarian contextsClimate/environmentGenderRelief measures; rehabilitation measuresSecondary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Nepal000000001000000000000000
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15Caterine Palmer, "Trafficked children and child protection systems in the European Union," European Journal of Social Work 22, 4: 551-562 (2019).2019AcademicDeveloping comprehensive child protection systems in the EU will improve the protection of trafficked children.CrisisMigrationSocial policyChild protection systems; ChildrenSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther1EU000001000000000000000000
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16Chloé Bailey, "Her freedom, her voice: Insights from the Freedom Fund’s work with women and girls," The Freedom Fund (2017).2017NGOEngaging returnee migrants as change agents to speak to community groups about their experiences increases knowledge about trafficking risks and strengthens prevention JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportEducationMigrationSecondary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOther6Other101Worldwide010000000000000000000000
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17Christiana Gbedemah, Nicola Jones, and Paola Pereznieto, "Gendered risks, poverty and vulnerability in Ghana-is the LEAP cash transfer programme making a difference?," Overseas Development Institute 52, 1-4 (2010).2010NGOSocial protection policies and programmes that adopt a targeting approach and are combined with gender-related community awareness activities and inter-sectoral coordination to link complementary services in Ghana would improve overall programme effectiveness, ultimately ensuring gender and social protection effectivenessCrisisSocial policyGenderSocial protection policies; gender community awarenessSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Ghana010000000000000000000000
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18Christopher Horwood and Tuesday Reitano, "A Perfect Storm? Forces shaping modern migration and displacements," Danish Refugee Council (2016).2016NGOStrengthening the rules, policies and legal frameworks that protect human rights and address the root causes of irregular migration reduces the risk of human traffickingCrisisMigrationDisplacementClimate/environmentConflictEducationHuman rights; legal frameworks; protectionSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther1Europe100000000000000000000000
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19Claire Healy, "How are the war in Syria and the refugee crisis affecting human trafficking?," ICMPD Policy Brief (2016).2016NGOA shift away from single category views of trafficking, refugee, migration and child protection policy improves access to basic needs and safety for displaced people CrisisMigrationDisplacementConflictBasic needs; safety; definitionsMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries5Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq000000000000000000010000
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20Claire Healy, "How to prevent human trafficking among people travelling along migration routes to Europe,"ICMPD (2019).2019NGOBuilding resilience among migrants reduces vulnerability to human traffickingCrisisMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOther3Countries7Individuals91Greece, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbia, Hungary, Germany and Italy. 100000000000000000000000
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21Claire Healy, "The Strength to Carry On—Resilience and Vulnerability to Trafficking on Migrations Routes to Europe," ICMPD Policy Brief (2019).2019NGOImproving provisions for migrants travelling across Europe would increases resilience and decreases vulnerability to trafficking CrisisMigrationProtection provisions; migrantsPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalOther3Countries7Individuals336Greece, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbia, Hungary, Germany, Italy000000010000000000000000
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22Cristina Popescu, "Illegal Migration-Conceputal Delimitations," Challenges of the Knowledge Society 3, 605-612 (2013).2013AcademicStrengthening cooperation among EU Member States on migration issues will decrease illegal migration and reduce human trafficking. CrisisMigrationState co-operation; illegal migrationSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/AOther1EU000000000000000000001000
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23Daniel Murphy, "Hidden Chains: Rights Abuses and Forced Labor in Thailand's Fishing Industry," Human Rights Watch (2018).2018NGOThe strengthening of Thai migration policies negative impacts on migrants' ability to travel freely and safely, leading to a higher risk of traffickingCrisisMarketsMigrationEconomic policySupply chainsMigration policies; fisheriesPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals248Thailand000000000000001000000000
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24David Rousseau, "Review of Models of Care for Trafficking Survivors in Thailand," Winrock International (2019).2019NGOReforming government and NGO shelters in Thailand to provide specific services for mental health support, LGBTQI and foreign language-speaking survivors would better improve the standards of care for survivors. JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Individuals29Thailand000001000000000000000000
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24David Rousseau, "Review of Models of Care for Trafficking Survivors in Thailand," Winrock International (2019).2019NGOProviding increased financial support improves the quantity and quality of survivor care available, encourages self-identification from survivors and increase survivors’ willingness to participate in prosecutionsJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Individuals29Thailand000000000000000000000100
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25Deanna Davy, "Responding to Child Sex Trafficking: Transnational Advocacy Networks in the Greater Mekong Subregion," Women & Criminal Justice 23, 4: 304-325 (2014).2014AcademicCollaboration between governments and agencies will reduce child trafficking for sexual exploitation in Southeast AsiaJusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceCriminal justiceInternational justiceMigrationGenderPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries2Thailand and Cambodia000000000000000000001000
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25Deanna Davy, "Responding to Child Sex Trafficking: Transnational Advocacy Networks in the Greater Mekong Subregion," Women & Criminal Justice 23, 4: 304-325 (2014).2014AcademicReliance on donor funding adversely affects the ability of anti-trafficking organisations to effectively respond to all aspects of the child sex trafficking problemJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceCriminal justiceInternational justicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries2Thailand and Cambodia000000000000000000000100
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26Diego Hernandez and Alexandra Rudolph, "Modern Day Slavery: What drives human trafficking in Europe?," European Journal of Political Economy 38, 118–139 (2015).2015AcademicAddressing human trafficking through a focus on the entire trafficking-chain/channel from source to host country, will help to prevent and combat human traffickingCrisisJusticeMigrationCriminal justiceGenderMixedNoNon-empiricalN/A100000000000000000000000
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27Douglas Guilfoyle, "Transnational Criminal Law as a Governance Strategy in the Global Labour Marker: Criminalizing Globalisation from below," Refugee Survey Quarterly 29, 1: 185-205 (2010).2010AcademicIntegrating development policy into labour migration policy builds a stronger anti-trafficking framework. CrisisMarketsMigrationDisplacementConflictTrade policyCriminal justiceDevelopment policy; labour migration policySecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/AOther2Countries10Spain, Italy, US, Greece, Australia, Senegal, Mauritania, Cape Verde, Gambia, Lybia 000000000000000000010000
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28Elena Shih, "Health and Rights at the Margins: Human trafficking and HIV/AIDS amongst Jingpo ethniccommunities in Ruili City, China," Anti-Trafficking Review, 2 (2013).2013AcademicRefocusing efforts away from punitive enforcement measures and towards intersectional interventions focused on protecting people living in border communities, including drug prevalence, disease and ethnic marginalisation on China-Myanmar border would be more effective in deterring trafficking. CrisisJusticeCriminal justiceMigrationGenderPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalChina, Myanmar100000000000000000000000
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29Erlend Paasche, May-Len Skilbrei, and Sine Plambech, "Here or There-Examining the vulnerability of victims of human trafficking before and after return," Anti-Trafficking Review, 10: 34-51 (2018).2018AcademicAn improved understanding of ‘vulnerability’ of potential returnees that are victim of human trafficking would help authorities in Europe to enhance their ‘voluntary’ return programmes CrisisMigrationDisplacementVulnerability; returnee migrantsPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Communities1Norway000000000010000000000000
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30Evelyn Probst, "Victims’ protection within the context of traffickingin human beings and European Union standards," Academy of European Law (2018).2018AcademicProviding a human rights centred approach to survivors residency status that is not dependant on testifying in court improves survivors’ wellbeing and safetyJusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Austria000000000000000010000000
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30Evelyn Probst, "Victims’ protection within the context of traffickingin human beings and European Union standards," Academy of European Law (2018).2018AcademicLong-term protection of trafficking victims reduces re-victimisation risks. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Austria000001000000000000000000
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30Evelyn Probst, "Victims’ protection within the context of traffickingin human beings and European Union standards," Academy of European Law (2018).2018AcademicEnsuring legal representation for victims of trafficking strengthens victims’ protectionJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCivil justiceTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Austria000001000000000000000000
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31Farhan Yousaf, "Forced migration, human trafficking and human security," Current Sociology 66, 2: 209-225 (2018).2018AcademicDevelopment of policies to address the long-term vulnerabilites of trafficked women and girls in Pakistan reduces the risk and number of women and girls who are at risk of re-victimisation.CrisisJusticeMigrationGenderSurvivor engagement and supportLong term vulnerabilities; re-victimisationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalIndividuals50Organisations25Pakistan100000000000000000000000
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31Farhan Yousaf, "Forced migration, human trafficking and human security," Current Sociology 66, 2: 209-225 (2018).2018AcademicApplying a human security framework to programmatic work in Pakistan will assist in addressing the root causes and risks associated with the forced displacement of people and trafficking, ultimatley resulting in the deterrence of traffickingCrisisJusticeMigrationGenderSurvivor engagement and supportHuman security; root causesPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalIndividuals50Organisations25Pakistan000000000000000000100000
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32Gabriella Sanchez, "Critical Perspectives on Clandestine Migration Facilitation: An Overview of Migrant Smuggling Research," Journal of Migration and Human Security 5, 1: 9-27 (2017).2017AcademicState efforts to control migration flows increase criminality in the migration space. CrisisMigrationMigration managementTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AUknown000000000000001000000000
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33Gergana Danailova-Trainor and Frank Laczko, "Trafficking in persons and development," International Migration 48, 4: 38-83 (2010).2010AcademicMigration policy coherence improves human trafficking protection.CrisisMigrationHuman developmentTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/A000000000000000000001000
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34Giuliana Belissa Urrelo Huapaya, "How United States Immigration Laws Enable Modern Slavery," LUMEN 14, 2 (2018).2018AcademicEnacting the Trafficking Victims Protection Act to the full extent of the law ensures that victims are protected and not criminalised or deported.JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1USA000000000001000000000000
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35Hannah Britton and Laura Dean, "Policy Responses to Human Trafficking in Southern Africa: Domesticating International Norms," Human rights review 15, 305-328 (2014).2014AcademicPreventative approaches, which address the factors that create vulnerable populations, when tailored to specific cultural and political contexts, extend protection to vulnerable groups. CrisisSocial policyVulnerabilities; cultural contextsSecondary StudyNoQuantitativeN/ACountries15 (SADC)Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe100000000000000000000000
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36Holly Atkinson and Judith Bruce, "Adolescent Girls, Human Rights and the Expanding Climate Emergency," Annals of Global Health 81, 3: 323–330 (2015).2015AcademicTracking human rights abuses exacerbated by climate change reduces the discrimination adn devaluation of adolescent girls. CrisisHumanitarian contextsGenderDiscrimination; climate adaptationSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsN/ACountriesNo numberIndividualsAdolescent girls - no numberWorldwide100000000000000000000000
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37Huong Tu Nguyen, "Gender vulnerabilities in times of natural disasters-Male-to-Female Violence in the Philippines in the Aftermath of Super Typhoon Haiyan" Violence Against Women 25, 4: 421–440 (2018).2018AcademicAdopting measures that address the root causes of pre-existing gender inequalities before a disaster strikes better addresses gender-based violence during and after disastersCrisisClimate/environmentGenderGender inequalities; disastersPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other1Thailand100000000000000000000000
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38IDMC, "New Humanitarian Frontiers: Addressing criminal violence in Mexico and Central America," Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (2015).2015IntergovernmentalStronger protection systems would combat the expanding criminal violence that is contributing to human trafficking in Central America and MexicoCrisisHumanitarian contextsDisplacementMigrationProtection mechanisms; forced migrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries4Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Mexico000001000000000000000000
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39Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery," Institute of Development Studies (2017).2017NGOConflation of victims of trafficking for labour exploitation with illegal immigrants, and other forms of criminalisation of victims, inhibits identificationJusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther4 recordsInternational000000000010000000000000
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39Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery," Institute of Development Studies (2017).2017NGOVictim-centred, holistic (multi-disciplinary) support reduces the chances of re-victimisation. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther8 recordsInternational000001000000000000000000
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39Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery," Institute of Development Studies (2017).2017NGOAccess to immediate shelter and accommodation is a necessary element of recovery for victims of modern slaveryJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther4 recordsInternational000001000000000000000000
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39Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery," Institute of Development Studies (2017).2017NGOAccess to support services for victims of modern slavery is necessary to enable their participation in criminal justice processesJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther4 recordsInternational000001000000000000000000
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39Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery," Institute of Development Studies (2017).2017NGOAccess to mental and physical health care is a necessary component of support for victims of modern slaveryJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther8 recordsInternational000001000000000000000000
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39Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery," Institute of Development Studies (2017).2017NGOLong-term support for survivors of modern slavery is necessary to support recovery and reintegrationJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther4 recordsInternational000001000000000000000000
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39Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery," Institute of Development Studies (2017).2017NGOSupport to obtain employment is an important element of survivor support that enables recovery and reintegrationJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther4 recordsInternational000100000000000000000000
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39Iffat Idris, "Interventions to Support Victims of Modern Slavery," Institute of Development Studies (2017).2017NGOAccess to free legal advice and support is necessary to support survivors’ recovery and reintegrationJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther4 recordsInternational000001000000000000000000
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40IJM, "Labor Trafficking in Cambodia: A Review of the Public Justice System's Response," International Justice Mission (2016).2016NGOThe development of a dedicated anti-trafficking agency reduces human traffickingJusticeCrisisInternational justiceCriminal justiceMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Cambodia001000000000000000000000
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41ILO and IOM, "Impact of recovery initiatives on reducing vulnerability to human trafficking and illegal recruitment: Lessons from Typhoon Haiyan," ILO and IOM (2015).2015IntergovernmentalLivelihood strategies, including cash-for-work (CfW) skills development, and enterprise development reduce the risks of re-trafficking. CrisisMigrationDisplacementNatural disastersMixedYesMixed MethodsQuasi-experimentalIndividuals35Other169Philippines000100000000000000000000
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42ILO et al., "Employment Practices and Working Conditions in Thailand's Fishing Sector," International Labour Organization, Asian Research Center for Migration, Insititute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University (2014).2014IntergovernmentalIncreased understanding of the situation of workers employed in the Thai fishing sector helps to develop evidence-based policy responses for reducing their vulnerability to human trafficking.CrisisMigrationResearchMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals600Thailand100000000000000000000000
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43ILO et al., "Ending child labour, forced labour, and human trafficking in global supply chains," International Labour Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, International Organization for Migration, and United Nations Children’s Fund (2019). 2019IntergovernmentalAdequate implementation of relevant standards and Conventions and enforcement of national laws and regulations reduce child labour, forced labour and human trafficking. CrisisJusticeInternational justiceMigrationSupply chainsSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsN/AIndividuals000000000001000000000000
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43ILO et al., "Ending child labour, forced labour, and human trafficking in global supply chains," International Labour Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, International Organization for Migration, and United Nations Children’s Fund (2019). 2019IntergovernmentalPromoting fair recruitment will reduce vulnerability of children to exploitative labourCrisisJusticeCivil justiceSupply chainsMigrationSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsN/AIndividuals000010000000000000000000
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44IOM, "Addressing human trafficking and exploitation in times of crises," International Organization for Migration, (2015).2015IntergovernmentalEmbedding counter-trafficking activities in the existing humanitarian Cluster System and in the overall protection approach reduces the risks of human trafficking during crises. CrisisConflictHumanitarian contextsNatural disastersPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsN/AIndividuals000000001000000000000000
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45IOM, "Enhancing the safety and sustainability of the return and reintegration of victims of trafficking," International Organization for Migration (2019).2019IntergovernmentalCooperation at national and international levels reduces the prevalence of human trafficking. CrisisSocial policyRepatriation; reintegrationSecondary StudyYesMixed MethodsN/AIndividuals000000000000000000001000
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46Ismail Salih, "Viewing domestic workers problems through a human rights lens" Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal 34, 7: 622-633 (2015).2015AcademicExtending health and safety protections to domestic workers and enhancing their employment rights reduces the vulnerability of domestic workers to abuse and exploitation.CrisisMigrationDomestic workers; health and safety protections; Employment/labour lawSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries1United Kingdom000000100000000000000000
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47Iyabode Ogunniran, "Forward Looking or Backward Stepping: Evaluating Child Protection from Sexual Exploitation in Nigeria," Journal of Human Trafficking 3, 3: 167-181 (2017).2017AcademicStrengthening national legislation in Nigeria pertaining to children improves the protection of children from child prostitution, child trafficking, and child pornography.CrisisJusticeCriminal justiceCriminal laws; child prostitution; child pornography; childrenSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Other1Nigeria000000000001000000000000
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48Javier Trevino-Rangel, "Magical legalism: human rights practitioners and undocumented migrants in Mexico," The International Journal of Human Rights 23, 5: 843-861 (2019).2019AcademicAddressing the political and social conditions that allow the abuse of migrants to occur will improve the protection of Mexican migants. CrisisDisplacementHuman rightsPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOrganisations88Mexico100000000000000000000000
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49Jenna K. Holliday, "Turning the Table on the Exploitative Recuitment of Migrant Workers: The Cambodian Experience," Asian Journal of Social Science 40, 4: 464-485 (2012).2012AcademicThe current legislative and regulatory frameworks in Cambodia do not address the core issues of labour migration and are therefore ineffective in preventing exploitative recruitment of migrant workers to MalaysiaCrisisMigrationSocial policyLegal frameworks; recruitment; foreign employmentSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries4Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, South Korea000000000001000000000000
72
50Jérôme Ballet and Augendra Bhukuth, "Recruitment Patterns of Child Trafficking in Madagascar: An Analysis Based on Missing and Recovered Children," Journal of Human Trafficking 2, 3: 235-254 (2016).2016AcademicChanging abusive family practices decreases vulnerability of children to trafficking.CrisisHumanitarian contextsDisplacementTraditional practicesPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalIndividuals30 childrenIndividuals15 focus group membersMadagascar100000000000000000000000
73
51Jhalak Sharma Sapkota, "Protecting the wellbeing of Nepalese migrant workers: the nature and extent of interventions by the government of Nepal," Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration 37, 2: 115-127 (2015).2015AcademicEnsuring adequate human and financial resources for the implementation of existing policies will improve the protection of Nepali migrant workers. CrisisMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ANepal000000000000000000000100
74
52Jiyoung Song, "Redefining Human Security for Vulnerable Migrants in East Asia," Journal of Human Security 11, 1: 45-56 (2015).2015AcademicUsing the normative framework of Human security to understand current trends of irregular migration (both forced and unauthorised) in East Asia better informs policy discourse to engage with state and non-state actor and induce state action in prevention of human trafficking.CrisisJusticeDisplacementMigrationCriminal justiceDevelopment policyHuman security frameworkTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries6North Korea, Cambodia, Banglades, Japan, 000000000000000000100000
75
53Joanne Van Selm, "Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Measures for the Integration of Trafficked Persons," International Organisation for Migration (2013).2013IntergovernmentalCulturally responsive psycho-social assistance for trafficking victims reduces the risks of re-trafficking. JusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries5Belgium; France; Hungary; Italy; United Kingdom000001000000000000000000
76
53Joanne Van Selm, "Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Measures for the Integration of Trafficked Persons," International Organisation for Migration (2013).2013IntergovernmentalEffective integration of survivors in destination societies requires individually appropriate shelterJusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries5Belgium; France; Hungary; Italy; United Kingdom000001000000000000000000
77
53Joanne Van Selm, "Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Measures for the Integration of Trafficked Persons," International Organisation for Migration (2013).2013IntergovernmentalAccess to social benefits for victims of trafficking tailored to their individual needs supports integration in destination societies, aids recovery, and helps prevent re-victimisation and re-traffickingJusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries5Belgium; France; Hungary; Italy; United Kingdom000001000000000000000000
78
53Joanne Van Selm, "Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Measures for the Integration of Trafficked Persons," International Organisation for Migration (2013).2013IntergovernmentalEffective integration of survivors in destination societies requires access to employment (including right to work) and opportunities for language acquisition not tied to participation in criminal justice processesJusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries5Belgium; France; Hungary; Italy; United Kingdom000100000000000000000000
79
53Joanne Van Selm, "Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Measures for the Integration of Trafficked Persons," International Organisation for Migration (2013).2013IntergovernmentalEffective integration of survivors in destination societies requires legal basis to remain in the destination countryJusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries6Belgium; France; Hungary; Italy; United Kingdom000001000000000000000000
80
54Juanita Elias and Jenna Holliday, "Who gets ‘Left behind’? Promises and pitfalls in making the global development agenda work for sex workers – reflections from Southeast Asia," Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 45, 14: 2566-2582 (2019).2019AcademicStrengthtening national legal frameworks on labour rights reduces the exploitation of migrant sex workers. CrisisJusticeCivil justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationSex workTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACambodia000000100000000000000000
81
55Julia Paccitto and Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, "Writing the 'Other' into humanitarian discourse: Framing theory and practice in South-South humanitarian responses to forced displacement," University of Oxford Refugee Studies Centre Working Studies Paper 93 (2013).2013AcademicIncreased academic inquiry into South-South humanitarian responses in contexts of forced displacement enables new research trajectories in humanitarian and forced migration studies, ultimately promoting a lexical counter-politics.CrisisHumanitarian contextsDisplacementMigrationResearch; south-south humanitarian responsesTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoQualitativeN/AThe study provides examples of initiatives in the MENA region, Latin America, Arab states, South-East Asia100000000000000000000000
82
56Katherine Soltis and Rebecca Walters, “'What’s in a Name?': Mislabelling, misidentification, and the US government’s failure to protect human trafficking survivors in the Central American refugee crisis," Anti-Trafficking Review, 11: 85-102 (2018).2018AcademicMisunderstanding and competing and overlapping legal classifications in the United States Immigration system, leads to repeated failure of US authorities to identify and protect survivors of human trafficking.CrisisJusticeMigrationDisplacementHumanitarian contextsCriminal justiceLegal classificationsSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AUnted States of America, 000000000010000000000000
83
57Kay Standing, Sara Parker, and Sapana Bisba, "Grassroots responses to violence against women and girls in post-earthquake Nepal: lessons from the field," Gender and Develoment 24, 2: 187-204 (2016).2016AcademicIncluding women in emergency responses and ongoing humanitarian work challenges violence against women and children and prevents explotiation from ocurring.CrisisJusticeDevelopment policySurvivor engagement and supportHumanitarian contextsSocial policyGenderEmergency responses; humanitarian workSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AIndividuals20Nepal000000000000000001000000
84
57Kay Standing, Sara Parker, and Sapana Bisba, "Grassroots responses to violence against women and girls in post-earthquake Nepal: lessons from the field," Gender and Develoment 24, 2: 187-204 (2016).2016AcademicCommunication via mobile phones, internet, and Facebook proved invaluable in the Nepalise post- earthquake response in terms of reporting the impact of the earthquake, especially in remote regions which helped in disaster relief and in preventing and protecting women and girls against VAWG and traffickingCrisisJusticeDevelopment policySurvivor engagement and supportHumanitarian contextsSocial policyGenderTechnology; social mediaSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AIndividuals20Nepal000000000000000000000010
85
57Kay Standing, Sara Parker, and Sapana Bisba, "Grassroots responses to violence against women and girls in post-earthquake Nepal: lessons from the field," Gender and Develoment 24, 2: 187-204 (2016).2016AcademicThe creation of safe spaces are central to supporting women in emergencies and act as a preventative measure against the risk of traffickingCrisisJusticeDevelopment policySurvivor engagement and supportHumanitarian contextsSocial policyGenderSafe spacesSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AIndividuals20Nepal000001000000000000000000
86
58Kelsey Perry and Lindsay McEwing, "How do social determinants affect human trafficking in southeast asia and what can we do about it: A-systematic-review," Health and Human Rights 15, 2: 138-159 (2013).2013AcademicAn improved understanding of the social determinants that hinder and facilitate human trafficking of women and children in Southeast Asia enables policymakers to better prevent and combat human trafficking.CrisisSocial policyGenderSocial determinants; childrenSecondary StudyNoQualitativeSystematic reviewOther1Other2Southest Asia100000000000000000000000
87
59Lenore Lyons and Michele Ford, "Trafficking Versus Smuggling: Malaysia's Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act," Human Trafficking in Asia: Forcing Issues, 35-48 (2014).2014AcademicEasing strict border control measures in Malaysia will reduce human trafficking and migrant smuggling.JusticeCrisisInternational justiceCriminal justiceMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Malaysia000000000000001000000000
88
60Lester Thompson, Linda Tupe, David Wadley, and Karen Flanagan, "Mobilizing cultural supports against the commercial sexual exploitation of (female) children (CSEC) in Solomon Islands community development," Community Development 50, 3: 315-331 (2019).2019AcademicCommunity-driven responses to combating commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking of children in the Solomon Islands will reduce sexual exploitation of children. CrisisSocial policyChildrenTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ASolomon Islands100000000000000000000000
89
61Letizia Palumbo, "Protection of trafficked peoplein Italy: policies, limits and challenges," Journal of Money Laundering Control 18, 1: 52-65 (2015).2015AcademicFocusing on immigration and criminalisation results in missed identification opportunities of trafficking victims.JusticeCrisisCriminal justiceSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Italy000000000000000010000000
90
61Letizia Palumbo, "Protection of trafficked peoplein Italy: policies, limits and challenges," Journal of Money Laundering Control 18, 1: 52-65 (2015).2015AcademicNarrow interpretations of the requirements for the residence permit indicated in Article 18 can deprive of protection a large group of exploited and vulnerable migrants who suffer abuse and are involved in trafficking, but do not meet the thresholds for being identified as victimsJusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportCriminal justiceMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Italy000000000010000000000000
91
62Louise Gomez-Mera, "Regime Complexity and Global Governance: The case of trafficking in Persons," European Journal of International Relations 22, 3: 566-595 (2015).2015AcademicRestrictive migration policies and weak cooperation between state actors in the protection of migrant workers undermines the goals of global anti-trafficking policy. CrisisJusticeMigrationCriminal justiceMigration policies; cooperationSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/AOther1Organisations1Global - The UN000000000000001000000000
92
62Louise Gomez-Mera, "Regime Complexity and Global Governance: The case of trafficking in Persons," European Journal of International Relations 22, 3: 566-595 (2015).2016AcademicA human rights-based approach is needed to develop legal instruments within the human rights regime that complement the criminal law approach of the UN Protocol.CrisisJusticeMigrationCriminal justiceHuman rights based approachSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/AOther2Organisations2Global - The UN000000000000000010000000
93
63Lucia Bird and Tuesday Reitano, "Trafficking in persons in conflict contexts: What is a realistic response from Africa?," The Global Initiative of Transnational Organized Crime (2019).2019NGOAdopting a development approach to responding to the migration flow from the Horn of Africa to Europe will improve migrant protection.CrisisConflictHumanitarian contextsSocial policyCauses; community resiliencePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries4Central African Republic, Libya, Nigeria and Somalia000000001000000000000000
94
64Lucrecia Rubio Grundell, "EU Anti-Trafficking Policies and Crime Control to Prevention and Protection," Migration Policy Centre, 2015/9 (2015).2015AcademicA revision of EU anti-trafficking policies ensuring a harmonization of penalties and the guarantee that measures regarding protection are made compulsory, non-discriminatory, unconditional and adequate will reduce human trafficking. CrisisJusticeMigrationCriminal justiceLegal frameworksUnclearNoQualitativeN/AOrganisations1European Union100000000000000000000000
95
65Lukas Olynk, "Meneshachin Scoping Study-A global synthesis and analysis of responsible recruitment initiatives targeting low-wage, migrant workers," The Freedom Fund (2020).2020NGO
Research into anti-trafficking policies and programmes that evaluates their efficacy would help recommending effective approaches to protect low-wage cross-border migrant workers.
CrisisMarketsMigrationResearchPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOther100000000000000000000000
96
66Margaret Chambeshi, Amanda Eckhardt, Xinyi Wang, and Chris Muller, "Heathcare Access for Foreign-National Survivors of Trafficking," Restore NYC (2019).2019NGOEmphasising to foreign nationals that they will not be reported to immigration authorities in healthcare settings is essential as it will create trust and promote greater disclosure of trafficking experienceJusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practiceMigrationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations1Individuals76New York, USA000001000000000000000000
97
66Margaret Chambeshi, Amanda Eckhardt, Xinyi Wang, and Chris Muller, "Heathcare Access for Foreign-National Survivors of Trafficking," Restore NYC (2019).2019NGOTargeted training on human trafficking identification and resource coordination for primary care, OB/GYN, and emergency departments, with emphasis on facilities within ethnic communities, aids identification of victims and improves the referral process.JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportHealth policy and practicePrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations1Individuals76USA000000000000000000000001
98
67Maria Gabriella Boria, "Human Trafficking and Natural Disasters: An Empirical Analysis," Boston College Electronic Thesis (2016).2016AcademicPrioritizing child protection amongst disaster relief efforts decreases displacement and the vulnerability of disaster victims.CrisisHumanitarian contextsClimate/environmentGenderSocial policyChild protection; disaster reliefSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries120OtherYears - 2011 & 2012120 countries worldwide000000010000000000000000
99
68Marie-Jose Tayah, "Decent Work for Migrant Domestic Workers: Moving the Agenda Forward," International Labour Office, Geneva (2016).2016IntergovernmentalTargeted legislative and policy initiatives by both country of origin and destination reduces the trafficking of migrant domestic workers. CrisisMigrationGenderLegal frameworksUnclearNoMixed MethodsN/ACountries10Other5Ukraine, Poland, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Lebanon, Paraguay, Argentina000000000001000000000000
100
69Masja van Meeteren and Ellen Wiering, "Labour trafficking in Chinese restaurants in the Netherlands and the role of Dutch immigration policies. A qualitative analysis of investigative case files," Crime, Law and Social Change, 72: 107-124 (2019).2019AcademicIncreasing the robustness of current migration laws in the Netherlands would ensure that migrants are less vulnerable to exploitationJusticeCrisisSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Other8Netherlands000000000001000000000000
101
70Michael Gerrard, "Climate Change and Human Trafficking After the Paris Agreement," University of Miami Law Review 72, 345-368 (2018).2018AcademicEstablishment of a legal framework to ensure the protections of ecosystems is needed to decrease displacement.CrisisDisplacementMigrationClimate/environmentConflictGenderClimate change; displacementSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOther1Organisations5Countries4Bangladesh, Kenya, Italy, Poland100000000000000000000000
102
71Miranda Worthen, "Sex Trafficking or Sex Work? Conceptions of trafficking Among Anti-Trafficking Orgnaizations in Nepal," Refugee Survey Quarterly 30, 3: 87-106 (2011).2011AcademicEmployment of a Prostitution Framework in Nepal and globally, negatively impacts anti-trafficking programming.CrisisJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationGenderSocial policyProstitution frameworkSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/AIndividuals31000000000000100000000000
103
72Mondira Dutta and Manika Kamthan, "Combating trafficking of women in the absence of disaster laws," (2017).2017Academic An effective response to protecting women and girls during disasters requires that national disaster related legislation is amended to include provisions on the protection of vulnerable women and girls during disasters. CrisisHumanitarian contextsDisastersSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACommunitiesIndia, Bangladesh, Nepal000000000001000000000000
104
73Mónica Hurtago, Ángela Iranzo Dosdad, and Sergio Gómez Hernández, "The relationship between human trafficking and child recruitment in the Colombian Armed Conflict," Third World Quarterly 39, 5: 941-958 (2018).2018AcademicReassessment of the relationship between trafficking and child recruitment in armed conflict in Colombia results in more effective legal responses and justice for this population.CrisisConflictChildren; recruitment; armed conflictSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Individuals132Colombia100000000000000000000000
105
74Nazli Avdan, "Human trafficking and migration control policy: vicious or virtuous cycle?," Journal of Public Policy 32, 3: 171-205 (2012).2012AcademicTighter visa policies increase migrants' vulnerability to human trafficking. CrisisSocial policyMigrationVisa policiesSecondary StudyNoMixed MethodsN/ACountries192Worldwide000000000000001000000000
106
75Neil Howard, "Protecting children from trafficking in Benin: in need of politics and participation," Development in Practice 22, 4: 460-472 (2012).2012AcademicMacro-level economic efforts to address the political-economy underpinnings of the lack of money in Benin that fuels labour migration and child labour will address exploitation.MarketsCrisisEconomic policyMigrationDevelopment policyPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCommunities4Individuals172 respondentsCountries1Benin100000000000000000000000
107
75Neil Howard, "Protecting children from trafficking in Benin: in need of politics and participation," Development in Practice 22, 4: 460-472 (2012).2012AcademicProviding individuals with local economic alternatives to labour migration helps protect young people from exploitation and traffickingMarketsCrisisEconomic policyMigrationDevelopment policyPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCommunities4Individuals170 respondentsCountries1Benin000100000000000000000000
108
76Niklas Potrafke, "Policies against Human Trafficking—The Role of Religion and Political Institutions," CESifo Working Paper 4278 (2013).2013AcademicMitigating gender disparities in elected office may promote gender equality and stricter anti-trafficking policies.CrisisGenderGender disparitiesSecondary StudyNoQuantitativeN/A000000000000000001000000
109
77Nlerum Okogbule, "Combating the 'New Slavery' in Nigeria—An Appraisal of Legal and Policy Responses to Human Trafficking," Journal of African Law 57, 1: 57-80 (2013).2013AcademicAddressing the root causes of human trafficking in Nigeria, including high levels of unemployment, poverty, inequality and marginalisation, would help to eradicate human trafficking in the country.CrisisJusticeMigrationCriminal justiceCivil justiceSocial policyRoot causesSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Nigeria100000000000000000000000
110
78NRC and IDMC, "Girl, disrupted," Norwegian Refugee Council/Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (NRC/IDMC) (2014).2014NGORaising awareness on gender issues would assist in the development of targeted prevention and response programmes that address displaced girls' specific needs from the onset of humanitarian crises.CrisisConflictDisplacementGenderAwareness raising; gender; vulnerability; resilienceSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries5Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Colombia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Palestine010000000000000000000000
111
79Ntokozo Yingwana, Rebecca Walker, and Alex Etchart, "Sex Work, Migration, and Human Trafficking in South Africa: From polarised arguments to potential partnerships", Anti-Trafficking Review, 12: 74-90 (2019). 2019AcademicThe developent of a Sex Work, Exploitation, and Migration/Mobility Model, that takes into consideration the complexities of the quotidian experiences of migration and selling sex in South Africa , would enable a more effective and productive partnership between sex worker organisations and other stakeholder groups, including anti-trafficking and labour rights organisations, trade unions, which would enhance protection and improve both the right and well-being of victims of trafficking and sex workersCrisisJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationGenderHealth policy and practiceModel development; partnershipsPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOrganisations2Other22 Focus GroupsIndividuals2South Africa000000000000000000001000
112
79Ntokozo Yingwana, Rebecca Walker, and Alex Etchart, "Sex Work, Migration, and Human Trafficking in South Africa: From polarised arguments to potential partnerships", Anti-Trafficking Review, 12: 74-90 (2019). 2019AcademicThe conflation of sex work and human trafficking in South Africa, makes it diffuclt to effectively indentify and deal with cases and creates tension and distrust between sex worker and anti-rafficking activiistsCrisisJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationGenderHealth policy and practiceDefinitionsPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOrganisations2Other22Individuals2South Africa000000000000100000000000
113
79Ntokozo Yingwana, Rebecca Walker, and Alex Etchart, "Sex Work, Migration, and Human Trafficking in South Africa: From polarised arguments to potential partnerships", Anti-Trafficking Review, 12: 74-90 (2019). 2019AcademicCriminilisation of sex work in South Africa prevents sex workers from coming forward about trafficking abuses and exploitation preventing the succesful eradication of traffickingCrisisJusticeSurvivor engagement and supportMigrationGenderHealth policy and practiceCriminalisation of sex workPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOrganisations2Other22IndividualsSouth Africa000000000000010000000000
114
80Nur Subono and Meidi Kosandi, "The regionalism paradox in the fight against human trafficking: Indonesia, and the Limits of Regional Cooperation in ASEAN," Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Human Ethics 16, 2: 89-98 (2019).2019AcademicAdopting regional anti-human trafficking responses in Southeast Asia will reduce the prevalence of human trafficking and extend better protections to victims. CrisisMigrationSocial policyPrimary StudyNoQualitativeN/AOrganisationsSoutheast Asia000000000000000000001000
115
81Olivier Peyroux, "Trafficking in human in beings in conflict and post-conflict situations," Caritas (2016).2016NGOAn assessment of the specific needs of areas in conflict and in post-conflict situations, which informs the design of specific programmes, would reduce human trafficking in conflict and post-conflict situations.CrisisConflictMigrationAssessment of specific needs; conflict situationsPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries4Mainly Albania, Armenia, Lebanon and Turkey000000001000000000000000
116
82Olubukola Adesina, "Modern day slavery: poverty and child trafficking in Nigeria," African Identities 12, 2: 165-179 (2014).2014AcademicCreating economic opportunities in poor rural areas of Nigeria would lead to decreased poverty and consequently reduce vulnerability to human trafficking.CrisisHumanitarian contextsEconomic opportunities; povertyPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals90 childrenIndividuals37Nigeria000100000000000000000000
117
82Olubukola Adesina, "Modern day slavery: poverty and child trafficking in Nigeria," African Identities 12, 2: 165-179 (2014).2014AcademicThe lack of appropriate anti-trafficking legislation and weak enforcement has to be addressed by strengthening laws and policy framework to enable effective action against trafficking in human beings for labour or sexual exploitationCrisisHumanitarian contextsSocial policyLegal frameworksPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals90 childrenIndividuals37Nigeria000000000001000000000000
118
83Palita Thapa, "Human trafficking in Nepal: Changing dimensions," Asian Journal of Women's Studies 21, 4: 450-459 (2015).2015AcademicStrengthening coordination among relevant Nepali government agencies will contribute to reducing the prevalence of human trafficking, and ensure better protection for victims. CrisisDisplacementSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ANepal000000000000000000001000
119
84Paul Oluwatosin Bello and Adewale Olutola, "The enforcement of anti-human trafficking law in South Africa: a case of an aircraft without a pilot," Police Practice and Research 19, 3: 270-283 (2018).2018AcademicEstablishing dedicated and specialised anti-trafficking agencies reduces the prevalence of human trafficking. CrisisJusticeSocial policyCriminal justiceLaw enforcementPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals20 focus group membersSouth Africa001000000000000000000000
120
85Paula Miragliai, Rolando Ochoai and Ivan Briscoe, "Transnational organised crime and fragile states," OECD Development Co-operation Working Papers, 5 (2012).2012IntergovernmentalPolicies that include a holistic approach to development which emphasises the rule of law and community-based action, as well as a bottom-up approach in peace missions and operations would help tackling transnational organised crime in fragile and conflict-affected statesCrisisHumanitarian contextsConflictHolistic approach; community-based action; peace missionsSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries3El Salvador, Kenya and Tajikstan000000000000000000010000
121
86Peter Dwyer, Hannah Lewis, Lisa Scullion and Louise Waite, "Forced labour and UK immigration policy: status matters?," JRF programme paper, (2011).2011AcademicEasing strict UK immigration policies will extend protections to migrant workers nd reduce the risks of human trafficking. CrisisMigrationForced labourPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalIndividuals18United Kingdom000000000000001000000000
122
87Peter Olayiwola, "'Killing the Tree by Cutting the Foliage Instead of Uprooting It?' Rethinking awareness campaigns as a response to trafficking in South-West Nigeria," Anti-Trafficking Review, 3: 50-65 (2019).2019AcademicProgrammes and policies in Nigeria that address the structural root causes of trafficking, including poverty and economic vulnerabilities, would contribute to effectively tackling trafficking and child domestic work.CrisisSocial policyChildrenPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other1South-West Nigeria100000000000000000000000
123
88Pooja Theresa Stanslas, "Transborder Human Trafficking in Malaysian Waters: Addressing the Root Causes," Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce 41, 4: 595-606 (2010).2010AcademicAddressing the systematic structural factors that give rise to exploitative labour practices will help stem human traffickingCrisisMarketsMigrationStructural factors; exploitatitive labour practicesSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Malaysia100000000000000000000000
124
88Pooja Theresa Stanslas, "Transborder Human Trafficking in Malaysian Waters: Addressing the Root Causes," Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce 41, 4: 595-606 (2010).2010AcademicImproved regular immigration policies in Malaysia would make legal immigration easier and more affordable than illicit routes, making human trafficking and smuggling less profitable.MarketsCrisisSupply chainsEconomic policyMigrationSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries0Malaysia000000000000001000000000
125
88Pooja Theresa Stanslas, "Transborder Human Trafficking in Malaysian Waters: Addressing the Root Causes," Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce 41, 4: 595-606 (2010).2010AcademicMalaysian investment in neighbouring trafficking source countries would generate employment and improved economic stability there, reducing vulnerability to trafficking.MarketsEconomic policyDevelopment policySecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Malaysia000000000000000000000100
126
89Radoslaw L. Malinowski, Shirley N Otube, Anni Alexander and Abel M Mogambi, "Displacement, violence and vulnerability: Trafficking among internally displaced persons in Kenya," HAART Research Series 1 (2016).2016AcademicRaising awareness of human trafficking among internally displaced people and service providers (police, county officials, NGOs and CBOs), especially on types of trafficking that are not ordinarily recognised such as child marriage will help in the prevention of trafficking.CrisisDisplacementConflictClimate/environmentAwareness raising; child marriage; religionPrimary StudyNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries1Individuals300Kenya010000000000000000000000
127
90Randall Akee, Arnab Basu, Nancy Chau, and Melanie Khamis, "Ethnic Fragmentation, Conflict, Displaced Persons and Human Trafficking: An Empirical Analysis," Institute for the Study of Labor 8, 5142 (2010).2010NGOEradicating significant predictors of the likelihood of trafficking such as ethnic and religious fragmentation, various measures of conflict, or the presence of IDPs and refugees, would reduce the incidence of human trafficking.CrisisConflictDisplacementCauses; protectionSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountriesNo numberWorldwide100000000000000000000000
128
91Rebecca Miller and Sebastian Baumeister, "Managing Migration: Is border control fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti-smuggling interventions?," Anti-Trafficking Review, 2: 15-32 (2013).2013AcademicCombining managed migration with the protection of human rights would help reduce levels of trafficking in the current context of globalisation.JusticeCrisisInternational justiceMigrationTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoQualitativeN/AGlobal000000000000000010000000
129
92Rutvica Andrijasevic and Tonia Novitz, "Supply Chains and Unfree Labor: Regulatory Failure in the Case of Samsung Electronics in Slovakia," Journal of Human Trafficking 6, 2: 195-208 (2020).2020AcademicLack of binding international and European labour standards disperses responsibility in corporate supply chains, reducing incentives and efforts to prevent and redress labour abuses and trafficking within supply chains.MarketsCrisisTrade policyMigrationSupply chainsPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Communities1Slovakia000000000001000000000000
130
92Rutvica Andrijasevic and Tonia Novitz, "Supply Chains and Unfree Labor: Regulatory Failure in the Case of Samsung Electronics in Slovakia," Journal of Human Trafficking 6, 2: 195-208 (2020).2020AcademicLack of labour protections for temporary migrant workers within the EU exposes them to risk of labour exploitation and trafficking.MarketsCrisisTrade policyMigrationSupply chainsPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Communities1Slovakia000000100000000000000000
131
93Sallie Yea, "Human Trafficking and Jurisdictional Exceptionalism in the Global Fishing Industry: A Case Study of Singapore," Geopolitics (2020).2020AcademicThe practice of jurisdictional exceptionalism pursued by governments allows for legal-spatial practices to exist which exclude trafficked migrant fishers from the human and labour rights.CrisisJusticeMigrationCivil justiceGenderCriminal justiceMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalIndividuals32Other7Singapore, Cambodia, Phillippines and Indonesia000000100000000000000000
132
94Samantha Goethals, Joe Bardwell, Mariam Bhacker and Bahaa Ezzelarab, "Business Human Rights Responsibility for Refugees and Migrant Workers: Turning Policies into Practice in the Middle East," Business and Human Rights Journal 2, 2: 336-342 (2017).2017Academic Industry-wide transparency in business models and supplychains will reduce the prevalence of human trafficking in the Middle East. CrisisMarketsMigrationSupply chainsSupply chainsMixedNoMixed MethodsObservationalCountries4Other2Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Syria, Turkey000010000000000000000000
133
95Sarah Elliott and Megan Denise Smith, "Simulating a Multi-agency Approach for the Protection of Trafficked Persons in Migration and Displacement Settings," Journal of Human Trafficking 6, 2: 168-181 (2020).2020AcademicDeveloping and conducting training simulation exercises, covering relevant international and human rights standards, will better prepare relevant personnel to protect people from trafficking in situations of displacement or migration.CrisisDisplacementMigrationTrainingSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/AIndividuals358Italy000000000000000000000001
134
96Sarah Paoletti, Eleanor Taylor-Nicholson, Bandita Sijapati, and Bassina Farbenblum, "Migrant Workers' Access to Justice at Home: Nepal," Open Society Foundations (2014).2014NGOLegal frameworks governing foreign employment that treat migrant workers as rights-holders would strengthen protections for migrant workers and reduce trafficking risks. CrisisJusticeMigrationLegal frameworks; foreign employment; worker protectionPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Nepal000000100000000000000000
135
97Sarah Warpinski, "Protecting Women and Girls from Human Trafficking in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Toward Justice for Victims of Gender-Based Violence," Michigan State University College of Law International Law Review 21, 1: 155-194 (2013).2013AcademicIncorporating Victim centered approaches, which are in fulfillment of international obligations by the Congolese government, help to prevent trafficking in persons and protect women and girls in the DRC.CrisisJusticeConflictHumanitarian contextsGenderVictim centred approachTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/ADRC000000000000000010000000
136
98Siddhartha Sarkar, "Trans-border sex trafficking: identifying cases and victims in the UK," Migration and Development 3, 1: 95-107 (2014).2014AcademicImproving training, and awareness raising for frontline professionals will reduce human trafficking in the UK. CrisisMigrationData capture; intelligence sharingTheoretical or Conceptual SourceNoNon-empiricalN/AUnited Kingdom000000000000000000000001
137
99Stacey Harumi Goto, "Combatting Human Trafficking in the Aftermath of a Natural Disaster Through DoD: The Case of the 2004 Indonesian Earthquake and Tsunami," San Diego University (2012).2012AcademicEnsuring adequate financial and human resources for responding to natural disasters will help to reduce the risk of human trafficking in post-disaster situations. CrisisClimate/environmentGenderConflictHumanitarian contextsDisplacementHuman and financial resourcesSecondary StudyNoQualitativeN/ACountries1Organisations1Indonesia 000000000000000000000100
138
100Stephanie Gentry, "Anti-Trafficking Policy Compliance with International Norms in Estonia and the Former Soviet Space," University of Washington (2016).2016AcademicAddressing the discrimination of minority populations will reduce the prevalence of human trafficking in Estonia. CrisisHumanitarian contextsEducationDiscrimination; ethnicitySecondary StudyYesQuantitativeN/ACountries2Other1Estonia and Kazakstan 100000000000000000000000
139
101Stephanie Nawyn and Nur Banu Birdal, "Counter-Trafficking Policy and Immigrant Rights in Turkey," Insight Turkey 16, 4: 77-85 (2014).2014AcademicAdopting holistic counter-trafficking policies, which do not focus on law enforcement-only in Turkey, reduces migrants’ vulnerability to human trafficking.CrisisMarketsMigrationLaw enforcementPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other1Turkey000000000000000010000000
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102Stephanie Nawyn, Nur Kavakli, Tuba Demirci-Yılmaz, and Vanja Oflazoğlu, "Human trafficking and Migration Management in the Global South," International Journal of Sociology 46, 3: 189-204 (2016).2016AcademicAdopting counter-trafficking laws and policies that do not focus on criminal law enforcement only and that adopt a rights-based approach as well in the Global-South would better address human trafficking, ultimately protecting migrant workers’ rights and decreasing their vulnerability to human traffickingCrisisMigrationHuman rights based approachPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Other1Turkey000000000000000010000000
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103Street Child, "Covid-19 Crisis Response," Street Child, (2020).2020NGOEnsuring adequate financial and human resources for protecting vulnerable persons reduces the risk of human trafficking during the COVID-19 pandemic. CrisisHumanitarian contextsMigrationSocial policyChildren; Covid-20Primary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalIndividuals100Sierra Leone, Liberia, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, Cameroon, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Kenya, Mozambique000000000000000000000100
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104Susan Rosas, "Sex Trafficking in Cambodia As A Complex Humanitarian Emergency," Advocates Forum, 41-50 (2011).2011AcademicHumanitarian anti-trafficking efforts that integrate preventive and rehabilitative measures, which are informed by women sex workers in Cambodia, would effectively tackle human trafficking.CrisisJusticeHumanitarian contextsGenderSurvivor engagement and supportPrevention; rehabilitationSecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/ACountries1Cambodia000001000000000000000000
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105Tanya Basok and Nicola Piper, "Management Versus Rights: Women's Migration and Global Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean," Feminist Economics 18, 2: 35-61 (2012).2012AcademicA human rights-based approach to managing labour migration will improve the protection and advancement of migrants' rights, and reduce humn trafficking. CrisisMigrationHuman rightsPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalOrganisationsLatin America, Caribbean000000000000000010000000
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106Thanos Maroukis, "Keeping Up Appearances: The British Public Policy Response to the Trafficking of Domestic Workers in a Changing Regime of Social Protection," Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies 15, 2: 155-170 (2017).2017AcademicStrengthening the protections afforded to migrants in the UK will reduce domestic worker exploitation. JusticeCrisisCivil justiceMigrationSocial policyPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Individuals11United Kingdom100000000000000000000000
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107Toni Schofield, Julie Hepworth, Mairwen Jones and Eugene Schofield, "Health and community services for trafficked women: an exploratory study of policy and practice," Australian Journal of Social Issues 46, 4 (2011).2011AcademicAmending migration laws to provide better protections for victims of trafficking will strengthen protection efforts and reduce the risks of re-victimisation. JusticeSurvivor engagement and supportPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Organisations7Australia000000000001000000000000
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108Tuesday Reitano, "A Perilous but Profitable Crossing: The Changing Nature of Migrant Smuggling through sub-Saharan Africa to Europe and EU Migration Policy (2012-2015)," The European Review of Organised Crime 2, 1: 1-23 (2015).2015AcademicStricter EU Border security in response to increase in migration, has inreased the likelihood of criminal groups becoming involved in facilitating the passage, increasing chances of trafficking. CrisisJusticeHumanitarian contextsConflictDisplacementMigrationCriminal justiceBorder securityPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalEurope, Syria, Eritrea000000000000001000000000
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109Tuesday Reitano, Peter Tinti, Mark Shaw, and Lucia Bird, "Integrated Responses to Human Smuggling from the Horn of Africa to Europe," Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime (2017).2017NGOResponses to irregular migration that are led by development actors will reduce migrants' vulnerability to exploitation. CrisisMarketsMigrationConflictHumanitarian contextsEconomic policyEthnicity; development; religionPrimary StudyYesQualitativeObservationalOther3Countries7 Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Eritrea, Niger, Libya, Egypt000000001000000000000000
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110UNODC, "Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Traffiicking in Persons," UNODC (2020).2020IntergovernmentalScrutiny of the economic development model that feeds marginalization, gender-based violence, exploitation and trafficking in persons during the COVID-19 pandemic will improve responses to human trafficking during health crises and in normal times. CrisisJusticeHumanitarian contextsSocial policyDevelopment policySecondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/A100000000000000000000000
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111Victoria Rietig, "Prevent, Protect, and Prosecute Human Trafficking in Mexico—Policy and Practical Recommendations," International Migration 53, 4 (2014).2014IntergovernmentalIncreasing cooperation between anti-trafficking actors would help to effectively prevent human trafficking in MexicoCrisisJusticeCriminal justiceCivil justiceSocial policyCorruption; violence; co-operationPrimary StudyNoQualitativeObservationalCountries1Mexico000000000000000000001000
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112Walk Free Foundation, "Protecting People in A Pandemic," Walk Free Foundation (2020).2020NGOCollaboration between governments and businesses during COVID-19 will reduce the exploitation of migrant workers and strengthen migrant worker protection mechanisms. CrisisJusticeHumanitarian contextsSocial policyMigrationCovid-19Secondary StudyNoNon-empiricalN/A000000000000000000001000
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